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STCTRACT 



/■>■(/»« an Act presorUiiihi liiiUs fur the (Jmernmi iil of tht Slate. Lihrari/, pass il 
March 8W, 1861. 



Skction II. The Librarian shall cause to be kept a register of all 
b(X)ks issued and returned; and all books taken by the members of the 
Legislature, or its officers, shall be returned at the close of the session. 
If any person injure or fail to return any book taken from the Librajy, 
he shall forfeit and pay to the Librarian, for the benefit of the Library, 
three times the value thereof; and before the Controller shall issue his 
warrant in favor of any member or ofiicer of the Legislature, or of this 
State, for his per diem, allowance, or salary, he shall be satisfied that 
such member or officer has returned all books taken out of the Library by 
him, and has settled all accounts for injuring such books or otherwise. 

Sec. 15. Books may be taken from the I-ibrary by the members of the 
Legislature and its officers during the session of the same, and at any 
lime by the Governor and the officers of the Executive Department of 
this State who are required to keep their offices at the seat of government, 
the Justices of the Supreme Court, the Attorney-General and the Trustees 
of the Library. 



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•'•«S98i. 




Volume VIII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 4, 1874. 



[Number i. 



J. W. A. Wright. Lecturer of California 
State Grange. 

Perhaps no one person has been more prom- 
inently identified with the Grange moyement 
in this State, especially in its earlier stages, 
than the subject of this sketch — J. W. A. 
Wright, first Master of the State Grange of 
California, whose likeness is herewith shown. 
Most of our readers are familiar with his name 
and his writings, for he has long been a corres- 
pondent of the RuBAT Pbess, both in an official 
capacity and under the nom deplume of "Ralph 
Rambler;" for these reasons, and because of 
hia active part in the Grange movement, we feel 
sure that our readers will be interested in the 
following sketch of his life, which wo have 
supplemented by an admirable likeness of him- 
self. 

Mr. Wright was born at Colnmbns, Missis- 
sippi, July -^Sth, 18^4. His father, David 
Wright, was a Presbyterian minister, and at 
one time a missionary to the Choctaw Indians. 
His mother was a Virginian. Mr. Wright is a 
nephew of ColonelJohn A/bert, of Washington, 
D. C, for over 30 years Chief of Topograghical 
Engineers of the U. S. Army. At the age of 
six years, being the only survivor of four chil- 
dren, he was left, by the death of his father, in 
charge of a widowed mother, who devoted all 
her remaining life to the welfare of her son. 
She was a woman of remarkable force of 
character. Left to depend on her own exer- 
tioi s for support, she taught her son to work 
and to appreciate the dignity and worth of labor. 
He early learned from hor teachings that he 
must depend for success upon his own exer- 
tions, under the blessings'of Providence. In 
his boyhood Mr. Wright worked for part of his 
time in a cabinet shop, to learn the use of 
tools, and wrote for a while as a copyist in a 
Chancery Clerk's office. But bis mother la- 
bored to leave him that best of legacies— a 
sound education; by her economy and good 
management, coupled with some assistance 
from friends and the earnings of his own labors 
as teacher, he was enabled to secure the ad- 
vantages of a thorough education. 

He prepared for college in the schools of 
Mississippi and Alabama. After spending two 
and a half years at Greene Springs, Alabama, 
under Prof. Henry Tutwiler, whose eldest 
daughter he afterwards married, he entered 
the junior class at Princeton in 1855, and gra- 
duated as valedictorian of his class in 1857. In 
the fall of that year he returned to Alabama, 
and began teaching school as assistant to 
Prof. Tutwiler. As teacher, after completing 
his college course, his classes consisted of 
young men in Latin and Greek through the 
ftill course, French, rhetoric, and the higher 
mathematics. He also devoted much of his 
leisure time to natural history and botany, as 
his special and favorite studies, having been 
convinced of the practical value of these 
sciences at Princeton, by the admirable lectures 
on geology and physical geography in the two 
years' course of Prof. Guyot, "the companion 
and friend of Agassiz." Princeton conferred 
upon Mr. Wright the degree of A.M. in 1860. 

After our lamentable civil war broke out he 
continued teaching for a year; but having been 
Viiised with convictions concerning State's 
Rights, :n which all Southern men were edu- 
cated, i'ld being convinced that the only clear 
line of duty was to stand by his State in the 
unfortunate position in which the logic of 
events had pluced her; feeling, as well, that she 
needed the aid of all her sons in that terrible 
and ever-to-be-regretted emergency, he raised 
a company and entered the Confederate 
service in March. 1862, in the 36th Ala- 
bama Regiment. He served as Captain and 
Major of infantry, being frequently in com- 
mand of his regiment, until he gave his parole 
in May, 1865. He was always actively em- 

Eloyed. He was in the battles of Chickamauga, 
ookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and 
also in Gen. Joe Johnston's and Hood's cam- 
paigns, and in the defence of Spanish Fort at 
Mobile from the 3d to the 9th of April, 1865. 
He was severely wounded, disabled and cap- 
tured at Missionary Ridge in November, 1863, 
and remained in the hospital and prison at 
Chattanooga, Nashville and Camp Chase, until 
he effected his escape from the cars, while en 
route with Morgan and other Confederate offi- 



cers to be confined in Fort Delaware in March, 
1864. He then made an adventurous trip 
through Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York 
and Vermont, to Canada, thence by schooner 
down the St. Lawrence, and by a sea voyage 
of 30 days to the Bermudas; thence by block- 
ade runner to Wilmington, and was restored to 
his family and command in .June, 1864, after 
having been numbered among the dead for 
three months. On hia return he enjoyed the 
odd experience of reading his obituary; but, at 
well as we can judge, he still bas some life left, 
although ten years have elapsed, and those sad 
memories are almost forgotten. Far from re- 
taining any bitterness from the lamentable 
struggle, the subject of this sketch is known to 
be a lover of his whole country, and eagerly joins 
in all efforts to secure our public good. By 
parentage, education and natural disposition 
he is liberal and devoted to the interest of all 
our people. He gave hi.s parole in May, 1865, 
and leturned to Greene Springs, where he re- 
sumed his occupation of teaching. 
Believing that all enterprise and prosperity 



Being naturally fond of retirement, Mr. 
Wright has always preferred life in the country 
and on a farm. His associations have been 
almost constantly with farm life. This experi- 
ence has made him an earnest advocate of the 
farmer's life, as the most independent and the 
happiest in the world, when the farmer can be 
favored with good seasons and fair dealing in 
handlinghis products and supplies. Although 
having from a sense of duty, as a citizen, taken 
an active part in shaping the politics of his 
locality, he has actively tried to work against 
corruption, bribery and political wire working, 
Mr. Wright has never been in the slightest 
sense a professional politician. In his work as 
an officer, he has organized 33 of the Granges 
in this State. He has paid considerable atten- 
tion to meteorology, and kept an accurate rain- 
fall and weather record of his locality. Our 
readers will, most of them, remember reading 
his observations on the climate of the San 
Joaquin valley, and will remember as well his 
illustrated articles on the botany of California, 
published in the Rdbai, at various times. Mr. 




J. W. A. WRIGHT. 



were dead in the Southern States, and desiring 
a more active life, he came to California in the 
spring of 1868, and purchased land in Stan- 
islaus and Fresno counties, and has engaged 
actively in developing the resources of the 
State as a farmer, ever since. Year before last 
he cultivated some 4,000 acres of land, but, on 
account of the unfavorable season, harvested 
but 1,700 acres, and indeed has suffered in 
each of the dry years with his brother farmers 
in the valley, in endeavoring to bring his farm- 
ing operations to success. Last year Mr. Wright 
cultivated 1,500 acres of land in Stanislaus and 
Fresno counties. Five years' experience in 
grain raising in California has convinced him, 
among other practical farmers, that irrigation 
is the only certain mode of farming in the in- 
terior valleys of the State. 

In June, 1873, when the Farmers' Movement 
began to excite so much interest in California, 
a Grange was formed in Turlock, Stanislaus 
county, his place of residence, of which he was 
elected Master. On the 15th of July, when the 
California State Grange was organized in Napa, 
Mr. Wright was elected its first Master. He 
was the author of the declaration of purposes, 
which mapped out the work of the Order in 
California. This year he went East as a del- 
egate to the National Grange, and had the 
honor of drawing up the famous "declaration 
of principles" (called by some one a second 
Sermon on the Mount), of which so much has 
been said. Mr. Wright's term as Master hav- 
ing expited at San Jo^^, he was elected State 
Lecturer, giving him in that way a more varied 
work, in the work of organization and main- 
tenance of the Order in this State. He was 
ex officio Chairman of the first executive com- 
mittee, which inaugurated the business agen- 
cies of the Granges in California. 



Wright has made a host of friends in his trav- 
els throughout California, and as many of them 
are readers of our journal, we deem it unneces- 
sary to call to their minds recollections of his 
genial manner, his intelligent conversational 
powers, good nature, and polite bearing to all 
with whom he comes in contact. The sketch 
which we have engraved, shown on this page, 
is an admirable likeness of Mr. Wright. 

Diking Overflowed Land. — Among the val- 
uable correspondence which the Peess this 
week presents to its readers will be found an 
able and interesting letter from W. M. Ryer, 
Esq., on the subject of diking overflowed lands. 
Mr. Ryer is remarkably well qualified for treat- 
ing this important subject; having added to 
his California experience several years of close 
observations in Holland and other foreign coun- 
tries. Even the general reader will find much 
that is interesting in this communication, while 
those who are interested in the reclamation of 
tule or other low lands will find in it a sound, 
practical treatment of some of the prominent 
points of the subject. 



W. F. Babbe, of Antioch, says that he has 
lost 60 acres of wheat this season from the 
effects of a small black bug which made its ap- 
pearance in the spring and has continued its 
work of desolation ever since. They have a 
hard, sharp horn or bill with which they pene- 
trate the stock above the joint and apparently 
extract all the moisture or sap, by reason of 
which the heads are not filled. 



Four hundred and thirty-five head of cattle 
were sold recently in Deer Lodge for $20 per 
head. 



Facilities for Bringing Fruit to Market. 

The fact that fruit-growing is only a part of 
the great fruit trade, is becoming apparent to 
all, and some are disposed to indulge in pre- 
dictions concerning the probable result of the 
increasing magnitude of our fruit product. 
They are aware of the steady increase of plant- 
ing, but they do not see any increase of mar- 
kets, or any improved facilities for supplying 
those already established. But we have never 
wavered in our faith that the bounteous pro- 
ductions of our orchards and vineyards will 
create markets that will grow with their growth; 
and it requires but little insight into the nature 
of trade to inspire confidence in the fulfillment 
of her part of the bargain. Common sense, 
with the additional stimulus of a few common 
cents, in prospective, will develop the requisite 
activity and energy in- buying, selling and 
transporting our fruit. The fruit trade of Cal- 
ifornia is yet in a primitive condition. There 
is no probability that its profits will ever be 
enormous, but it is certainly destined to be- 
come a va* interest in Itis State. It will be a 
permanent business, and in consequence of the 
uniform productiveness of ourorchards and vine- 
yards, it will be less fluctuating than the fruit 
trade of other countries. There will be an 
opening here where many a man, outside of 
the fruit-producing class, will have a chance to 
turn an honest penny ; and American shrewd- 
ness and enterprise will not let such an oppor- 
tunity slip. The system essential in disposing 
of our increasing supply of fruit will be per- 
fected by the increase of its production. As 
an instance of what is already being done for 
San Francisco and Oakland in this respect, we 
give the following from the Transcript: 

"There are many localities in this county not 
directly on the main trunk of the Central Pa- 
cific Railway, which abound in fruits and veg- 
etables. At this season it is necessary that 
they should be transported to the metropolitan 
market cheaply, speedily, and in an uninjured 
condition. Cherries and berries are particu- 
larly sensitive, and require very cautious and 
careful manipulation. The jolting of wagons 
crushes and ofttimes ruins loads of fruits, besides 
greatly injuring the more tender vegetables. 
The Central Pacific Railroad Co. has remedied 
these evils. Every afternoon an empty train 
of six or seven covered cars runs up along the 
line of the local road as far as Melrose via Al- 
ameda, and thence to Hayward's, the end of 
the branch line. Here partial cargoes of fruits 
are taken aboard, some vegetables, and by and 
by a little grain will be added thereto. At the 
various stations between Hayward's and Ala- 
meda, further increments are made until the 
cars are filled. The laden train passes through 
by the Broadway station about seven o'clock 
p. M., every day, and the cargoes are transfer- 
red to the ferry-boats at the end of Long wharf. 
They are not earned over to the city on the 
regular freight boat Thoroughfare, but in the 
passenger steamers. These evening vegetable 
Hud fruit trains are a great accommodation to 
fruiterers and gardeners, as also to consumers, 
who get their supplies cheap and in excellent 
condition." 



Riverside. — A correspondent of the San Ber- 
nardino Chxardian gives the following as the 
crop prospect at Riverside: Quite a large 
quantity of raisin grapes will be raised in the 
settlement this year; also, many white figs and 
a few limes and lemons. Quite a number of 
new settlers have lately bought from 20 to 80 
acres each in the vicinity of Sunnyside, which 
they are beautifying and improving by the set- 
ting out of great numbers of ornamental and 
semi-tropical and other fruit trees, adding much 
to the value and beauty of this locality. The 
farmers are nearly through harvesting their 
barley and wheat. The barley crop is quite 
heavy. A very abundant crop of hay has been 
cut and stacked — much more than will be re- 
quired for the use of the settlement during the 
coming year. 

It is stated that samples of agricultural pro- 
ducts are being secured in Dixon for the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition. Let them be exhibited to 
our own citizens at the Mechanics' Fair. We 
would like to see a department in the fair for 
articles intended for the Centennial Exhibition. 



[July 4. 1874 



'ORRESPONDENCE. 



;Tlie RrH\L Press, in opening the colurann cf this de- 
partment to its correspondents, does not desire to lay be- 
fore it-* readers anything which it not in keepinK with its 
cbarai-terand position as an agricultural and family paper. 
FactB are always thankfully receivad : and sugKestions and 
matters of opinion on subjects connected with agriculture 
are also acceptable; though correspondents are \o be un- 
derstood as speaking for themselves and not for the Pbess. ] 



Santa Cruz and Surroundings. 

[By Our Traveling Correspondent.] 

Editors Tbess :— Having passed a very pleas- 
aut vacation in anil around Santa Cruz, I pro- 
pose giving you a few items which doubtless 
■will be acceptable to some of jour numerous 
readers. It is scarcely necessary to mention 
the geographical position of the town. The 
population is 3,000, composed principally of 
Americans and Germans, with a sprinkling of 
other nationalities— there being, comparatively 
speaking, a small proportion of Mexicans, or 
Spaniards. TUe town has gained considerable 
notoriety as a watering place, and deservedly 
so. The writer, having had the pleasure of visit- 
ing quite a number of the principal watering 
places in America and Europe, can conscien- 
ciously say he has rarely if ever visited a place 
that could point to so many objects of attrac- 
tion, and at the same time boast of so delight- 
ful a climate, as Santa Cruz. The writer, in 
conversation with a lady from the East, learned 
that she proposed disposing of her property in 
Illinois and settling permanently heie, and also 
that she was endeavoring to induce quite a 
number of her friends to do the same. During 
the conversation she mentioned having met an 
Italian gentleman, and through curiosity asked 
him how the climate here would compare with 
that of Italy, his answer being that ho consid- 
ered it equal if not superior. 

The traveler, tourist or sportsman, will here 
find excellent hunting and fishing, and those 
in search of health cannot fail after a season to 
be greatly benefited. Each year a marked in- 
crease in the number of visitor.s shows that the 
traveling public appreciate the inducements 
held out to them to visit this truly charming 
resort. 

The beach is a great source of pleasure and 
recreation to the thomauds who visit here, a 
large proportion of whom are from the Middle 
States, and are consequently not satiated with 
such attractions. They can readily be distin- 
guished from the residents, being generally 
very industrious in their eflforts to secure ciiii- 
ous sea-moss, etc., at low tide. The bathing 
is excellent, and the accommodations fair, 
though room exists for great improvements, 
the bathing-houses being permanent fixtures, 
and situated as far from the water as possible, 
necessitating on the part of the bather a con- 
siderable walk in bathing costume; and there 
are many who are deterred from bathing rather 
than submit to the criticisms freely bestowed 
on such occasions. This could be entirely done 
away with, however, should they introduce the 
portable bathing machine commonly used else 
where, which can be readily hauled down to 
the water; and, doubtless, the proprietors would 
be recompensed by an increased revenue. And 
here a word might be said about pleasure-boats, 
which, at most watering places, can always be 
found; but here such a thing is unknown, 
though, doubtless, some enterprising citizen of 
of Saiita Cruz will, within the next 10 years, 
see the propriety of furnishing such pleasant 
means of recreation and amusement to the 
many who delight in such, and in return have 
the satisfaction of increasing the popularity of 
the town and the pleasure of deriving a hand- 
some reimbursement financially from the un- 
dertaking. 

Tourists in search of delightful scenery and 
rural retreats will here find both, the drives in 
the vicinity being justly celebrated. Among 
others, that to the big trees (15 to 20 leet in 
diameter and 300 to 350 high) is very interest- 
ing. They are situated about 8 miles from town 
and to reach them one has to pass through 
some most magnificent scenery. There are two 
ways of going, but undoubtedly that by way of 
Feltou, a pretty little town some six or seven 
miles distant, offers most inducements. By 
this rout the tourist may catch a glimpse of the 
powder mills, which nestle cozily in a pretty 
little valley far below the level of the road. En 
passant, let me here remark that the observing 
stranger will probably desire to visit these 
mills; if so, the visit cannot fail to be both in- 
teresting and instnicting to many. The writer 
had the gratification of going through the en- 
tiro works in company with Mr. Buchanan, the 
foreman. It is remarkable that very few acci- 
dents have oocurrred at these works since they 
commenced operations, some ten years ago, 
and during that lime only three lives have been 
lost; this is entirely dtie to the extreme precau- 
tions taken by the company. The mills are all 
situated a considerable distance apart, to lessen 
the danger of a general conflagration. Some 
100 men are here employed. The company 
manufacture from seven to eight tons of pow- 
der daily at the present writing, but can 
double this if necessary. The works are super- 
intended by Mr. B. Peyton, who has the repu- 
tation of being a very courteous gentleman. 
This visit to the powder mills and big trees can 
be made in one day when, should the traveler 
so desire, the following day a most delightful 
drive can be taken up Scott's valley to Vine 



hill, distance eight miles. Here are located 
the Magnetic springs, discovered some years 
ago and owned by Mr. C. S. Fisk, who has 
erected a most comfortable house near the 
springs, and is prepared to make invalids and 
others enjoy their visit. Those springs are al- 
ready gaining quite a reputation from the bene- 
fit derived by tliose who have passed a season 
there. The water is.snid to be more particu- 
larly beneficial for neuralgia, paralysis, kidney 
diseases, etc., some most wonderful instances 
having been mentioned to the writer of cures 
eflfccted. In all probability the tourist would 
desire to pass a few days at those springs, and 
ifso, would be well repaid, as the scenery in 
the neighborhood is sublime. 

Within a short distance of the springs are to 
be found the finest vineyards in the county ; the 
largest producing 20,000 gallons of wine annu- 
ally, owned by Mr. G. M. Jarvis, and the next 
largest producing 18,000 gallons, own. d by Mr. 
John Jarvis. Here let me remark, that the car- 
rying of the late elections by the local option- 
ists exercised these gentlemen considerably, 
and apparently not without reason. Strolling 
over those fruitful hills, it is difficult for one to 
imagine them as they were twelve or fourteen 
years ago, entirely covered with chapparal and 
pronounced unworthy of being surveyed by the 
government surveyors. However, those gentle- 
men, with the indomitable energy and perse- 
verance of the early pioneer, after years of la- 
bor and money expended, have succeeded in 
entirely transforming the hills,' and they say 
there is no finer place in California for raising 
the vine naturally. Those gentlemen feel cha- 
grined at having such a vital blow struck at 
their interests; however, so it is, and so it ever 
will be, that the few must sufifer for the good of 
the many. 

One can easily walk from the springs to the 
vineyards and see all that is to be seen, and re- 
turn to the springs in time for lunch, when if 
not fatigued, I should strongly advise a visit to 
Strawberry valley, owned by Mr. John De 
Wolfe. The traveler leaving Santa Cruz for 
San Jose, by stage, after journeying along the 
road about eight miles, cannot fail to enjoy the 
view to be had of this charming little valley, as 
seen from an altitude of some seven or eight 
hundred feet. It is a perfect gem, and really 
is one of the most interesting features of the 
whole trip, which abounds in soul siirring 
scenery, and along the whole roirte from Santa 
Cruz to San Josd is very magnificent and ro- 
mantic. 

In the valley, within a short distance of Mr. 
De Wolfe's house, is a spring similar to the one 
before mentioned, and if I am not mistaken, 
Mr. De W. proposes by another season to have 
a house erected for the reception of invalids, 
etc. Should he do so, his place cannot fail to 
attract not only those in search of health, but 
those devotees who are ever ready and eager to 
discover new beauties and enchantments in 
nature. The writer had thepleasure of passing 
a few days very pleasantly at Mr. De W.'s 
house; who, with his family, endeavored to 
make his stiiy agreeable, and succeeded so well 
that it required quite an effort to tear himself 
away from such loveliness, but necesxitas nullum 
leijeia hnbel. Before closing my remarks about 
Strawberry valley, I would say that rarely a 
place is found to be more happily named, as 
here are to be found the most delicious straw- 
berries; certainly the finest grown in this 
county, and the writer failed during his stay in 
Santa Clara valley to find fruit there that would 
bear comparison with it. 

Places of interest here mentiooed are otly a 
few of the many ; and the visitor will require to 
be very industrious indeed, if he would visit 
them all in less than a week. Among others, 
the drive up the coast to Laguna creek is very 
attractive, and the natural bridge — a great curi- 
osity — is well worth seeing; also the ruins situ- 
ated in Scott's valley, which are by many pro- 
nounced a mystery, while others confidently 
maintain that they are the remains of some 
gigantic temple, erected centuries a<;o by the 
aborigines. Others again just as confidently 
maintain that they are nothing more than a 
mass of sand rock, which, through the influence 
of the elements, has assumed the grotesque and 
fantastic appenrance it now bears. Without 
offering any opinion, the writer would recom- 
mend a visit, as thiy will not be only interest- 
ing to most people, but afford a great deal of 
food for thought and research. 

The maiiufiicturing interest, probably more 
than any other, supports the town ot Santa 
Cruz. Here can be found powder-mills, paper- 
mills, tanneries, limekilns, sugar-mills, saw- 
mills, etc. "No place in the State can oft'er more 
and better water privileges than can be found 
here. In nearly every ravine an excellent 
stream of water is to be had. The farming 
interest also is important, but not specially so, 
and, as a rule, the farmers in this vicinity ap- 
pear to be an industrious and prosperous class. 
As the crops are looking very well, they all feel 
very happy and contented. The Grange here 
is in a very prosperous condition, and has a 
large number of members. The same cannot 
be said, however, of the Farmers' Club, a great 
many of the old members having joiin d the 
Order of Patrons of Husbandry. 

A narrow-gauge railroad is in course of con- 
struction from here to Watsonville, and a force 
of 300 men are at present employed gruding, 
bridge-building, etc.; and it is confidently ex- 
pected that in three months 15 miles of the 
road will be in running order. A considerable 
portion of the iron is now here. The estimated 
cost of the road, when completed, is $280,000; 
the stock is all held here, the Watsonville peo- 
ple not being as enthusiastic as the Santa Cruz 
people over the railroad; F. A. Hihn is Presi- 



dent, and Titus Hale, Treasurer. When this 
railroad is finished, it is expected that travel in 
this direction will greatly increase. At present 
the traveler can arrive by several different 
routes, all of them having their own special 
attractions, and each having a fair share of 
patronage. Were space more plentiful, I should 
like to say something about the redwood for- 
ests, but will have to defer it. I will merely 
state, however, that the patch of redwood here 
is considered the largest and best in the 
world, beins some 50 miles long and 18 broad. 
The lumbering business is very exteusive, 
and gives employment to vast numbers of men. 
Owing to low prices, however, a large number 
of mills are shut down this season. 

Before closing my letter, I should mention 
that the town has every facility for taking care 
of quite a number of visitors, there being four 
or five hotels — the two princial ones being the 
St. Charles Hotel and the Pacific Ocean House; 
the former having a most excellent livery at- 
tached, and, being kept by W. N. Cummings, 
who is a good host and genial gentleman, 
will undoubtedly, if any of your readers will 
visit him, treat them well in every respect. 
More anon from Watsonville. 

Chas. T. Beli,. 



How our Swamp Land may be Reclaimed. 

[Written for the PnEsa.] 

The Coniparalive Value. 

Land of a similar nature and of equal pro- 
ductive capacity to the overflowed land of Cal- 
ifornia sells readily in Holland and North Ger- 
many for from two hundred to eight hundred 
dollars per acre; in California it sells for leas 
than one twentieth that amount, notwithstand- 
ing the greater difficulty of reclamation and of 
keeping in repair the works of reclamation, and 
the storms and rain,s which may come suddenly 
and with disastrous effect at any time and in 
any month of the year, in these European 
countries. 

In the brief space allowed the writer in your 
journal it is impossible to give a satisfactory 
description of his observations upon the Delta 
of the Nile and the low lands of the European 
continent; and as your readers are probably ac- 
quainted with the characteristics of these coun- 
tries, it becomes unnecessary. But that many 
persons in California do not seem familiar with 
the proper manner of reclaiming overflowed 
land, is obvious from the abortive eflforts they 
have made in that direction. 



The Difference between Tidal Overflow and the 
Overflow from Rivers. 

It is very proper to make a distinction in the 
manner of enclosing land by dykes, when such 
land is subject only to tidal overflow, which may 
be for one, two or three hours twice a day, 
and with a drainage of several hours between 
each tide; for with such land the sy.stem of 
reclamation now adopted may give satisfactory 
results. 

Very different must be the character of the 
dykes enclosing laud subject at any time to an 
overflow which may continue for one or more 
weeks; for in the tide overflows diainage is ef- 
fected twice a day, but in the overflow from the 
rivers, drainage can oirfy be eflfected when the 
water falls below the lower level of the over- 
flowed land. 

There will probably be no serious damage 
ever resulting to either stock or crops upon 
land in Suisuu bay, below Sherman Island, or 
upon the marsh land of the bay of San Fran- 
cisco from defective levees. 

On the other hand, the high waters in the 
rivers of California have this year clearly dem 
onstrated how thoroughly improper has been 
the mode of dyking adopted in many places 
on the margins of these rivers. 

Turf Levees Peculiar to California. 

Outside of California the world does not pre- 
sent the picture of sane men being engaged in 
building levees of turf that will burn t.y fire, or 
float away by water. No bears ever worked so 
efleclively in the stock market to depreciate 
values as the present owners of overflowed 
land have to render valueless their own lands. 

The amount of money expended already by 
several parties in leveeing with turf levees and 
in planting of seed, would, if wisely used, have 
given a permanent protection to their lauds and 
crops, and they would not now have to con- 
template grain almost ready for the sickle and 
beariug sixty bushels to the acre perishing be- 
cause of a foot of water being over the laud. 

Subterranean Channels Under the Levees. 

It is rare to find any land bordering water 
courses that will not have subterranean chan- 
nels or cracks extending for some distance in 
the land. Old logs, decaying roots, often 
afford conduits for water; sometimes a subter- 
ranean drainage may have formed a channel, 
or the surface vegetation moy have bridged 
over a crack, a beaver cut, or a small water 
course. 

What is known as float land is found in Hol- 
land, Egypt and, perhaps, among all large 
bodies of overflowed lands. It is in most cases 
formed by aquatic plants taking root in land 
several feet below the surface, and sending 
to the surface their dense vegetation. Upon 
this dense surface vegetation, sufficient earth 
accumulates to sustain additional vegetation, 
and when this receives the deposit of the rivers 
sufficient to close the light from the subaqueous 
plants, they perish, and thus the bond between 



the float and the lower land becomes severed. 
With a great probability that the dense sod on 
the margin of the river has bridged over some 
cracks, roots, logs or water channels, is it wise 
to expect a levee will protect yonr land when 
buillFOVor such conduits? 

The first rule laid down by continental en- 
gineers is to dig a narrow, deep ditch and fill it 
well in with good earth, and no levee is ever 
built in those countries without these precau- 
tions. Upon this ditch the center of the levee 
rests. 

The Necessity of Trenching before Leveeing. 

Grand Island is the most successful reclama- 
tion among the islands of the interior of the 
State. Its levee is of pure sediment, with 
neither sod or turf except a cross levee at the 
lower part of the island. This cross levee is 
defective because it is composed of turfy ma- 
terial, and because there are bubterranean 
channels beneath this levee. 

Upon this island they have found it neces- 
sary during the high water, in many places, to 
dig ditches beneath the inside of or under the 
levee, and fill them up with compact earth, and 
thus cut ofi" the subterranean water channels. 
The experience of Grand Island confipmn the 
importance of the first directions of the Enro- 
[lean engineers to "cut off your subterranean 
channels." 

Levees Should be from Material Taken from the 
Bed of the River. 

Nearly all the lands overflowed by the San 
Joaquin are composed of a light, turfy material 
which will float or burn. The value of this 
land is very great, as its productive capacity is 
not excelled by any in the world. The attempt 
to guard this land from overflow with levees 
composed of the material found on the spot has 
this year resulted in a failure. The proposition 
to take the turf nearer the edge of the bank to 
cover over the present levees will result in a 
greater failure. First, because there is not 
enough of pure sediment unmixed with vegeta- 
ble matter to make a permanent levee, and its 
weight will tend to elevate the ditches. Second , 
the experience on Sherman Island has been, 
that cutting outside of turfy land tends to open 
subterranean conduits for water and to furnish 
starting points for fissures. 

There is no material suitable for levees on 
the larger portion of the low lands of the San 
Joaquin river, unless that material is taken 
from the bottom of the river or sloughs. 

Dredging, not Ditching, Machines Required. 

Had the money and genius which has been 
expended in the creation of ditching machines 
been employed in building old-fashioned 
dredging machines, and had such u^achiues 
been used in raising the bottoms of the 
rivers to make levees upon the land, then 
the reclamation of such land would have be- 
come a success. 

Upon the Isthmus of Suez a large number of 
dredging machines were used, being more 
economical than the labor of fellahs, whose 
wages were much less than the wages we pay 
Chinamen. Those machines dug to the depth 
of 26 feet, and with their many btickets carried 
4 the dirt to such a hight that through sluices 
they cast it '-lOO or more feet from them on the 
land or in dump carts. In Holland they have 
many dredging machines digging outlakes and 
rivers, elevating the earth to a proper hight 
and casting it on land, thus forming levees. 

As before stated, a small ditch is dug, into 
this ditch good earth is well stamped, and upon 
this the levee is constructed of earth, free of 
decomposing vegetable matter. The value of 
money in California has prompted men to dis- 
regard the experience of centuries in older 
countries. A few more failures ond we will 
find that by borrowing the experience of such 
countries we would hove saved mon^y. 

The Foundation of Levees should be in Ditches. 

To reclaim the land of the San Joaquin river, 
heavy earth should be taken from the rivers 
and cast into their present ditches until a levee 
is raised over these ditches sufficiently high to 
protect the land. 

It is well known that so tenacious is the turf 
on this river that the weight of no ordinary 
levee will compact the earth beneoth, sufficient 
to obliterate the small channels which may be 
beneath the levee. 

On the other hand, heavy earth cast into the 
present ditches will not have the resistance 
from the cohesion of the surface sod, but it 
will tend to bring the float land to its bearing, 
and close all oommunication between the out- 
side and inside of the levee. 

The objection urged to using the present 
ditches as a base for levees is that the amount 
of earth required will be too great, and that 
it can not be afforded at present. 

To this we may reply that earth may be cast 
upon the land from the bottom of the rivers 
for about five cents per cubic yard, by the 
many bucketed dredging machines; whereas, 
the cutting of turf by Chinamen costs 10 cents. 
Further, it may be stated that overflowed land 
is valuable in proportion to the security to 
stock, crops and improvements. Land feebly 
leveed brings fear to settlers upon snch land, 
and they hesitate long before they venture 
either to improve or cultivate, and they do 
neither as well as if they were acting upon a 
certainty. In Holland they reclaim land sub- 
merged, as the land in the bottom of the bay 
of San Francisco; but they reclaim such land 
in a manner to give them confidence; they then 
build towns of brick, 18 feet below the surface 
of the water they have excluded. 

There is no body of land of greater produc- 
tive capacity to be found on this eaith than tha 
land bordering on the rivers of California; and 



July 4. 1874-] 



yet, to save these lauds from an overflow of 
three or four feet, which may come every three 
or four years, money is dealt out so sparingly 
as to render their so-called reclamalion ti fraud 
and a deceit. 

To doubt the practicability of successfully 
and certiiinly reclaiming these lauds, is to re- 
fuse to accept that which has heen demon- 
strated for ages iu other countries. 
Cheaper to Reclaim by Levees than Pay Tribute to 
Railroads. 

The interest of the money expended in re- 
claiming swamp lands is, as a general propo- 
sition, less than the amount paid to railroad 
companies by the owners of upland; for the 
swamp lands are accessible to sail vessels which 
will take the products of the soil to market for 
about one dollar per ton; whereas the average 
paid by farmers in the winter may be three 
or more dollars. An acre in the great val- 
leys of this State which produces two tons 
of marketable produce, pays the interest on ^40 
for the transportation of that produce more 
than a similar acre of lowland does. If there 
is reason in this statement, surely the owner of 
lowland should not refuse to expend, if neces- 
sary, as much as $10 or $15 per acre to reclaim 
with certainty land that will produce doiible as 
much as the most favored upland. 

By a latitude of expression we may say that 
upland in the interior is reclaimed and made 
available by railroads, to which they pay trib- 
ute to the extent of the interest on from $20 to 
$60, according to distance and the productions 
of each acre. The difference of cost of trans- 
portation is more than the interest on the cost 
of the most expensive reclamation which may 
be required on the most exposed swamp land. 

If a company were guaranteed the privilege 
of transporting the products of the now sub- 
merged lands for a period of years at prises 
charged by the roads of the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin valleys, they could, with great 
profit to themselves, build all the levees re- 
quired and present them without cost to the 
owners of the land. W. M. Ryer. 



Letter From Motto Mosa. 



Editohs Press :— Fourteen months ago I was 
doing well as a store keeper in the town of 
Merced, California; but, like many other young 
men, I wanted to do better, so I struck out for 
the country to locate a farm, and found myself 
in Texas, before I was ready to settle — and I 
would say to you — do not advise a young man 
to travel so far, or to go to Texas. Tell them 
they are in a golden country, where persever- 
ance and energy will gain an independence 
quicker than anywhere else. For, as far as I 
can see, California contains all the good qualities 
of Texas, and a hundred fold more that Texas 
has not dreamed of. I am frequently asked : 
" Don't you think you have left a better coun- 
try than you have found?" "Yes." After 
getting a piece of land selected for a homestead 
I wanted to know how to improve it to the best 
advantage, so I went to a book store to sub- 
scribe for the RuBAL Press. To my surprise, 
the proprietor had never heard of our Rural 
Press ! As I did not know your terms, etc., I 
thought I would take a farm journal published 
in the State, and was told that no paper on ag- 
riculture was published in Texas. Nor could I 
get a farm paper at all. I thought it very 
strange, settlements and farms all over the 
country, and not an agricultural paper to be 
had in the city of San Antonio. 

The farming community of Western Texas, 
as a rule, possess ordinary intelligence, though 
most of them don't think anything worth 
knowing, outside of corn, cotton and sweet 
potatoes; beauty, taste or refinement are not 
much considered. The climate here is similar 
to yours. I have told my neighbors of tha 
Rural Press and they express a desire to see 
it. The book-man also asked as a favor to look 
at the paper if I get a copy. I want to sub- 
scribe for a farm Journal and If you can send 
me a copy you will have me on your sub- 
scription list soon. If you think it worth while 
to send several copies, I will distribute them 
judiciously and get all the subscribers I can. 
When I was in the San Joaquin valley, with 
the farmers I often read your paper, and feel 
satisfied that it will take wherever it goes; and 
especially in a country like this where there 
are none, and where there is room for so much 
improvement. 

We have the wild mustang grape, which 
grows very luxuriantly all through the woods. 
On being pressed the pulp shoots out the same 
as the Isabel grape. The inside of the skin is 
very smarting and puckering to the mouth. 
Can you give me a receipt for making wine 
from them? A man in the country has made 
wine, but it sours after standing a shortjperiod 
of time. Can you tell me how to keep it from 
souring? If you can and will, by letter or 
through your paper, you will oblige 

Chas. p. Elliott. 

Motto Mosa, Atascoso Co., Texas. 

LOar correspondent can hardly expect to ob- 
tain any recipe for making good wine from 
the material described above. Even though 
the grape were a suitable variety, an uncon- 
genial climate or certain properties in the soil 
may disqualify the grape for wine-making. In 
our issue of last week will be found a descrip- 
tion of the process of making merchantable 
wine, contributed by T. S. Myrick, of Placer 
county.— Eds. Press.] 



Lbttkk from Kalamazoo, Michigan. — 
Editors Press: — The weather has been very 
dry here but we now have some rain, and 
everything looks better. We are beginning to 
have a few potato bugs, but the wet weather 
will keep the vines growing. Potatoes have 
been very high this spring. Wheat is up to 
about $1.50 a bushel. Hay has brought $26 
at on lately. Corn has been 85 to 90cts a 
bushel. Beans $7 a bushel. Seed corn $2 a 
bushel. Oats are now looking very good, but 
it will be late for their harvest unless they are 
very short. Everyone is now saving every- 
thing to eat for next year's feed. I have let 
several have your Paoipio Rural to read, who 
praise it very highly. Henry H. Maper. 

Kalamazoo, Mich., June 6. 



Tl|E VlflEY^f^D. 



The Location of Vineyards. 

Editors Press: — There is a district in Hun- 
gary, in Europe, which is called Tokay, and 
there is a variety of the grape that is cultivated 
in this State which is named Flame Tokay. 
This district is in the foothills of the Car- 
pathian mountains, above the large valley and 
extended plains of the river Theiss. The grape 
is extensively cultivated in Tokay, both for 
raisins and wine. The wine is branded Tokay; 
and, on account of the admirable location of 
the district and the peculiar composition of the 
mountainous soil, the wine is said to be the 
best that is produced in Europe. It is bought 
up in advance of the vintage, for years ahead, 
at fabulous prices, which only the nobility and 
gentry can afford to pay. Probably, none of 
this famous wine has ever been brought across 
the Atlantic. Also, in the valley of the Theiss, 
a common wine is made on nearly every farm, 
which is in general use by the peasantry, and 
which is as cheap in price as it is common in 
quantity. The difference in the quality and 
value of the Hungarian wines depends upon 
the location of the vineyards. 

In all the countries along the northern shore 
of the Mediterranean sea, the grape is success- 
fully cultivated; but the vineyards are gener- 
ally in the mountainous districts, and nobody 
undertakes to manufacture a superior article 
of either raisins or wine from the grape that is 
raised on the alluvial bottoms of the rivers and 
water courses. We read of "the vine-clad hills 
of France," but not of the vine-clad bottom- 
lands of France. We read of the vineyards and 
olive groves in all the foothills which encircle 
the snow-crested Alps, or that slope towards 
either sea from the classic Apennines, but not 
of the vineyards on the plains of Lombardy, 
except on frames or stilts. The raisin, wine, 
olive or fig, of commerce, is either raised or 
manufactured in mountainous districts, and 
only a cheap, poor and inferior article is pro- 
duced on the broad savannahs of the rivers. 

During the last ten years, it has been proved 
by successful experiment and cultivation that 
California is as much the land of the grape as 
either France, Italy or Hungary. And, al- 
though the grape-vine will grow and flourish in 
the valleys which are swept by the bleak and 
periodical winds of the Pacific Ocean, or iu the 
great valleys of the Sacramento and San 
.Joaquin rivers, or ou the "moving sands " of 
the Colorado, or on the high ridgts of the 
Sierra Nevadas, it has nevertheless been found 
to be true that the quality of the fruit, and 
consequently of the wine that is made from it, 
depends upon the proper location of the vine- 
yard and the experienced cultivation of the 
vine. No person, who makes any pretense 
whatever to agricultural science, will undertake 
to prove that a superior article of wine can be 
made from the grape that is raised on tule 
land, by any chemical process that is known in 
the adulterating or "doctoring" vocabulary. 
And it is surprising that an intelligent and 
discriminating public, as are the people of 
California, can be hoaxed and cajoled into the 
use and abuse, even, of villainous vinous com- 
pounds, when pure and good wine can be ob- 
tained. At the present time there are only 
about 40,000 acres of land in this State which 
are devoted to the grape culture, and there are 
only 30,000,000 grape-vines. During the last 
year, several vineyards that had been planted 
on low and damp soils, were dug up by the 
roots, and their places filled by other products 
better adapted to the peculiar soil and location. 
But it has been estimated that there are at 
least 8,000,000 acres of land in this State 
adapted to the culture of the vine. This great 
body of land, like a wide and extended belt, 
stretches along the western slope of the Sierras 
for at least 300 miles. This immense fruit 
belt has an elevation above tide water of from 
500 to 2,500 feet. Here is the natural home of 
the grape-vine. At an elevation of from 1,000 
to 2,000 feet, the wild grape-vine grows in the 
greatest luxuriance; and so, also, (without 
digression) do the wild plum, wild cherry, 
and thorn apple. (There are a dozen wild grape 
vines on my ranch that are this year loaded 
with fruit) . Now, to continue the thread of 
argument, where the wild plant or vine is 
found on the bosom of Nature, there, precisely, 
is the proper and exact location for the cultiva- 
ted one of the same species. Hence, as here 
in the foot-bills, the wild grape-vine is found to 
grow, flourish and bear fruit luxuriantly; so 
here in the foot-hills, also, is the place to 
domesticate the cultivated family of grapes. 
And, as on the tule lands, the natural produc- 



tion is grass, so there is the proper and suitable 
place to raise the family of grasses. And, fur- 
ther, as in the great valleys of the State, the 
natural production is wild oats, so, also, there 
is precisely where to cultivate oats, barley, 
wheat and the entire kindred and relationship 
of grains. 

But it is not contended or asserted, that eve- 
rywhere on this great fruit belt of the Sierras, 
the best quality of grapes cau be raised, 
or the best article of wine produced 
because, there is often a great dif- 
ference in the flavor and boquet ofwine that is 
made of the same variety of giapea, even on the 
same section of land. Yet, having deteVmined 
to make a home in the foot-hills for the culti- 
vation of fruit, and particularly of the grape, 
orange, almond, plum, prune, peach, fig, apri- 
cot, nectarine, pear or apple, somebody of the 
grand army of prospectors will locate on the 
particular soil where a vineyard can be estab- 
lished, and a quality of wine be produced that 
will equal or rival even the world-famous brand 
of Tokay of Hungary. There are over 70,000 
acres of land in the fruit belt of Placer county, 
and not one-fourth of it is under cultivation. 
Here, land can be obtained of the Government 
for nothing, or at the highest figure, $2.50 per 
acre. T. S. Myrick. 

Auburn, Placer county, June 16, 1874. 

A New Medicine for Diseased Grape 
Vines. — The Abb^ RoUand has communicated 
to the Cultivateur de la Region Lyonimise an 
"infallible remedy" against the phylloxera, 
which, after two years' trial, he recommends 
" with confidence " to vine growers. It con- 
sists in inoculating the vine with the pure es- 
sence of Eucalyptus globulus, which has lately 
attracted so much attention in medical circles. 
A broad incision is made through the bark at 
the neck of the vine, in which a few drops of 
the essence are deposited by means of a small 
camel-hair brush. The result is, that in about 
three days the phylloxera entirely disappears, 
while the vine is not in the least injured by the 
operation. The incision may be made through 
any other part of the bark with equal success, 
but the result is more speedily attained the 
nearer it is made to the roots. 



Cheap Protection for Vines. — Take an old 
cheese box, take out the bottom, remove the 
hoop from the cover, and get some mosquito 
netting and place over the box, and the hoop 
will hold the netting in its place. 



s-^XyLE BI^EEDEE^S. 



Colonel Younger on Short-horns. 

Editors Press:— Great minds think alike, 
said I to myself, as I read the first four para- 
graphs under the above heading in your last 
issue, and recalled to mind Dr. A. P. Steven- 
son's address on "Short-horns and their 
Points," before the Indiana State Short-horn 
Convention, at Indianapolis, May 21st, 1872. 

On proceeding a little further, however, I 
began to suspect that in this particular instance 
I might be mistaken, and on reperusing the 
whole article, I came to the conclusion that a 
breeder who could mix up such outrageous 
nonsense as therein occurs, with some such 
wholesome truths, must have borrowed the 
latter from a second party. I sought my agri- 
cultural files and naturally turned to the ad- 
dress above mentioned. Let us see how my 
efforts were rewarded : 

Younger speaks — The head should be small, 
broad above the eyes, a well-developed brain, 
etc. 

Stevenson echoes ( ?) — The head should be 
small; above the eyes, wide, giving space for 
large cerebral development. 

Says Younger — The body should be nearly 
square. 

Answers Stevenson — Ditto, ditto, ditto. 

And, continues Younger, still referring to the 
body, should be rather barrel-shaped; the ribs 
rising well from the spine, rounding and meet- 
ing below, give ample room for the free action 
of lungs and heart. 

Whilst Stevenson expresses himself thus — 
The libs rising well from the spine, giving to 
the body a round or barreled shape, afford 
much more room to the organs within, the 
heart and lungs, etc. 

Again shouts Younger — The line of the back 
should be straight and level, extending out to 
the setting on of the tail. 

And echo (Stevenson) answers — The back 
should extend out straight to the setting on of 
the tail. 

Adds Younger — The thigh should be straight 
nearly up to the tail. 

Acquiescent Stevenson replies — The thigh 
should pass up to this point (the setting on of 
the tail) nearly straight. 

Thunders Younger — Legs short, and should 
stand well under the beast. 

An echo from Indiana — The legs should be 
short; should stand well under the animal. 

Younger furious — Broad in the chops. 

Yes! Yes! Oh, Yes! Says Stevenson — Broad 
in the crops. 

Younger — Horns small and of a waxy color; 
no black tips. 

Stevenson (mildly) — Horns should be clear, 
without black tips or any black marks what- 
ever. Some say of a waxy color. 

Younger (with one eye closed, his right hand 
raised and an imaginary cowhide between his 



thumb and dexter finger) — By the touch the 
breeder knows the quality of the beef and the 
aptitude to fatten. 

Stephenson (pinching the calf of his leg) — 
By the touch the butcher ascertains beforehand 
the quality of the flesh : by it the butcher ascer- 
tains the aptitude to fatten. 

Sapient Younger — It is an index to the con- 
stitution, but is tho most difficult to acquire. 
Nothing but long practice and close attention 
will give that knowledge. 

Exhausted Stevenson — Of all the qualities 
of the ox, this is probably the most difficult to 
understand; it will require much practice to 
become an adept in this knowledge. 

What a Farce ! 

I do not think, Messrs. Editors, there is any 
doubt now whence the wholesome truths were 
derived. The above are Colonel Younger's 
happiest efforts at clipping. 

In the third paragraph he tells us that " the 
nostrils should be distended; the jaws dis- 
tinct and clean." What does he mean, and 
what would he have us, and more particularly 
the members of the San Francisco Club, under- 
stand by the " hind legs coming up to the mid- 
dle of the thigh?" 

Colonel Younger next proceeds to inform us, 
there now are two prominent forms of Short- 
homs, and describes them (I will not take up 
your valuable space by repeating the stuff. I 
refer readers to your last issue). I wonder 
what is next to come ! If each defect in an 
animal is to constitute a different form in a 
class, then how many types of Short-horns 
have we already got ? CThat's a conundrum.) 

Colonel Younger very truthfully asserts that 
to be successful in breeding this noble beast, 
we must acquire a full knowledge of the exact 
form and the relative proportions one part should 
have to the other, so that when looking at any 
Short-horn we shall know whether he comes 
up to the standard in form of what a thorough- 
bred Short-horn should be at any age. 

Go, Colonel, and study your precepts before 
you again favor us with a lecture on this sub- 
ject; and in the meantime, Messrs. Editors, 
you can do nothing better for the Short-horn 
interests in this State than to reprint the whole 
of Dr. Stevenson's address, part whereof ap- 
pears to so great disadvantage in your last 
issue. Yours, Solano. 



*l 



Shokt-hoen bulls sold by S. S. Matthews, of 
Kansas City, Mo., on June 17th, 1874: Duke 
of the Sierras, born in 1872, purchased by John 
Sullivan of San Francisco for $160 in gold coin ; 
Humboldt Duke, born in 1872, purchased by 
B. Jacques of Santa Barbara for $100; Dnke 
Buckingham, born in 1872, purchased by J. 
Heinleiu of San Jose for $100; Duke of Gemini, 
born in 1872, purchased by F. L. Such & Co. 
of San Francisco for $125; Dawson Duke, born 
in 1873, purchased by E. W. Burr of San Fran- 
cisco for $125; 2d Duke of Noxubee, born in 
1872, purchased by C. A. Murray of San Mateo 
for $200; Prince William, born in 1871, pur- 
chased by M. L. Brittan of Redwood City for 
$200; Red Neck Duke, born in 1873, purchased 
by F. L. Such & Co. of San Francisco for $100; 
Balangcr, born in 1873, purchased byJ.H. 
Coombs of San Josd for $150; Harper Duke, 
born in 1872, purchased by B. Jacques ol Santa 
Barbara for $100; Dandy Clay, born in 1873, 
purchased by Joseph Kay of San Jose for $145; 
Charley, born in 1872, purchased by D. S. Mc- 
Lellan of San Mateo lor $100. Say 12 bulls 
for an aggregate of $1,665, or an average of 
$138.75. 



Hoo Cholera. — A. G. Wallace, of Tuscola, 
111., recommends the following as a feed for 
hogs when the cholera is raging : Use two swill 
barrels. Mix a feed of bran, shorts, or mid- 
dlings, and water and feed only after fermenta- 
tion. This mixture soon becomes sour stand- 
ing in the sun and is devoured eagerly by the 
hogs. Feed once a day through the season 
when hogs are most likely to have the disease. 
By using two barrels, and mixing in one in time 
for fermentation to take place before the supply 
is exhausted in the other, the same degree of 
"sourness" is maintained. He has fed this 
regularly for five years in the cholera season, 
and has not lost a single animal. Others who 
have tried it have met with the same success. 
Mr. Wallace has in the same time lost no chick- 
ens or turkeys by disease, and ho attributes 
their freedom from disease to the use of the 
fermented food. The cholera has made sad 
havoc among the hogsiu Central and Southern 
Illinois this season, and as all the old preven- 
tives and remedies have failed, the very simple 
one above given may prove of value. — Agricul- 
turist. 

HiNTi TO Breeders. — The importance of 
selecting the right dam in breeding cannot be 
too strongly urged upon all who are endeavor- 
ing to improve our breeds of horses; but there 
is also a point which breeders in general have 
not considered sufficiently in their efforts to 
produce excellent animals, and that is the 
natural disposition of both sire and dam. 
Just as the gentleman is more likely to be 
courageous than the clown, the carefully-bred 
horse should not only have the capacity to go 
over a given space in a given time, and the en- 
durance to allow him to do it when asked, but 
he should have all the gentleness and capacity 
for learning any useful habit or work that is 
ascribed to the thoroughbred Arabian. A bad 
temper will not only make a horse unpleasant 
to use, but will lead him to waste his strength. 
— Palgrave. 

Self-Milkinq is prevented by a Chautauqua 
farmer, by the application of pin^ tar to the 
teats a few times. 



[July 4. 1874- 




The California State Grange Headquarters 

are at room 9, No. 320 Calilomia street, 8. F.— General 
State Agent: I. Q. Gaednek, (Member of the Execu- 
tive Committee) . State Secretary: W. H. Baxter. 



Patrons who are eabscrlbers to the Kubai. Pbesb 
should pay their subBcriptions promptly In order to se- 
cure club rates. 



California State Grange. 



OFFICKR.S : 

MaMrT-3. M. HAMILTON. Gucnoc Lake Co. 
OrtrtMT-0. L. ABBOTT. Santa Barbara. 
LKlurrr—]. W. A. WRIGHT, Borden, Fresno Oo. 
.**eirard— N. L. ALLE.V. Salinas. Monterey Co. 
Aai,iiUintS(ru!nrd-Vli,l. M. JACKSON, Woodland, V'olo Co. 
'Tiapinfn— I. G. GARDNER. Gravson. 
Trtaturrr—VI . A. FISHER. Napa City, Napa Co. 
Sm-tlary-yf . H. BAXTER, 320 California street, S. F. 
Ontt Kf-Vf—R. R. WARDER, Waterford, Stanislaus Oo. 
r^ret-MRS. G. W. DA^^S, Santa Rosa. Sonoma Co. 
Pomona— MRS. 8. C. BAXTER, Nana City. Napa Co. 
Flora-MRS. R. S. HEGELER, Bodega, Sonoma Co 
La<iy AtH^iani Sifirard-Mn. S. M. GARDNER, Grayson, 
8t«niilauB Co. 

Executive Committee : 

J. M. HAMILTON, W. M., Chairman, of Guenoc, Lake Co 

1. O. OaRD.n'ER, Gravson, Stanislaus Co. 

J. C. MEKRYKIELD, biion, Solano Oo. 

U. B. JOLLY. Merced, Merced Co. 

THOS. a. GAREY, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Co. 

G. W. COLBY, Noid. Butte Co. 

A. B. NALLY', Windsor, Sonoma Oo. 



List of Organizing Deputies. 

CorNTT. Deputy. post OrricE. 

Alameda. A. T. Dewey. Oakland or San K'oo. 

Bntte. Wm. M. Thorp. Chlco. 

Bntte. G. W. Colby. Nord. 

Colasa. .1. J. Hicok. Grand Island. 

Contra Costa. R. G. Dean. Antioch. 

Lake. J. M. Hamilton. Gucnoc. 

Los Anseles. Tbos. A. Garcy. Los Angeles. 

Merced. H. B. Jollei. Merced City. 

Monterey, J. D. Fowler. Holllster. 

Napa. W. H. Baiier.lGen'l Dep.lSanFran Cisco 

Placer. A. D. Neher. Roseville. 

Sacramento. W. S.Manlove. Sacramento. 

San Francisco. I. G. Gardner. 

San Francisco. John Hegler. General Deputy. 

San Joaquin. E. B.Stlles. Ellis. 

San Luis Obispo. A. .1. Moihersead. Moro. 

San Mateo. B. V. Weeks. Pescartero. 

Santa Clara. W. O. Helming. San Jose. 

Solano. R. C. Haile. Suisun. 

Solano. J. C. Merryfield. Dixon. 

Sonoma. Geo. W. Davis. ^anta Rosa. 

Sonoma. A. B. Nally. Windsor. 

Stanislaus. J. D. Spencer. Modesto. 

Tulare. M. S. Babcock. Kingston, Fresno, Co. 

V'olo. Wm. M. Jackson. Woodland. 

Los Angeles. Thos. A. Garey. Los Anireles. 

Santa Barbara. O. L. Abbott. Ssnla Barbara, 

Ventura. Milton Wasson. Han 6uenavcntura. 

Farmers desiring to organize Granges, can apply to J. M. 
Hamilton, (W. Master), Guenoc, Lake Co. ; W . fl . Baxter, 
(W. Sec'y). 320 California St S. K. ; J. W. A. Wright. (W. 
Lecturer). Borden, Fresno Co. ; or to the nearest Deputy 

to their locality. Thos. H. .Merry. (W. Ex-Lecturer) of 
Healdsburg, is also deputized to organize Granges. 



California District and County Councils. 

ALAMEDA COUNTY COUNCIL.— Joel Russell, Hay- 
wood. Master; Thom.is Hellak, Sec y. 

LOS ANGELES A.N'D SAN BERNARDINO DISTRICT 
COUNCIL.— OfiBcers not reported. 

MO.N'TEREY AND SANTA CRUZ DISTRICT COUN- 
CIL.— J. R. Hkburos. Master; A. F. Richardson. .Sec'y. 

NAPA DISTRICT COUNCIL.-J. D, Blanchab, Master; 
H. W. Haskell, Sec'y. 

SACRAMENTO, EL DORADO AND PLACER DIS- 
TRICT COUNCIL.— Officers not reported. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY COUNCIL.~A. J. MoTH- 
ERsaE.\D. Master: J. M Mannon, Sec'y. 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY COUNiIL.-H. M. Leokard, 
.Master; I. |A. Wil/ox Sec'y. Regular Imeetings levery 
three months, alternately at Santa Clara and San Jose. 
Next meeting at Santa Clara. June Sth. 

SANTA BARBARA AND SAN LUIS OBISPO DISTRICT 
COUNCIL— OfBcers not reoorted. 

SOLANO COUNTY COUNCIU-J. B. CabrinotOS, Mas- 
ter; J. M. Jones. Sec'y. 

SONOMA COUNTY COUNCIL.- McPheesos, Master; 
J. A. O'Beiem, Sec'v. 

SOUTHERN DISTRICT COUNCIL, (Los Angeles and 
San Diego countie.sL— Officers not reported. 

STANISLAUS COUNTY COUNCIL.— J. D. Spencer, 
Master pro tem; Yital E. Bangs. Sec'y. 

TCLARE COUNTY COUNCIL.— J. M. Graves, Master; F 
L. Jefflrds. Sec'y. 

VENTUR.\ COU.N'TY COUNCIL.— Officers not reported. 

WEST SAN JOAQUIN DISTRICT COUNCIL. (Merced, 
San Joaquin and Stanislaus counties). — W. J. Miller, 
Oristimba, Master; Thomas A. Chapman, Oristimba 
Sec'v. 

California Subordinate Granges. 

(This list contains the names of Masters and Secretaries, 
so far as reported to us, elected to serve during the year 
1874. Secretaries and others will greatly oblige us by 
making needful corrections.] 

ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

CENTERVILLE GR.VNGE. Centerville. Alameda Co.: 

James shinn. Master: J. L. Beard, Sec'y. 
EDEN ORANGE. Haynard's, Alameda Co. : Thos. Hel- 

LAB, Master: Wm. Pearce. Sec'y. Agent, Geo. C. Baxter. 
LIVERMORE GRANGE, Livermorc Valley. Alameda 

Co.: Daniel INMAN. Master: i". R. Fabsktt, Sec'v. 
SUNOL GRANGE, Sunol Station, Alameda Co.; E. M. 

Cabk. Master; S. W. Millard, Secy. 
TKMEsCaL GRANGE, Oakland, Alameda Co.: F.. S. 

Carr, Master: John Collins Seo'y. 

BUTTE COUNTY. 

CHICO ORANGE, Chico, Butte Co.: W. M.Thobp, Master; 

J. W. Scott. Sec'y. Agent. W. M. Thorp. 
EVENING STAR GRANGE, Bing's Station, Butte Co.: 

E. W. 8. Woods, Master; C. F. Butleb, Seo'y. 

NORD GRANGE. P. O., Nord. Butte Co.; G. W, CoLBT, 
Master: Peter Kebns. Sec'y. 

CALAVERAS COINTV. 

CALAVERAS GRANGE, Jenny Lind, Calaveras Co.; M. 

F. Greoobt, Master; Alex. Milei^, Sec'y. 

COLUSA COUNTY. 
A.NTELOPE VALLEY GRANGE, Colusa, Colusa Co.: 

II. A. LooAN, Master: A. T. Welton, Sec'v. 
CENTRAL GRANGE, P, O,, lolusa, Colusa <"o. J. P. KlM- 

BBKLL. Master: W. tJ. SaUNDERS, Sec'y. 
COLUSA ORANGE. Colusa, ColusaCo,: W. K.Estell, 

Master; K. .k)NEs. Sec'v. 
FKKSHWATER GRANGE, P. O., Colasa, Colusa Co.: I. 

H. Durham. Master; R. A. Wilsev, Secy. 
FUNK SLOUGU GllANOE, Colusa, Colusa Oo.: E. O. 

Hunter. Master; J. o.Woolfe, Sec'y. 
GRAND ISLA.VD tiRANiiE. Svcamore P. O., Colusa Co.: 

Wm. Ogden, Master: j. H. Duffiild, Sec'y. 
NEWVILLE GRANGE, Newvillc. Colusa Co.: B. N. ScBiB- 

ner. Master: Sullivan Ashborn, Sec'y. 
PLAZA (iKANGE. Olimpo, Colasa Co.: F. C. Gbavf.8, 

Master: W. F. Green, Sec'y. 
PRINCETON GR,\^GE. Princeton. Colusa Co. ; A. D. 

LooAN, Master; K. K. Rush, Sec'y. 
SPRING VALLEY GRANOE, Sprini; Valley, Oolusa Co.: 

D. U. Abnold. Masier; L. T. Batman, Sec'y. 
UNION GRANGE, P. O., Princeton, Oolusa Cfo. : M. Davis, 

Master; Isa.\c L McDaniel. Sec'y. 
WILLOWS GRANGE. P. Oj Princeton. Colusa Co. : J. W. 

Zumwalt, Masier; UFJ3. T'. HiCKLIN, Seo'y. 

CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 

ANTIOCn GRANGE, Antioch, Contra CosU Co. : M. A. 
Walton, Master; J. D. Dabbt, Sec'y. 



DANVILLE GRANGE, Danville, Contra Costa Co. . CHAS. 

Wood, Master; JOHN B. STDNEB, Sec'y. 
POINT OF TIMBER ORANGE, Antioch P. O., Contra 

Costa Co.: R. G. Dean, Master; J. E. W. Cabet, Sec'y. 
WALNUT CREEK GRANGE, Walnut Creek, Contra 

Costa Co, : N.athaniel JONEa, Master; Wm. K. Dalt, 

Sec'y. 

EL DORADO COUNTY. 

CLARKSVILLE GRANGE, Clarksville. El Dorado Co.: 

KoBT. T. Mills, Master; I. Malley, Sec'y. 
EL DORADO GRANGE, Ki Dorailo, El Dorado Co.: C. 

G. Cabpenteb, Master; J. M B. Wkathebwax, Sec'y. 
PILOT HILL GRANGE, Pilot Hill, El Doraao Co. : P. D. 

Bbown. Master; A, J. Batlet. Sec'v. 
SUTTER MILL GRANGE, Coloma, El Dorado Co.: A. J. 

CHRisriE. Master: henbi Mahler. Sec'.v. 

FRESNO COUNTY. 

ADAMS ORANGE. Big Dry Creek, Fresno Co.: T. P. 

Nelson, Master: Thos. Wyatt, Sec'y. 

BORDEN GRANGE, Borden, Fresno Co.: J. W. A. 

Wright. Master; J. S. Pickens. Sec'y. 
FRANKLIN ORANGE, Kiniiston, Fresno Co.: Francis 

Wyrcck. Master; Peter A. Kanawyeb, Sec'y. 
FRESNO GRANGE, Fresno City: H. W. Fassett, Master; 

F. DusY, Sec'y. ,„ . „ 

GARRE'rAON GRANGE. King's River: W. J. HtrrcH- 

isON. Muster: W. W. Phillips. Sec'y. 

HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

ARC ATA GRANGE, Humlioldt Co.: H. W. ABBO- 

f.AST, Matter ; .Sec'y. 

ELK RIVER GRANGE, Eureka, Humboldt Co.: Theo- 
dore Meyer. Master; D. A. DeMerritt, Seo'y. 
FER.VDALE GRANGE. Ferndale, Humboldt Co.: F. L 

Boynton. Master: o. W. Griffith. Sec'y. 
KIrtELAITAH GRANGE. Areata, Humboldt Co ■ Lewis 

R Wood. Miister: D. D. Averill. Soc'v. 
MATTOLE GRANGE. Petrolia, Humboldt Co. : Stkphen 

<^FF. Master; D. J. Johnson, Sec'y. 
ROUNEKViLLE GRANGE, Rohnerville, Humboldt Co ■ 

B. T. JAME.SON. Masier; H. S. Case. Secretary. 
TABLE BLUFF GRANGE, Table Bluff, Humboldt Co ■ 

Jackson Sawyeb. Master ; B. H. 0. Pollabd, Sec'y. 

INYO COUNTY. 

BISHOP'S CREEK GRANGE, Bishop's Creek, Inyo Co • 
T. J. FUBBEE. Master; W. T. Wiswall, Sec'y. 

INDEPENDENCE GRANGE, Independence. Inyo Co • 
Josiah Eabl, Master; J. B. White, Sec'y. 

LONE PINE GRANGE, Lone Pine. Inyo Co.; 0. L. Jack- 
son, Master; R. A, LooMis, Sec'y. 

KERN COUNTY. 
BAKERSFIELD GRANGE, Bakersfleld, Kern Co : S 

JEWETT, Master; Jerome Troy. Secretary. 
CUMMINOS' VALLEY GRANGE. Tehaic|)ipa, Kern Co.: 

<;eo. W. Thompson. Master ; T. M. Yates, Seo'v. 
LIN.N'S VALLEY GRANGE. Glenville, Kern Co.: A. B. 

Dc Bboutz, Master; S. E. Reed, Seo'y. 
NEW RIVER GRANGE, ,P. O. BakersBeld, Kern Oo ; 

John G. Dawes, Master; Jas. Dixon, Secretary. 
PANAMA GRANGE, P. O. Bakersfleld, Kern Co.: P. D. 

RoBB. Master; J. F. Gordon, Sec'y. 
TEHAICHIPA GRANtJE. Tehalchipa, Kern Co.: John 

NORBOE. Master: James PBE8tx>TT, Sec'y. 
WElDOX grange, Wcldon, Kern Co.: R. T. Melvin, 

Master; J. T. H. Gbay. Seo'y. 

LAKE COUNTY. 
GUENOC ORANGE. Guenoc. Lake t.'o.: H. A. Oliveb, 

Master: Thos. H. McGreer, Sec'y. 
KELSEVVILLE GRANtiK, Kelseyville, Lake Co.: D. P. 

Shattui'k. Master; T. Oemston, Sec'y. 
LAKEPORT GRANGE, Lakeport, Lake Co.: 0. Cutter 

Master; N. Phelan. Sec'y; J. W. Howabd. Local Agent. 
LOWER LAKE GRANtJE, Lower Lake, Lake Co.; A. 

E. Noel. Master: Houace Stow, ,Sec'y. 

UPPER LAKE ORANGE, Upper Lake, Lake Co. : D. V. 
Thompson. Master; D. Q. Mccarty, Sec'v. 

LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 

ALLIANCE GRANGE. El Monte, Lob Angeles Co. : S, 8. 
Reeves. Master; J. W. Marshall, Secy. 

AZU.sA ORA.NGE. El Monte. Los Angeles Co.: W. W. 
Maxey. Master; J. ('. Pbeston, Sec'y. 

COMPTON GRANo;-:, Compton, Los Angeles Co: C. W. 
CoLTKEN. .Master; ,J. A. \\'ALKER. Sec'y. 

EUMONTE GK.ANGE. Los Angeles Co.: G. C. GiBBS, 
Master: P. O.. Los Angeles. J. H. tiBAr, Sec'y; P. O., 
El Monte. 

ENTERPRISE ORANGE, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Co.; 
A. M. SotTHWORTH. Master; W. T. Henderson. Sec'v. 

EUREKA (JRANGK, Spadra. Los Angeles Co.: T. O. TAN- 
NEB. Muster; Joseph Weight, Sec'y. 

FAIRVIEW GRANGE, Anaheim, Los Angeles Oo : Ed- 
ward EvEY, Master; J. M. Guinn. Sec'y. 

FLORENCE GRA.VGE, Lob Angeles Los Angeles Co.: 
Josiah Russell, Master: William Porter. Sec'y. 

FRUITLAND GRANGE, Tustin City, Los Angeles Co: 
N. O. Stafford. Master; G. L. Russell, Sec'y. 

LO-i ANGELES GRANGE, Los Angeles Co. : T. A. Gabf.y 
Master; T. D. Hancock, Sec'y. 

LOS NIETOS GRA.NOE, Los Nietos, Los Angeles Co. : j. 

F. Mabquis, Master; P. O., Los Aneeles; W. S. Beavis, 
Sec'v : P. O.. Anaheim. 

NErt' RIVER GRANGE, Los Neitos P. O.. Los Angeles 

Co.: Willis Newton, Master; S. G. Baker, Sec'v. 
ORANGE GRANGE. Ricniand, Los Angeles Co.: Joseph 

Beach, Master: I. W. Andebson, Sec'y. 
SILVER ORANGE. Los Neitos, Los Angeles Oo.: H. L. 

MoNTtioMERY. Master; W. P. McDonald, Sec'y. 
SPADRA GRANGE. Spadra, Los Angeles Co.: A. T. 

CuBRiER, Master; Jos. Wright, Sec'y. 
VINELAND GRANGE, Tustin City. Los Angeles Co.: Db. 

A. B. ilAYWoon, Master; I. S. Robinson, .sec'y. 
WESTMINISTER ORANGE, (Anaheim, P. 0.) M. B. 

Oraig. Master; Henby Stephens, Seo'y, 

MARIN COUNTY. 

NIc'ASIO GRANGE. Nicasio, Marin Co.: H. T. Taft, 

Master: J. W. NoBLK. Sec'y. 
POINT REYES GRANGE, Point Reyes, Mario Co.: 

N. H. Stinson. Master; A. U, Stinson, Sec'y. 
TIJMALES GRANGE, Tomales, Marin Co.: Wm. Van- 

DERBILT, Master; R. H. Prince, Sec'y. 

MENDOCINO COUNTY. 
CAHTO GRANGE, Cahto. Mendocino Co. : R. M. Wilson, 

Master : J. P. Simpson. 8eo>. 
LIITLE LAKE GRANGE, Little Lake, Mendocino Co.: 

B. o. Mast. Mister: W. A. Wright. Sec'v. 
MANCHESIER ORANGE, Manchester, Mendocino Co. : 

Joseph Wooden. Master: B. F. McClure, Sec'y. 
POrrKR VALLEY ORANGE, Porno, Mendocino Co.: J. 

Mewhinney. Ma.ster: Geo. B. Nichols. Sec'y. 
SANEL GRANGE. Sanel, Mendocino Co.: Alex. Mab- 

SHAM.. Master ; Jos. A. Knox, Sec'v. 
UKIaH GRANGE. Ukiah City. Mendocino Co.: W. D. 

White, Master; A. O. Cabpenteb, Sec'y. 

MERCED COUNTY. 

BADGER FLAT GRANGE. Kreyenhagen's P. O . Merced 
Co., rr.i Gilroy: A f. Merritt, Master; A. T. Fowler. 
Sec'y. Agent, W. F. Clark. 

CdTTONWOOD GRANGE, Merced Co.: J. L. Crit- 
tenden. Master: J. J. Doylf... Sec'y. Address of Mas- 
ter and Sec'y., Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co, 

HOPETON GRANtiE, Hopeton, Merced Co.: John Rud 
DLE, Master; T. Eagleson, Sec'y. 

LOS BANGS GRANGE, Kreyenhagen's P. 0., Merced Co., 
r.a Gilroy; Wm. M. Viney, Master; A. McGl.vshan, 

MERCED GRANGE. Merced, Merced Co. : W. E. Elliot, 
.Master; V. E. TiDLocK. Jr.. Sec'y. Agent, W. P. Fowler 

PLaINSBIRG ORA.VGE. Plainsburg. Merced Co.: P. Y. 
Welch. Master; J. E. Wilcox, Sec'y. 

SNELLING GRANGE, Snelling, Merced Co.: Daniel 
Yeizeb. Master; W. L. Hamlin, Sec'y. 

MONTEREY COUNTY. 
HOLLISTEH GRANGE. UoUister, Monterey Co.: H. 

PoMEROY, Master; Wm. H. Oliveb, Sec'y. J. D. Fowler, 

Local Agent. 
MORNING SrAR ORANGE. Castroville. Monterey Oo.; 

O. E. W^iLLIAMS. Master: F. Blakie. Sec'y. 
RISING STAR GRANGE, Panoohe Valley. Monterey Co. : 

c. Valpy, Master; j. W. Craycroft, Sec'y 
SALINAS GRANGE. Salinas,MontereyOo.: C. 8. ABBOTT, 

Master; W. L. Cabpe.mfji, Sec'y. Agent, W. L. Car- 

PENTEB. 

NAPA COUNTY. 
BKRRYESSA grange. Monticello, Napa Co.: J. W. 

Smittle. Master; O. Schetter, Seo'y. 
CALI^TOOA GRANGE. Calisloga. J.N. BENNETT, Master; 

L. Hopkins. Sec'y. 
NAPA GRANGE, Napa City. Napa Co.: James M.Thomp- 
son, Master; Manuel Eyre, Sec'y. 
POPE VALLEY GRANGE, Pope Valley. Napa Co.: 

J. A. Vanarsdale, Master: C. A. Booth. Sec'y. 
RUTHERKORD grange, Yountville, Napa Co.: G. S. 

BURREOE. Master; H. W. Cbabb, Seo'y. 
ST. HKLENA ORANGE, St. Helena, N»i>a Co.: J. H. 

ALLISON, Master; .1. L. Edwabds. Sec'y. 
i'OUNTVILLE (GRANGE, Yountville, Napa Co.: J. M. 

IdAYFiELD. Master; Fbank Oriffin, Sec'y. Agent, J. 

M. .MAYF1EI.C 



PLACER COUNTY. 

LINCOLN GRANGE, Lincoln, Placer Co . M. Waldbon, 

Master; J. S. Marrineb, Sec'y. 
ROSEVILLE GRANGE. Roseville, Placer Oo.: A. 

D. .N'EHB. Master: I. N Nehh. Sec'y. 

SHERIDAN (;RANGE, Sheridan, Placer Co.: O. H. LoNg, 
Master; T. . I. Lewis, Sec'y. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 

AMERICAN RIVERGRANOE, Brighton. Sacramento Co.: 

E. G. MoBTO.v. Sh., Master; i;ybU8 Wilson, Sec'v. 
COSUM.VES ORANOE. Elk Grove. Sacramento Oo.: 

James A. Elder. Master; J. H. Atkins. Sec'y. 

ELK GROVE GRANGE. Elk Grove, Sacramento Co.: 
Obadiah S. Freeman, Master: Delos Gage. Sec'y. 

ENTERPRISE GRANOE, P. O.. Brighton, Sacramento 
Co.: J. M. Hell. .Master: Morris Toomey. Sec'y. 

FLORIN GRANGE. San Joaquin Township. Sacramento 
Co.: Caleb ABNOLD.Master: Wm. Scholf.field, Sec'y. 

FRANKLIN GRANGl'^. Fi-anklin, Sacramento Co. ; Amos 
Adams. Master; P. K. Beckley. Sec'y. 

GALTGRANGE.Gnlt. Sacramento Co.: J. C, Sawter, 
Master: J. L. Fifield, Sec'y. 

GEORGIANA ORANGE, Rio Vista. Solano Oo: F. M. 
Kittiieli., Master: Geo. A. Knott, Seo'y. 

SACRAMENTO GRANGE, No. 12, Sacramento, Sacra- 
mento Co.; W. S. Manlove. Master; A. S. Greenlaw, 
Se.-y. 

SHER.MAN ISLAND GRANGE, Gmmatown, Sacra- 
mento Co. : J. M. Upuam, Master: W. .M. ROBBINS, Sec'y. 

WALNUT GROVE (iRANGE. Courtland, Sac amenlo 
Co.; Solomon Reenyon. Master; J. V. Pratheb, Sec'v. 

SAN BE.SITO COUNTY. 

MOUNTAIN (iRANGE. SanBeniioOo.: 8. KENKEDT,Mas- 
ter; J. W. Ma'JHEWs, Sec'y. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 

RIVERSIDE GRANOE, Riverside, San Bernardino Co.: 
E. o. Browne. Master; W. W. Kimball, Sec'y. 

SAN BERNARDINO GRANGE. P. O.. San Bernardino. 
San Bernardino Co.: R. Shelton, Master; I. Brood- 
hurst, Sec y. 

SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 

ATLANTA GRANGE. Morano, San Joaguin Oo. : W. J. 

Campbell. Master; Miis. J. W. MooRE, Sec'y. P. O., Mo- 
rano, San Joaquin Co. 
CASTORIA GRANiiE, Lathrop, San Joaquin Co.: H. W. 

CowELL, Master: J. Strahan, Sec'y. 
(^OLLEGEVIl.LE GRANGE, l^ollegevillc, San Joaquin 

Co.: Alex. MATBEitHV. Master; J. C. Mcintosh. Sec'y. 
ELLIOT ORANGE, t-.lliot. Sau JoacjainCo.: Henry II 

West. Master; N. 8. MisINER. !^ec y. 
KARMINGTDN GRA.NOE, Farmington San Joaquin Co.: 

J. M. Oboves. Master: fe. O. Long. Sec'y. 
GRAYSON (iKANGE. Gravson, San Joaquin Co.: T. O. 

Brown, Master: Geo. H. Copkland, Sec y, 
LIBERTY GRANtiE, Acampo, San Joaquin Co.: JUSTUS 

Schomp. Master; J. J. Kmslie. Sec'y. 
LINDEN OR.\NOE, Linden, San Joaquin Co.: JOHN 

Wabley. Master: James Wasi.ey. Sec'y. 
LOCKEFORD 0RAN(;E. Locketord, San Joaquin Co.: 

G. C. IIoLMAN. Master; SoL. S. Stewart, Seo'y. 
LODI GRANGE. Lodl. San Joaquin Co.: J. W. Keabnt, 

Master; Miit?. Nellie (;itoucH, Sec'v. 
RUSTIC GRANGE. Lathrop, San Joaquin Co.: J. A. 

Shepherd. Master; Henry Moore, Secy. 
STOCKTON tiRANoE, Stockton. San Joaquin Co.; Wm. 

L. OvEUHisER. Master; Wm. G. Phelps, Sec'y. 
WE.ll SA.V JGAtiUIN liR.ANGE, Ellis, San Joaquin Co.: 

M. Lammeus. Master: <iE(>. E. McStay, Sec'y. 
WILDWOOD GR.\NGE, Wildwood School House, San 

Joaquin Co. ; Jos. Leighton, Master: A. B. MCNsuN, 

Sec'j-. 
WOOt)BRIDGE GRANGE, Woodbridge, San Joaquin Co.: 

J. L. HCTSON, Master; A. 8. Thomas. Sec'y. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 

ARROYO GRANDE GRANGE, Arroyo Grande, San Luis 

Obispo Co.: W, H. NELSON, Master; D. F. NewsoM, 

Sec'y. 
CAMBRIA GRANOE. Cambria, San Luis Obispo Co.: 
O. H. IviNs. Master: Herbert Olmstead, Seo'y. 
MORO CITY GRANGE, Moro, San Luis Obispo Co.: A.J. 

Mothersead. Master; H. Y. Stanley, Seo'y. .Agent, A. 

J. Mothersead. 
OLD CREEK GRANGE, Old Creek, San Luis Obispo Oo. : 

Isaac Flood. Master; R. M. Preston, Sec'y. 
PASO ROBLES GRANtiE. Paso Rnbles. San Luis Obispo 

Co.: H, W. Ruyne, Master: J. P. Moody, Sec'y. 
SAN LUIS OBISPO GRANGE, San Luis Obispo, .San Luis 

Obispo Co.: Wm. Jackson, Master; E. L. Reed. Sec'y, 
SANTA MARIA ORANGE, Suey Station, San Luis Obispo 

Co.; Joel Miller, Master: M. D. .Miller Sec'y. 

SAN MATEO COUNTY. 

OCEAN VIEW GRANGE. Ocean View, San Mateo Co.: 
I. G. Knowles, Master; Edward RoBsoN, Sec'y. 

PESCADERO GRANGE. Pescadero, San Mateo Co.: B.V. 
Weeks, Master; H. B. Sprague. Sec'y. 

SAN MATEO ORANGE. .San Mateo Co.: A. F. Green, 
Masier; W. H. Lawrence, Sec'y. 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. 

CARPENTERIA GRANGE, Carpenteria, Santa Barbara 
<3o. ; O. N. Oadwell. Master; G. E. Thurmand. Sec'y. 

CONFIDENCE GRANGE, Guadaloupe, sanU Barbara 
Co.; A. COPF.L.VND. Master; J. T. Austin, Sec'y. 

SANTA BARBARA ORANGE. Santa Barbara, S. B. Co.: 
O. L. Abbott. Master; 0. Kennet. Sec'y. 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY. 

GILROY GRANGE, Gilroy, Santa Clara Co.: W. L. Ano- 

ney. Master; H. Coffin, Sec'y. 
MAYFIELD grange, MayUeld, SanU Clara Co.: F. W. 

Weisshaab. Master; Jas. M. Pitman, S'ic'y. 
SAN JUSK GRANGE, No. 10, San Jose. Santa Clara Oo : 

*M. Ebkson (P. O. Alviso), Mister; Miss Jettoea 

Watkins, Sec'y. 

San Jose Ai;ent. J. W. Hebndon. 
SANTA CLARA ORANGE, Santa Clara P. O.. SanUOlara 

Co.: H. M.Leonabd, Master; I. A. Wilcox, Sec'y. 
SARATOGA GRANGE. .Saratoga, SanUClsra Co.: Fban- 

cis Dresser. Master; Miss Jennie Fabwell, Sec'y. 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY-. 

BEN LOMOND GRANGE, Santa Cruz Co. : II. H. Buck- 
les, Mater; ('has. Cbaohill, Sec'y. 

PajaRO (tRaNGK, p. O.. Wateonville. Santa Cruz Co.: 
D. M. Clodoh, Master; G. W. Roadbouse, Sec'y ami 

SANTA CRUZ GRANGE, SanU Cruz: G. O.Wabdwell, 

Master: J. W. Moboan. Sec'y. 
WaTSONVILLE orange, WatsonTille. J. McCallam 

Master; A. F. Richabdson. Sec'y. 

SHASTA COUNTY. 

COTTONWOOD GRANGE, Cottonwood. Shasia Co. ; G. 

G. Ki.mball. Master: John Babby, Sec'y. 
REDDlNIi GRANOE. Redding, Shasta Co.: Joseph 

K. Dinsmore. Master; Samuel.!. R. Gilbert, Sec'y. 

SOLANO COUNTY. 

BINOHAMPTON GRANOB, Binghampton. 8olano Co.: 

Albert Bennett. Master: Edgar A. Bf-abdslev, Sec'y. 
DENVERTON GRANGE, Denverlon, Solano Co.: J. B. 

C.RBINOTON Master; G. O. Abnold, Sec'y. 
DI.KON GRANGE, Dixon, Solano Oo. : J. C. MRHBYriELO, 

.Master; James a. Ellis. Sec'y. 
ELMIRA GRANGE, Vaca Station, Solano Oo. ; J. A. Olabk, 

blaster ; M. D. Coopeb. Sec'y. 
MONTEZUMA CiRANOE, CoUinsvllle, Solano Co.: Thob. 

T. Hooper, Master; C. Knox Marshall, Sec'y. 
RIO VISTA GRANOE. Rio Vista. Solano Co.: A B. 

AL8IP. Ma.ster: J. H. Gardner. Sec'y. 
ROCKVILLE ORANOE Cordelia, Solano Co.: W. A. 

Lattin, Master; J. R. MORRIS. Sec'y. 
SUISUN VALLEY GRANGE. Suisun, Solano Co.: J. M. 

Lkmmon. Master: A. T. Hatch, Sec'y. 
VACAVILI.E GRANGE, Vacaville, Solano Oo.: E. R. 

Thubbcr. .Master: Oscab Dobbins. Sec'y. 
VALLhJO GRANGE. Vallejo, Solano Co. : G. O. Peabhon, 

Mister; Chas. B. Demino, Sec'y. 

SONOMA COUNTY. 

BENNETT VALLEY GRANGE, SanU Rosa. Sonoma Oo. : 

J. De Turk. Master; J. H. Planx, Sec'y. 
BLOOMFIELD GRANGE, Bloomtleld. Sonoma Co.; Wm. 

H. White. Master; A. B. ti lover, Sec'y. 
BODh,GAliRANGE,Bodeca. Sonoma Co.: E. S. Pl'RBINB 

Master; J. Wilxinsok Seo'y. 
CLOVKRDALE GRANGE. Cloverdale. Sonoma Co.; 

Chas. H. Cooley. Master: J. B. Cooley, Sec'y. 
GEYSKRVILLE GRANGE, Oeyserville. Sonoma Oo.: 

Calvin M. Boswobth. Master; R. R. Leigh. Sec'y. 
HEALDSBURG GRANGE. Healdsburg, Sonoma Co.: 

Charles Alexander, Master: Mrs. S. A. Peck, Seo'y. 
Atcnt, P. S. Peck 
PETALU.MA grange, Petaluma, Sonoma Co.: L. W. 

Walkeb, .Master; D. G. Ueald, Sec'y. Agsnt, W. M. 

Hn,L. 
SANTA ROSA GRANOE, BanU Rosa, Sonoma Oo. : Geo. 

W. Davis. Master ; J. A. Obbeen, Seo'y. 



SEBA8T0P0L ORANGE. Sobastopol. Sonoma Co. : M. 
cA'vSirf*.',???'^*.''^.''?*^'''' Pdbhinoton. Sec'y. 
S0N0.MA ORANtJE, Sonoma Co.: P. 0^8..noma, Sonoma 

Co : Wm. McP. Hill. Master; W. A. iEBBr, Seo'y- 
TWO ROCK GRANiiE. Two Rock, Sonoma Co : 8. L 

Barlow, Masier; Howard Andrews, Sec'v 
WA-TERFORD GRANGE, Waterford. Sunislaus Co.: R. 
™?;.S■^5R^-''^^'''"*'•; ^1 0. Collins. Seo'y. 
WIND.SOR ORANGE. Windsor, Sonoma Oo.: A. B. NaI/- 

TEY. Ma-ster: J. II. McClelland. Sec'v. 

STANISLAUS COUNTY. 
BONITA GRANGE Orow's Landing, SUntslans Co.: J. 

W^ Ireadwell. Master; A. B. i^book, Sec'y. 
'^S.*'^^„'^''-*19^' Westpon Precinct. SUnisIaus Co.: 

W B. Harp. Master: <'. N. Whitmore. Sec'y. 
OAK DALE GRANtiE. Oak Dale, Stanislaus Co.: A. S. 

Emery. Master: C. B. Ingalls. Sec'v. 
ORISTIMBA (iRANGE. Hill's Ferry.SUnislaas Co.: W. 
... .v?tI'''-'-"'*''"'ter; Thos. A. Chapman, Seo'y. 
SALID.\(iRANGE, No. 8. Modesto P. O., SUnislans Co.: 

B. F. Parkes. Master: A. H. Elmore. Sec'y. 
STANISLAUS ORANGE, Modesto, SUnlslaus Co.: J. D. 

Spencer, Master; Vttal E. Bangs, Sec'v. 
TURLOCK GRANGE, Turlock. SUnisIaus Co.: A. S. 

!■ ulkehth. Master; W. S. Robinson, Sec'y. 

SUTTER COUNTY. 
SOUTH SUTTER GRANUE, Pleasant Grove, Sutter Co.: 
„.,iS^'i; "OYd, Master: Alex. Donaldson, Seo'y. 
SUTTER GRA.VGE. Meridian, SutterCo.rW.^6. SMITH. 

Master: M. C. Hungerfobd. Sec'y. 
YUBA CITi'^ GRANGE. Yuba City, Sutter Co.: GEO. 

Ohiayer, Master; S. R. Chahdleb, Seo'y. 

TEHAMA COUNTY. 

FARMINGTON GRANOE. Farmington, Tehama Co.: Ad- 
dison J. LixiMls. Master; S. H. L00MI8, Sec'y. 

NEW SALE.M (iRANGE. Paskento, Tehama Oo : 
Oliveb Harris, Master; J. R Whiilock, Seo'y. 

RED BLUFF GRANGE. Red Bluff. A. H. Blodsom, 
Master; John Curtis, Sec'y. 

TULARE COUNTY. 

CHRISTMAS ORANOE, P. O., Visalia, TuUre Oo. : A. B. 
Corey. Master: W. H. Stuibt, Sec'y. 

DEEP CREEK GRANGE. Farmersville : W. G. PiQJNE- 
baker. Master: F. G. Jeffebds. Sec'y. 

LAKE GRANGE, Kingston: M. .S. Babcock, Master; K, 
J Beseiikt, Secj-. 

TULARE GRANGE, Tolsre City. Tulare Co.: D. E. Wil- 
son. Master; Victoria Wright, Sec'y, 

TULE RIVER ORANOE. Porterville. 'tulare Co.: O. A. 
Williamson. Master: N. T. Blaib. Sec. 

VISALIv GRANGE. Visalia. Tulare Co. : Wilet Wat- 
son, Master: H. G. Higbie. Seo'y. 

WOODVILLE GRANGE. Woodville, Tulare Co.; J. A. 
Sloveb, Master; J. Stewabt, Sec'y. 

TUOLUMNE COUNTY. 
SOSORA (iRANGE, Sonora. Tuolumne Co.: 8. S. ToB- 
NEB, Master; R. F. Williams, Sec'y. 

VENTURA COUNTY. 
OJAI GRANOE, San Buenaventura, Ventura Co.: C. E. 

SouLE. Master; Joseph Hobabt, Sec'y. 
PLEASANT VALLEY GR\NOE, Pleasant Valley,Ventur» 

Co.: D. Rondebush, Master: B. Bbownino, Sec'v. 
SAN PEDRO GRANOE. .-Jan Buenaventura, Venturm Co. . 

J. Y. Saviers. Master; D D DeNube, Sec'y. 
SATICOY GRANGE. P. O. San Buenaventura, Ventura 

Co.: Milton Wasson. Master; E. A. Duval. Sec'y. 
SESIPE GRANGE. Ventura Co.: S. A. Gdibebson, Mas- 
ter: Thos. Marplf.. Sec'y. 
VENTURA GRA NOE. Saa Buena Ventura. Ventura Co.: 

J. Willett. Master; Chas. S. Prebble. Sec'y. 
YOLO COUTITY. 
ANTELOPE ORANGE, W. J. Olabk, Master; 0. L. N. 

Vaoohn, Sec'y; P. O . Antelope. Yolo <'o. 
BUCKEYE GRANGE, Yolo Co.; P.O., Buckeye, Yolo Co. 

Wm. Sims, Master; L. Moody. Sec'y. 
CACHE CREKK GRANOE, Cache Creek, Yolo Oo. : D. B. 

Hurlburt. Master; L. D. Stephens, Sec'y. 
CAPAY VALLtY ORANGE. C'anay, Yolo Co.: R. K. Dab- 
by. Master: P. M. Savage. Sec y. 
DAVISVILLE GRANGE, Davisville, Yolo Co.: Chas. E. 

Gbeen, Master; John Krimmer^ Sec y. 
HUNGRY HOLLOW ORANOE, P. O., Oat Valley, Yolo 

Co. : G. L. Parker. Master ; o. O. Perkins, Sec'y. 
WE'iT (iRAFTON GRANOE. Yolo, Yolo Co.: A. W. MOB- 

ris. Master: Geo. W. Parks, Sec'y. 
Y'OLO GRANGE, Woodland, Yolo Co.: W. M. Jackbon 

Master; D. Schindler, See y. Agent. W. M. JAtntgoH. 

YUBA COUNTY. 

MARYSVILLE GRANGE. MarysvUle, Yuba Oo.: 0. G. 

Bockius, Master ; Jab. M. Cutts, Sec'y. 



Nevada Subordinate Granges. 

RENO GRANtiE. Reno, Nov.: A. J. Hatch, MasUr; R. 
H. KiNNEv. Sec'y. 

EAGLE VALLEY GRANGE. , Nev.; G. W. 

Chedig. Master: O. A. F. GILBERT, Sec y. 

CARSO.N VALLEY GRANGE. Genoa, Nev.: R. J. Liv- 
ingston. Msster: J. S. Child, Seo'y. 

WASHOE VALLEY GRANGE. Franktown, Nev.: Euas 
Owens, Master; G. D. Wintf.bs, Sec'y. 



t^4>eputies who organize new Granges are requested 
to send the list of officers, and the names of all charter 
members, with other facts of interest, for free publication 
in the Rubal Pbesk, as early as possible. 



Gbanok D1SCOS8I0S8. — The Sacramento 
Grange, at its last meeting, resolved that at its 
meetings hereafter, one of the regular orders of 
business should be the answering of pertinent 
agricultural questions, to be asked by its mem- 
bers, and the discussion of practical agricultu- 
ral, horticultural and floricultural subjects, 
that reports of these discussions might be 
handed to the press of the city for publication. 
Such are the special and legitimate objects of 
Grange discussions; and should, and no doubt 
will, be generally entered upon, so soon as the 
various Granges have got through with the bulk 
of their work of initiation,and special instruction 
in the work of the Order. These latter are 
necessary preliminaries, which must of course 
take precedence of the really educational part 
which follows. 

William Q. Phelps, Secretary of the Grange 
and agent of the Grangers' Union in Stockton, 
has been appointed Statistical Correspondent 
for San .To^qnin county, by the Department of 
Agriculture at Washington, The Department 
is appointing similar correspondents in every 
county, for the purpose of procuring more reli- 
able statistical reports than heretofore. The 
Grangers have stirred it up. 

Gbangebs' Picnics and open Harvest Feasts, 
besides being very agreeable social re-unions, 
are also agencies productive of much good in 
the opportunities they afford for the compari- 
son of experience and opinion, and the infor- 
mation which may be thus given to the out- 
side world of the advantages and benefits of the 
Grange. 

The Stanislaus Countt Council will hold a 
a session on the first Monday in July (6th), at 
Grange Hall, Modesto. 

The Los Angeles Granoebs' Stobe goes into 
operation to-day (July 4th), with a full stock 
of goods, 

The Los Angeles Distuct OotmcrL will 
meet at Anaheim on the second Tuesday of 
August. 



July 4, 1874.] 



The Grange and Politics. 

The twelfth article of the National Constitu- 
'tion of the Patrons of Husbandry forbids poli- 
tical discussion in the work of the Order, which 
is just and right, and the citizen, when he 
becomes a Patron, surrenders the right of poli- 
tical discussion in the Grange; but as a citizen, 
he surrenders no right belonging to him as such, 
and as the franchise is the highest right of the 
citizen, his becoming a Granger does not lessen 
his obligation as a citizen to see that none but 
men of honesty and capability occupy positions 
of trust and honor in the political affairs of 
State and nation, but strengthens it; and, as 
political honesty is rather the exception than 
the rule, it certainly becomes the citizen 
Granger to use all honorable means to secure 
men of unflinching integrity to fill the positions 
of honor and trust, and how is he to accomplish 
it without participating in politics? 

We can see but two ways of remedying 
the political evils which are grinding us as be- 
tween the upper and nether millstone, the first 
-of which is for the Granger to see that none 
but good men are nominated by the party to 
Tvhich he belongs; and to do that he must be 
TBfide awake, for the political parties of this 
•country are run by rings and cliques who look 
■only to their own self-aggrandizement, and 
■think that the men whose strong arms and 
ferave hearts have taken this country from the 
•wilderness and made it to blossom as the rose, 
sre so tied down by party tyranny that they 
will vote for any man that they may nominate. 
Such has been the case in the past, but the day 
is dawning, when party nominations and party 
resolutions will avail but little; when the 
citizen, be he Granger or not, will look to his 
own interest, and see that a good, moral char- 
acter is a better recommendation for office than 
party platforms or party resolutions. The 
second way, if there is no redress from parties 
as now run, if they cannot be cleansed, is for 
the citizens to rise in their majesty, lay pre- 
judice aside, and tell the old political hacks 
and wire pullers to stand aside, that they have 
interests in this country, and they must be 
seen to, and as the parties have failed, in the 
future the people will do it themselves. — In- 
Hkina Farmer. 

Further in reference to the above, and con- 
trary to the usual course of journals not 
tn the interest of the Order, which either 
bold that the Grange is actually political in its 
■character, or should or will become so, the 
New York Tribu7ie uses, editorially, the follow- 
ling truthful and sensible language: "The 
ifarmers have not sacrificed their independence 
'by entering the Grange, and they have shown 
ithvrs far a most sensible resolution to keep the 
'Or^er entirely free from political embarrasn- 
>s»ents. Wherever an attempt has been made 
•inder the impulse of local excitement to drag 
the Grange into the political arena, the result 
has shown that the members, as a body, were 
opposed to any such prostitution of their 
original purpose, and that a perseverance in 
the attempt would break up the association. 
We believe the farmers' movement is capable 
of accomplishing great good by infusing a new 
and wholesome element into politics, giving 
the people a more direct control over the nomi- 
nating conventions, and rousing the honest, 
hard-working multitude to the necessity of 
watching more carefully the characters of pub- 
Bic men, and voting only for those who cannot 
be bought, whether they spell their Kepub- 
licanism with a big K or a small one. But, of 
course, the moment the farmers' clubs attach 
ithemselves to one or the other of the rival fac- 
tions in politics, they announce their own des- 
ttruction. They become absorbed in the party, 
-are swept along by it and never again ccme to 
the surface. The Grange seems to recognize 
tthis truth, and we see in it therefore, abundant 
-vitality and the promise of boundless useful- 
mess." 

It should be generally understood that the 
^reports we hear from the Western States, of the 
Grangers taking an active interest in political 
nominations, etc., are all false. Such state- 
ments are concocted and set on foot by the 
enemies of the Order, hoping thus to distract 
and divide its councils. As a general thing 
this trick is well understood by members of the 
Order, who simply laugh at the ignorance or 
wickedness of that portion of the press which 
indulges in this harmless piece of political 
ariekery. 

Eeabing and Heabing.— There is no doubt 
Ibut that reading and close study gives the most 
ithorongh knowledge of any subject. But there 
are many who have not accustomed themselves 
ito reading and study, or who have not had the 
•opportunity in the possession of books or news- 
papers to do so, and who are compelled to de- 
pend, for their general information, upon cas- 
ual speakers. This is true of every class of in- 
formation, whether in the sciences, in politics, 
in religion, in mechanics, agriculture, etc. 
Moreover, those who begin to hear, aud con- 
tinue in that, are finally stimulated to read and 
i!»tudy. For farmers the Grange and the Club 
Are most efficient means for thus securing the 
necessary interest in the former, whereby the 
proper stimulus may be engendered for the 
more perfect work of the latter. 



A Model Report. 



Fixing theib own Prices.— The Mendocino 
Grangers have established the price of hay at 
$7 per tpn in the field, or $10 per ton delivered 
to any part of the valley. 



Editors Press: — The enclosed is such a 
model report from one of my Deputies, and 
contains so much information that will be of 
interest to Patrons generally, that I send it to 
you for publication. J. M. Hamilton. 

Bbo. J. M. Hamilton, W. M. State Grange: 
I have the houor to report the condition of the 
Granges in Jmy district, all of which were 
lately visited by me. I deemed it necessary 
that the Granges of my jurisdiction should be 
put in possession of the new A. P. W. Have 
visited Geyserville and Cloverdale Granges; 
both are working in harmony and efficiently; 
but are growing only slowly, and not making 
the progress that they should make. 

Ukiah Grange, organized by me in Novem- 
ber last, is doing good work; has about 70 
members. Find Bro. White, W. M., compe- 
tent and faithful in the discharge of his duties, 
as are also the other officers. They all seem 
earnest in the determination to carry out the 
objects of our organization. 

Potter Valley Grange was next visited. 
The growth of this Grange has been remarka- 
ble, numbering now about 180 members. It 
has absorbed nearly all the available material 
in the valley. Bro. Mewhinney has been very 
energetic and faithful in his duties as Master, 
has devoted most of his time to the Grange, 
and has a Grange that he may well feel proud 
of. I regret that the location of their new hall 
has caused a split in their Grange. There are 
two rival towns in the valley; each has its 
friends and champions; a vote was taken, re- 
sulting in 18 majority for Centerville. Now 
the defeated party desires to withdraw and or- 
ganize a new Grange at their end of the valley. 
The Grange is large and cumbersome, and if 
they cannot agree as a whole, it would be better 
if another Grange was organized, and an equal 
division of the property made. 

Little Lake Grange, Bro. B. G. Mast, Mas- 
ter, organized by me last winter. I now find it 
in good working order, growing slowly but 
surely; are going to build a hall. They have 
about 60 members, all zealous in the cause, and 
much pleased with the Grange. Passing to 
Humboldt county I first visited 

EoHNERViLLE Grange. — This Grange has la- 
bored under great disadvantages. Bro. Jame- 
son, M., has been afflicted nigh unto death 
with consumption, and been compelled to seek 
a milder climate; consequently, all the work 
has fiillen upon Bro. H. S. Case, W. O. How 
faithfully he has discharged his duties you may 
judge. The Grange has 90 members, well 
vt-rsed in our work and enthusiastic in our 
cause ; is in every respect prosperous and har- 
monious. Next visited 

Ferndale Grange, Bro. F. L. Boyuton, W. 
M. This is the banner Grange of Humboldt; has 
HO members, and many more seeking admisi- 
sion. Bro. BojTiton very properly prefers to 
go slowly and surely; small classes are better 
and more thoroughly instructed than large 
ones. I find this Grange in splendid working 
order. Bro. Boynton is very efficient and 
earnest. All the members vie with each other 
to make their meetings pleasant and instructive, 
and perfect harmony prevails. This Grange is 
second to none in the Stale. 

Table Blutf Grange, Bro. Jackson Sawytr, 
W. M. This Grange is prosperous and efficient 
in the work; has about 70 members. Much 
good feeling prevails, though they have sev- 
eral elements to harmonize. The officers and 
members take much interest in our work, and 
have used the Grange organization to their 
benefit through the agencies. 

Elk River Grange, Bro. T. Meyer, W. M. 
For a live Grange, where the social features of 
the Order are fully cultivated, commend me to 
this one. Though small in numbers, they more 
than make up by the efficiency, earnestness 
and good feeling which prevail among the 
members. They meet to wo-k and have a 
jolly good time, and have it. 

Arcata Grange, Bro. L. K. Wood, W. M. 
This fine Grange numbers about 90 members, 
intelligent and earnest men and women. Bro. 
Wood has devoted much of his time to his 
Grange; they are prosperous and efficient. I 
regret to learn that good feeling does not pre- 
vail between the W. M. and a few of the mem- 
bers. Bro. Wood has resigned his position as 
M., and Bro. H. W. Arbogast has been elected 
to succeed him. I sincerely hope that harmony 
and good feeling may exist in this Grange, as 
it can be made one of the best in the State. 

On the whole, I find my Granges working 
well, and I feel justly proud of them. Some 
little mistakes needed correcling, of course; 
but I took pains to instruct them thoroughly 
on this visit, and I predict that from now on 
they will go ou smoothly and correctly doing 
their work. The new A. P. M. was given to 
all, and the secret work of the Order practiced. 
I was everywhere received with the utmost cor- 
diality and kindness, and treated with the ut- 
most consideration. 

On my way home I visited Mattole valley, 
Humboldt county, where I organized Mattole 
Grange with 30 charter members. Stephen Goff, 
M., and D. J. Johnson, Sec'y. P.O. address 
Petrolia, Humboldt county. 

I also organized on June 1st Cahto Grange, 
with 30 charter members. E. M. Wilson, M. ; 
J. P. Simpson, Sec'y. P.O., Cahto, Mendocino 
county. 

1 also organized on the .5th, Sanel Grange, 
with 27 charter member.^, Alex. Marshall, M.; 
J. A. Knox, Sec'y. P.O., Snnel, Mendocino 
county. 
^ I arrived home Junp 6th, having lectured 



eleven times, visited ten Granges and organized 
three new ones; traveled 510 miles on horse- 
back, part of the time in rain and snow, over 
high mountains and fording deep streams, and 
finally reached home tired and well nigh worn 
out, having devoted five weeks of my time to 
the advancement of our cause, at the expense 
of my own personal interests. And now. 
Worthy Master, I feel that I hive faithfully 
discharged my duties as a Deputy and a Pa- 
tron. All the Granges in my district have been 
organized by myself, aud I think that I have 
just cause to be proud of them. I was asked 
to visit Upper Lake Grange, while in Potter 
valley, being informed that they are working in 
a very loose and improper manner. Being in 
your county and organized by yourself and out 
of my district, I thought that I would not in- 
terfere, except at your request. 

From nearly all parts of the State I hear the 
same complaint— the Granges are not working 
uniformly, and I think that measures should be 
taken to correct their errors. I regret that you 
did not return in time to meet with us in the 
late State Council, as that would have been a 
good opportunity to have given us the changes 
made in our secret work, which I hear were 
made at the late meeting of the National 
Grange. Were the changes made important? 
When will we get them? Will be down to the 
fruit growers' Grange convention. We rejoice 
to hear of your safe return to our midst and 
sincerely hope you enjoyed your visit. Sister 
M. joins me in kind regards, hoping soon to 
have the pleasure of hearing from you. I 
remain. Yours fraternally, T. H. Merry. 

Healdsburg, Sonoma Co , June 8, 1874. 



From the Granges. 

LrvEBMORE Grange had a very pleasant time 
at its Harvest Feast to-day. Worthy Master 
Hamilton was present and conferred the Fourth 
Degree upon a class of 20. We had visitors 
from all the Granges in the county. Modesty 
forbids me from praising our dinner, but I am 



sure that all present will bear testimony that it 
was a good one, and one in every respect worthy 
to be called a "Grangers' Harvest Feast." Our 
Grange is prospering finely. It now numbers 
106 members, embracing nearly all of onr sub- 
stantial farmers. We have organized a Farmers' 
Union, and shall incorporate as soon as sufficient 
stock is taken to warrant it a success. 

F. R, Fassett, Sec'y. 
Livermore, June 27, 1874. 

Table Bluff Grange, Humboldt Co. — This 
Grange is in a very flourishing condition, num- 
bering 60 in full membership, and still they 
knock at the gate. The Fourth Degree was 
lately conferred on a class of 19, and their sec- 
ond Harvest Feast was held, which produced the 
finest display of everything that was good to 
eat, and tbe most sociability and enjoyment, in 
trying to get away with a portion of the good 
things prepared by our sisters, that ever was 
produced on Table Bluflf. After doing justice 
to the dinner, tbe company listened to a vei-y 
able and appropriate address, delivered by I.G. 
Swinnertou, Esq., for which he received a 
unanimous vote of thanks in return, and every- 
body went home rejoicing. 

Santa Cruz Grange held its regular degree 
meeting on the 27th ult., and conferred the 
fourth degree on a class of 16 members, after 
which the usual harvest home feast took place. 
The Grange has concluded (on account of 
distance) not to accept the invitation of Wat- 
sonville Grange, lo visit them and participate 
in the Fourth of July celebration. It is, how- 
ever, in contemplation to have a Grange cele- 
bration in a grove on the second plateau, near 
the residence of Paul Sweet. Over 50 Grangers, 
with their families, will participate. 

Badger Flat Grange, Mebced County. — 
Since the resignation of Worthy Master W. W. 
Parlin, of Badger Flat Grange, A. P. Merritt 
has been elected aud installed Worthy Master, 
and A. T. Fowler as Secretary. Our Grange is 
moving slow but sure; being very busy with 
harvest labor, our attendance is not large, but 
all are working with vigor for the good of the 
cause. The crops are promising a bountiful 
yield on land that has been irrigated. 

A. T. Fowler, Sec'y. 
Los Baaos, June 22d, 1874. 
Sutter Grange, at Meridian, Sutter Co., 
will hold a Fourth of July celebration in one of 
the pleasant groves near that town. They in- 
vite the neighboring Granges to join with them, 
as well as all friends of the Grange. The loca- 
tion is a very pleasant one, on the bank of the 
Sacramento river. We can assure the stranger 
that the hospitality of the people in that sec- 
tion is unrivaled. 

The Yuba City Grange, which now numbers 
140 members, before the year closes is expected 
to number 200 strong. The farmers are fast 
seeing it is to their interest to join, in spite of 
the discouragement poured into their ears by 
the enemies of the Order. 

The Petaluma Grange will celebrate the 
fourth (to-day), by a dinner at their hall, and 
a public oration at the Petaluma theater. Bro. 
J. W. A. Wright, Lecturer of the State Grange, 
we believe, is the orator selected for the occas- 
ion. 

Walnut Creek Grange Harvest Feast.— 
We predict that a very pleasant and profitable 
season will be enjoyed by the members of this 
Grange and their guests, on the 4th. Dr. E. S. 
Carr will deliver the address. 

Temescal (Jbange holds its next hai-vest feast 
in Oakland, on Saturday, July Hth, tho an- 
niversary of its organization. 



New Granges. 

Independence Grange, Independence, Inyo 
County, was organized Jane 20th, by Deputy 
T. W. A. Wright, with 30 charter members. 
Josiah Earl was chosen Master, and J. B.White, 
Secretary. 

Bishop's Creek Grange, Bishop's Creek, 
Inyo Co., was organized June 22d, by Deputy 
J. W. A. Wright, with 30 charter members. T. 
J. Furbee, Master; W. T. Wiswall, Secretary. 

Lone Pine Grange, Lone Pine, Inyo Co., 
was organized by Deputy J. W. A. Wright, 
with 19 charter members. C. L. Jackson, Mas- 
ter; R. A. Loomis, Secretary. 

Weldon Grange, Weldon, Kern County., 
was organized June 25th, by Deputy J. W. A. 
Wright, with 25 charter members. R. T. Mel- 
vin, Master; J. T. H. Gray, Secretary. 

Tehaichipa Grange, Tehaichipa, Kern Co., 
was organized June 27th, by Deputy J. W. A. 
Wright, with 30 charter members. John Nor- 
boe. Master; James Prescott, Secretary. 

CuMMiNGs' Valley Grange, Tehaichipa, 
Kern County, was organized June 29th, by 
Deputy J. W. A. Wright, with 30 charter mem- 
bers. George W. Thompson, Master; T. M. 
Yates, Secretary. 

Brother Wright, in communicating the above, 
adds as follows : 

I wish I had time to write you something of 
this region of our highest mountains, their 
peaks, covered with perpetual snow, and an 
otherwise desert country, where the average 
rain-fall is less than three inches a year, made in 
places a garden-spot by irrigation from the un- 
failing mountain streams. 

Owen's valley is peopled with many good, 
earnest, industrious farmers, as well as miners, 
and has a bright future in store, 

I find Tehaichipa valley a beautiful country, 
which, with three closely adjicent valleys, 
Brite's, Cummings' and Bear valleys, in- 
cludes more than 100 thrifty farmers. 

These valleys are 4,000 feet above sea level, 
and the greater part of their land well wooded 
with oaks. Tehaichipa is the Indian name for 
"Valley of Oaks," and like most Indian selec- 
tions expresses well the nature and features of 
the country. 

All the people of these valleys that I had 
the pleasure of meeting are earnest friends of 
the Grange, as is indicated by 60 of them en- 
tering our Order at its very advent among 
them. 

Bishop CREfcK Grange, Into County, was 
organized June 22d, by General Deputy J. W. A. 
Wright, with a full list of charter members and 
the following list of officers: T. J. Furber, M.; 
J. L. Garretson, O.; B. H. Roberts, L.; John 
Clark, C; Jas. W. Inman, S.; Andrew Dell, 
A. S ; E. D. Powers, T.; W. T. Wiswall, Sec'y; 
D. Watson, G. K.; Mrs. M. A. Clark, Ceres; 
Mrs. A. Powers,Pomona;Mrs. A. R. McLarran, 
Flora; Mrs.'M. Inmun, L. A. S. Brother Wis- 
wall, Secretary elect, in furnishing the above, de- 
sires to return the thanks of the entire Grange 
to Brother Wright for the prompt end cour- 
teous manner in which, under many difficulties 
and misunderstandings, the organization was 
effected. 



A Valuable Grass. — The Visalia Delta of 
June 25th says: We have frequently had our 
our attention drawn to a new species of grass 
which may be seen covering the sidewalks and 
banks of the ditch on Acquia street, between 
Court and church, in this town. In appear- 
ance it is somewhat like our salt grass, but 
seems to be more hardy, and seems to be push- 
ing its way into the middle of the street, in de- 
fiance of all passers. Its sweetness seems to 
render it particularly valuable in this country 
for dairying, as it will undoubtedly stand more 
drouth than any other grass known to this 
climate. On inquiry we find it was introduced 
here by Captain Joseph Thomas, and was 
brought, we believe, from Georgia. This grass 
is said to flourish in South Carolina, where it 
becomes a great nuisance, on account of the 
difficulty in killing it. It evidently endures 
more drouth than any other grass we have, and 
would be valuable for dooryards as well as dry 
pastures. 

Storm at Calistoga. — A heavy rain storm 
prevailed at Calistoga, June 7th, for twenty- 
four hours, clearing off the following morning. 
The miners working on the 200-foot level of the 
Calistoga silver mine were compelled ijj suspend 
work on that level temporarily, on account of 
the flow of water from this storm. The road 
to Clear Lake is very badly washed, but travel 
will not be interrupted. About 500 tons of new 
hay in the fields was spoiled by the rain. Dur- 
ing the storm a peddler's wagon containing two 
men was capsized on the St. Helena mountain 
road, and precipitated down a cliff sixty feet 
into the caiion. The team was wrecked, and 
one of the men, named Kingford, had his 
shoulder-blade broken. The other man escaped 
miraculously, with several severe bruises. A 
broken rein caused the mishap. 



A Nevada man is putting considerable mo- 
ney into circulation in Union, Oregon, in pay- 
ment for large droves of cattle and hogs wnioh 
he is buying^ 

Berbyessa, Napa county, demands 100 har- 
vest hands to assist in getting in her abundant 
harvest. 



[July 4, 1874- 




No Time Like the Old Time. 



IBy O. W. Houmes.] 
There is no time like the old time, 

When you snd I were young, 
When the buds of April blossomed. 

And the birds of spring time sung ! 
The garden's brightest glories 

By*Rummer suns are nursed. 
But oh the sweet, sweet violets. 

The flowers that open first ! 

There is no place like the old place. 

Where you and I were born, 
Where we lifted first our eye-lids 

On the splendors of the mom. 
From the milk-white breast that warmed us, 

From the clinging arms that bore. 
Where the dear eyes glistened o'er us. 

That will look on us no more ! 

There is no friend like the old friend 

That has shared our morning days. 
No greeting like his welcome, 

No homage like his i>raisc; 
Fame Is the scentless sunflower. 

With gaudy crown of gold; 
But friendship is the breathing rose, 

With sweets in every fold. 

There is no love like the old love 

That wo courted in our pride; 
Though otir leaves are falling, falling. 

And we're fading side by side. 
There are blossoms all around us. 

With the colors of our dawn. 
And we live iu borrowed sunshine. 

When the light of day is gone. 

There are no times like the old times — 

They shall never bo forgot ! 
There is no place like the old place — 

Keep green the dear old spot ! 
There are no friends like our old friends — 

May Heaven prolong their lives ! 
There are no loves like our old loves — 

God bless our loving wives ! 



Pen and Pencil Marks on the Road. 

[Wrlttea for the Pbebs by Mbs. Eliza E. Anthonx.1 
About B week ago, ruy protector (who is so 
extremely modest that I dare not publish his 
name ) and I, started on a short visit to San 
Francisco. I suppose you will exclaim, 
"Humph ! I'm sure that is no groat journey to 
write about. I go there every week or two, and 
never saw anything worth writing of yet." 
Not so fast, my friend ; perhap.s you do not 
use your eyes and ears, but busy yourself in a 
novel until you reach your destination; and if 
any reader finds one glaiu of information 
amidst this chaff, I for one, shall be satisfied. 
But to go back where I started from. It was 
a lovely morning when the cars glided out of 
the depot, and with a whistle of defiance 
dashed through the open country, past farms 
and farm houses. There are thirteen stations 
between San Jose and San Francisco. Menlo 
Park, the fifth station, is a lovely place, re- 
minding one of the oak-studded parks of old 
England. Northeast of San Mateo, San Fran- 
cisco Bay glistens like a sheet of silver under 
the sun'.) fierce rays. 

About two seats in front of your correspond- 
ent, there was a lovely brunette, essaying a 
handkerchief flirtation with a young man, on 
whose chin the down of manhood was just 
showing itself; the last I saw of them, he was 
very close to her of the brunette style, and 
both eating candy from the same paper. A 
couple of gentlemen behind me were discuss- 
ing as to whether girls should be housekeepers 
or teachers. One said, that American girls 
are, as a general rule, averse to house-keeping, 
and prefer to rush out into the world, expect- 
ing to find more excitement;, and that his opin- 
ion was that girls should learn house-keeping, 
et3., instead of following men's occupations 
His companion mentioned a family in San 
Francisco, who shall be nameless, there being 
three girls, the oldest twenty-five, the young- 
est twenty-one, who had been teaching several 
years, and who could have been married well, 
but they were so fastidious, that no one would 
•suit them, unless he wtre rich, of good family 
&nd fashionable -his good qualities were an af- 
ter-consideration. Here the train stopped, and 
every one rushed out, as if they hadn't all day 
before them; and we followed the crowd. 

I will pass over my delightful visit, the kind- 
ness of 'the editors of the Kdeal Peess, 
Golden Era, New Aye, Chronide and 
Call. Alter visiting everything of interest, 
we started for home the third day on 
the steamer "Ketorm," and were agreeably dis- 
appointed, going on board, to find a very com- 
fortable vessel; but as I have no particular 
fondness for the "briny deep,'" you cannot ex- 
pect a rapturous effusion. The fare is one do'- 
lar to San Jose or Santa Clara; and people 
kept coming, until there were exactly twenty- 
six passengers on board. Ten o'clock on the 
instant, we start; the plank is drawn off; one 
twelve-year-old girl is sobbing because she 
could not take a fat little poodle; but papa was 
inexorable, and Poodle was hustled ashore. 
We were soon gUding smoothly along, leaving 
a train of foamy water behind, and every turn 
of the wheel seems like the heart-beat of 
some huge animal. At first, the passengers 
were very reserved, taking a mental estimate of 



each other from head to foot, but before din- 
ner wore chatting quite.gaily. On entering the 
pilot-room, Milbrae, the beautiful residence of 
D. O. Mills, was pointed out to me, bytJap- 
tain Nelson, who loaned me his powerful glass, 
to view it the more distinctly, while the pilot 
stood immovable at his wheel. How little 
we think of the responsibility and absolute 
power of the man at the wheel, who has in hi.s 
hands life or death ! We passed three sign- 
boards about two miles from shore, which 
served to warn vessels off the shallow water; 
it being only from four to six feet deep. Ked- 
wood City, embowered in trees, could be dimly 
seen in the distance; and the back-ground of 
rolling green hills, served to enchanco the 
beauty of the scene. I was wishing for an ad- 
venture, as we wound slowly along the narrow, 
tortuous channel, and when about a hundred 
yards from the wharf, it came. The vessel was 
fast in the mud ! The bow of the vessel 
was embedded in the mud on one side of the 
channel, and the stern was high and almost dry 
on the other. Truly a pretty predicament ! As 
there was no danger, it was amusing to watch the 
passengers. One fine lady declared that the 
vessel would upset or blow up, and her hus- 
band WHS alternately fanning and soothing her; 
while another drew out her handkerchief, and 
actually shed about two tears, then seeing that 
she did not cause any commotion, forgot her 
tears, and began asking questions: "If we 
would ever get out, if there was any danger ? 
etc." The sailors took a twist around thestern 
of the vessel with one end of a huge rope, and 
then jumping ashore, made the other end fast 
around a post, which was there for that pur- 
pose; then commenced hauling in — and such a 
"Yo heave oh," and a "Bear away" you never 
heard. Snap, broke the rope, and the whole 
performance had to be gone through with 
again; and to cut a long story short, in thirty- 
five minutes the vessel swung around, and 
we soon landed, and in about an hour had 
traveled the nine miles from .iVlviso, and the 
gentlemanly driver, Mr. Carter, set us down at 
"Home, Sweet Home." 
San Jose, June 19, 1874. 

A Mathematical pekson writes to one of 
the papers to say that if "Columbus, when he 
first came to America, had put away one cent 
and not disturbed it until to-day it would have 
amounted to the sum of $607,089,909 76." If 
this is true it is a great pity the idea never oc- 
curred to Columbus. He might have had a nice 
little fortune to comfort him in his old age. 
But is it true? That depends, of course, upon 
where he would have put it. Old Starbuckle, 
of Berks county, Penn., several years ago read 
iu an almanac that money would double itself 
by compound in eleven years if it were put 
awa> and left untouched. Accordingly, Star- 
buckle ptrt $900 in a tin box and buried it in 
his cellar. He permitted it to remain there for 
eleven years, and then dug it out with the con- 
fident expectation that the amount in the box 
would be $1,800. But it wasn't, and Mr. Star- 
buckle now only considers the science of arith- 
metic a transparent fraud, but he don't repose 
any confidence in the almanac when it says 
Sunday comes on the first day of the week." 
Max Adeler is responsible for the corespondent, 
and then gives his own experience, as follows: 

"I went into a Philadelphia bookstore the 
other day, for the purpose of procuiina a copy 
of Christopher North's well-known "Noctes 
Ambrosiarae." The first person I encountered 
was a red-haired clerk, to whom I said: 

" 'Have you "Noctes Ambrosiana? V' 

" ' Wh-wh-wh-what d'you say ? ' he asked, 
with mouth and eyes wide open. 

" ' I called to ascertain if you have Noctes 
Ambrosianse ? ' 

" 'I don't exactly — that is, I don't under — 
knocked his— what d'you say ?' 

"'I say that I uuderstood that you had 
" Noctes Ambrosianai." If you haven't, why 
don't yon say so at once ? ' 

" ' I don't know what yon mean, I never did 
such a thing in my hfe." 

" 'Perhaps you don't understand me. I wish 
to see if you have "Noctes Anibrosianaj." ' 

"'Oh, he has, has he? He's knocked his 
what do you call it, has ho? Well, I don't care 
a cent if he has. You've come to the wrong 
shop. You must be crazy. Your mind seems 
to bo unhinged; you haven't — ' (breaking off 
suddenly and addressing a clerk in the rear of 
the store.) 'Say, Bill, here's a feller that's 
fooliu' around here wantin' to knock somebody. 
Get a policeman quick.' 

"Then I left and hunted up another empo- 
rium of learning." 

A Geobgiam negro was riding a mule, and 
when he came to a bridge the mule stopped. 
"I'll bet you a quarter," said Sambo, "I'll 
make V on go over dis bridge," and with that 
struck the mule over the head, which made him 
bob suddenly. "You take debet, den?" said 
the negro, and contrived to get the mule over 
the bridge, "I won dat quarter, anyhow, 
cried Sambo. "But how will you get the 
money ?" asked a man who had been close by 
unperoeived. "To-morrow," replied Sambo, 
"massa gib me a dollar to get corn for the 
mule, and I take the quarter out." 

"William," said one Quaker to another, 
"thee knows I never call anybody names; but, 
William, if the Governor of the State should 
come to me and say, 'Joshua, I want thee to find 
me the biggest liar in the State of New York,' I 
would come to thee and say, 'William, the Gov- 
ernor wants to see thee very particularly.'" 

Haste makes work, which caution prevents. 



A Woman at the Bottom of It- 



"To tell the truth," said John Haviland, as 
he threw aside his evening paper and faced the 
little group in the parlor, "I am fast growing 
out of patience with this text, 'A woman at 
the bottom of it.' It would be strange iu this 
world, made up as far as we are aware, of noth- 
ing but the two sexes, if a woman should not 
occasionallj' be found at the bottom of any- 
thing good! It is the injustice of the thing 
that makes me angry. For there are hundreds 
of us poor fellows who owe all we are, all we 
have, and all we can hope to become in this 
world or the next, to the unselfish love of wo- 
man." 

The gentleman's face was flushed, and he 
spoke very warmly and feelingly, — so much so 
that his wife, rocking her baby to sleep in the 
farther corner of the room, inquired: "But 
why should you care, John? It always has 
been so and always will be so. We don't think 
much about it now, because we have been 
taught to expect it." 

' 'But you should care! and yon should fight 
for each other more than you do. There is one 
chapter in my life's history that I have always 
kept locked in my heart ; but to-night I feel 
as if it were my duty to open it for your inspec- 
tion; and I do it for the love of woman— for 
the love of one woman who made me what I 
am worthy to be — the husband of a good wo- 
man." 

"Why, John." said Mrs. Haviland, softly ap- 
proaching — baby still held tightly to her bosom 
— "you absolutely frighten me." 

" Let's have the story," said the rest of the 
group, certain that something good might be 
anticipated; and John commenced at first a 
little timidly, but gaining confidence as he pro- 
ceeded. 

"When first I came to New York at the age 
of 12 years to seek my fortune, I could call my- 
self a precocious chap without danger of being 
accused of an unusual degree of self-apprecia- 
tion. I was quick to learn everything, the bad 
as well as the good. My employer used profane 
language. I picked up the oaths he dropped 
with a naturalness th.'it surprised even myself. 
The boys in the office all chewed tobacco. 
This was a little the hardest job I ever attempt- 
ed; but after two weeks of nausea and indescrib- 
able stomach wrenches I came off victorious, 
and could get away with my paper a day with 
the best of 'em. 

"True, every word of it," continued the 
spenker. 

"One aftfrnoon I w.is sent with a note from 
my employer to the upper part of the city. I 
hadn't anything to read, but I had plenty of 
tobacco, and with that I proposed to entertain 
myself during the two or three hours I must 
spend in the passage. For some distance I did 
not notice who were beside me, but by-and-by 
a lady said very softly and pleasantlj', 'Would 
you please, little boy, be more careful ? I am 
going to a party this afternoon, and I should 
hate to have my dress spoiled.' 

" I looked into her face. It was the sweetest 
face I ever saw. Pale, earnest and loving, to 
my boyish heart it was the countenance of an 
angel." 

" 'What in the world did yoirsay? ' interrupt- 
ed Mrs. Haviland, her bright eyeS filling with 
tears as she saw how the memory of the beau- 
tiful woman affected her husband. 

"Say! There was little I could say. I think 
all I did for some time was to look. I managed 
to dispose of my tobacco however, and wiped 
my mouth very carefully, all of which I felt 
certain she saw and commented upon. 

" 'Have you a mother, little boy? ' she next 
asked, in the same low tone. 

"'No ma'am,' I answered, and I felt my 
throat filling up, and I knew I must swallow 
mighty fast to keep from sobbing. 

" ' You have a father, then, I suppose? ' she 
kept on. 

" 'No ma'am, no father.' 
" ' Brothers and sisters? ' 
" 'Neither, ma'am.' 

" ' Then the little boy is all alone in the 
world? ' 

" ' All alone, ma'am.' 

" ' How long has his mother been dead? 'and 
the dear woman looked away from my face and 
waited till I could speak. 
" ' Two years,' 1 answered. 
" ' And you loved her? ' came next. 
" ' Dearly,' was all I could say. 
"She was silent for a moment, aud then said 
so sweetly — oh! I shall never forget it — 

" ' And what do you think your dear mother 
would say — how do you think she would feel — 
to know that her little boy was guilty of such a 
disgusting habit as this? ' pointing to my 
cheek where the tell-tale quid had vainly tried 
to stand its ground. 

"'I must leave now,' she continued, 'but 
here is my card, and if you come to see me 
most any evening I shall be glad to see you, 
and perhaps we can be of service to each other. 
"She gave me her little gloved hand, and to 
my dying day I shall never forget the sensation 
of that moment. I could not bear to part with 
her; without her I felt that I could do nothing; 
with her I could grow to man's estate — a man 
in the truest sense of the word. From that 
moment tobacco never passed my lips. 

"As soon as I could summon courage I called 
upon that lady. Well do I remember how my 
heart beat as I waited in the elegant parlor for 
her to come down, and how awkward I felt as I 
followed my guide to her private sitting room. 
Here she got at everj' point of my life, aud be- 
fore I bade her pood-bye it was arranged that I 
should spend two evenings of each week at her 



house and study on these occasions just what 
she thought best. 

"No lover ever looked forward to the meet- 
ings with the mistress of his heart any more 
ardently then I did to these meetings with my 
friend. 

"I grew careful of my personal appearance, 
careful of my conversation, and strove in eveiy 
way to be worthy of this noble friendship. 
Two years passed in this delightful manner — 
two years that made me. My friend not only 
attended to my studies, striving also all the 
while to sow the right kind of spiritual seed, 
but she procured me a business situation with 
a particular friend of hers, where I remain to 
this day. Nobody but God knows what I owe 
this woman. During the last throe months of 
those two years I noticed that she grew con- 
stantly pale aiil thin. She never was betrayed 
into speaking of herself. Sometimes when 1 
asked her if she felt worse than usual she 
would reply: 

" 'Oh, no! I amonly a little tired— that is all.' 

"One evening she kept me by her sofa longer 
than was her custom, while she arranged lessons 
and laid out work enough, it seemed to me, for 
months. 

" 'Why so much to-night?' I inquired, con- 
scious that my heart ached, and vaguely sus- 
pecting the cause. 

" 'Because, dear,' she answered, 'I do not 
want you to come for the next weolj, and I am 
anxious that you should have siifiScient work 
to anticipate as well as to keep you busy. I 
think I can trust yon to be a good boy, John? ' 

" 'I thiak you can, ma'am,' I answered, al- 
most sobbing. 

" 'If I should see your mother, my dear boy, 
before long, what shall I say to her for you? ' 

"Then I knew all, and my grief knew no 
bounds. It is of no use to go on. She died 
two diiys after, and when I hear folks saying, 
'there's a woman at the bottom of it,' I feel 
like telling the whole world what a woman did 
for me." — -Ijnencan Citizen. 



The Oanbury Man in Liverpool. 

Bailey has reached the land of his ancestors 
—the home of the Saxon and Druid, etc. He 
was violently sea-sick during the passage over, 
but managed to retain a good deal of his hu- 
mor. His first visit to a ruin is described: 

Coming back from the parks, I spied from 
the cab window the unmistakable indication of 
what my soul bad panted for for years — what the 
soul of every student of the Old World pants 
for from the cradle to its realization— the 
broken walls of a ruin. There they lay before 
me with the sunshine touching nptbeir mosses, 
and bringing into strong relief their broken 
and worn edges. I bade the cabman to stop, 
and fastened my eyes on the sight. It was not 
a very large ruin, but it was a pretty good- 
sized ruin for a Sunday. I pictured to myself 
the day when it stood as a whole, with its long 
line of masters alternating in the possession, 
and making the walls reverberate with the flow 
of mirth and banqueting. How many a merry 
step had passed along its corridors, and how 
many sad faces had peered from its lattices ! 
A flood of strange, weird reveries set in upon 
my soul, and carried me by its power away 
down the ages that are gone. 

I said to the cabman: "How old a rain is 
that?" pointing to the wall with a trembling 
finger. 

"That ? That's new 'ouse going np for 
Peter Stevenson, the li&en draper on George 
street." 

It is a simple thing, but it has punched a 
very large hole in the cup of my expectations. 
How am I to know whether a building I back up 
against to stir up my soul with is eight hun- 
dred years or eight hundred days old ? How- 
do I know but that every builder is supplitKl 
with moss and ivy and verdigris by the barrel, 
and is bound by his contract to work them in ? 
This is no way to fool with a stranger. 



A FEMALE teacher in a school that stood on 
the banks of a river once wished to communi- 
cate to her pupils an idea of faith. AVhile she 
was trying to explain the meaning of • the 
word, a small fishing-boat came in view. 
Seizing upon the incident for an illustration, 
she exclaimed, "If I were to tell you that there 
was a leg of mutton in that boat, you would be- 
lieve me, would yon not, without even seeing 
it yourselves? " "Yes ma'am," replied the 
scholars. "Well, that is 'faith," said the 
schoolmistress. The next day, in order to 
test the recollection of the lesson, she inquired, 
"What is faith?" "A. leg of mutton in a 
boat !" was answ^ered from all parts of the 
schoolroom. 



Companionship and Health. — To be per- 
fectly healthy and happy one must have 
friends. They need not be in large numbers, 
but one, two or three kindred spirits with 
whom one can commune, sharu joys and sor- 
rows, thoughts and feelings. In choosing 
friends great care is necessary. There must be 
some common bond of sympathy. It may be 
moral, intellectual or social; but even these 
bonds are not sufficient. A weukly person, an 
invalid, needs healthy friends; a timid one, 
brave friends. Those who are blessed with 
good friends are healthier and happier than 
those who have none. 






Collins Geavks, who rode bo fast down the 
Mill river valley to warn the people of approach- 
ing danger, is said to be the first milkman who 
ever ran away from water. 



A TABLE of interest — The dinner table. 



July 4, 1874.] 



Hair Love. 

The absent daughter, married and far away, 
Beods home a tiny curl in a letter — it is that of 
her first-born. "The softest, silkiest, brightest 
hair, she verily believes, in all the world ! And 
its dear little head is covered with it like so 
many rings of gold. Ah, if they could but see 
it !" Why, it seems but yesterday she was a 
child herself, the merriest of the household 
band — the most mischief-loving, provoking, 
and yet fascinating being one can well imagine. 
Threats and reproof were alike thrown away 
upon her; but a fond word would bring her to 
her mother's side in a moment, all penitence 
and humility, although ten to one the next she 
was as wild as ever. But she become grave all 
of a sudden, married, and took to housekeep- 
ing by instinct, as it were, for she could have 
had little experience in these matters; but 
loving makes us apt scholars, and shebrcame a 
very pattern wife and mother. We need not 
say how the tiny curl will be kept and prized 
by the happy grandmother, who wept with 
joy as she remembered all this. Mindful, at the 
same time, with the sad experience which is 
the heritage of old age, of the precariousness of 
human felicity, and how many as bright buds 
of fair promise as the golden-haired child are 
now among the angels of heaven ! 

The young soldier, dying on the field of 
glory, prays with his dying breath that a lock 
of his hair may be cut off and sent in remem- 
brance of him to his mother and dear Mary. 
And when it reaches them, having traveled, per- 
haps, hundreds of miles, how sacred and holy 
is such a relic ? We can fancy the aged moth- 
er's tears and kisses, and "'his Mary" laying 
it on her heart, and never being known to smile 
again on earth, although she continues meek 
and patient to the last. 

The death of a beloved object seldom fails to 
sanctify and make us better— to wean us gently 
from earth to heaven; such, at least, is the 
intention of all our afflictions, if we could only 
but think so; while change and estrangement 
harden and petrify the affections until they 
seem to turned to stone ! "It is a perilous 
thing,'' says Frederica Bremer, "when the be- 
loved image in the heart of man is destroyed." 

The lover sends a lock of hair to his mistress, 
friend to friend, parent to child, child to par- 
ent. We verily believe this same hair love to 
be universal, and pregnant with a thousand ro- 
mantic and touching episodes. 

"If I had Leisure." 

"If I had leisure, I would repair that weak 
place in my fence," said a farmer. Ho h;id 
none, however, and while drinking cider with 
o neighbor, the cows broke in and injured a 
prime piece of corn. He had leisure, then, to 
repair his fence, but it did not bring back his 
corn. 

"If I had leisure," said a wheelwright 1-ist 
winter, "I would alter my stove-pipe, for I 
know it is not safe." But he did not find 
time, and when his shop caught fire and burnt 
down, he found leisure to build another. 

"If I had leisure," said a mechanic, "I 
should have my work done in season." The 
man thinks his time has been all occupied, but 
he was not at work till after sunrise; he quit 
work at five o'clock, smoked a cigar after din- 
ner, and spent two hours on the street talking 
nonsense with an idler. 

"If I had leisure," said a merchant, "I 
would pay more attention to my accounts, and 
try and collect my bills more promptly." The 
chance is, my friend, if you had leisure you 
would probably pay less attention to the mat- 
ter than you do now. The thing lacking with 
hundreds of farmers who till the soil is, not 
more leisure but more resolution — the spirit to 
do, to do now. If the farmer who sees his 
fence in a poor condition would only act at 
once, how much might be saved. It would 
prevent breecby cattle creating quarrels among 
neighbors, that in many cases terminate in 
lawsuits which take nearly all they are both 
worth to pay the lawyers. 

The fact is, farmers and mechanics have 
more leisure than they are aware of, for study 
and the improvement of their minds. They 
have the long evenings of winter, in which 
they can post themselves upon all the improve- 
ments of the day, if they will take ably con- 
ducted agricultural journals and read them 
with care. The farmer who fails to study his 
business and then gets shaved, has none but 
himself to blame. — Cor. N. E. Farmer. 




A suRaBON, after a sanguinary battle, was 
going his rounds, examining his patients. He 
came at length to a sargeant who had been 
struck by a bullet in the left breast, directly 
over the region of the heart. The doctor, sur- 
prised at the narrow escape of the man, ex- 
claimed, "Why, my man, where in the name of 
goodness could your heart have been ?" "I 
gue.ss it jHust have been in my mouth just 
then, doctor," replied the poor fellow, with a 
faint smile. 



A BOY from the country was recently taken 
as page into a gentleman's family. One after- 
noon, just before dark, after having been 
called up to the drawing-room, he came down 
into the kitchen, laughing immoderately. 
"What's the matter ?" cried the cook. "Why, 
ding it !" said he, "there are twelve on 'em up 
there who couldn't light the gas, and they had 
to ring for me to do it !" 

SoMK of our city preachers are having their 
chests examined with a view to decide in what 
part of Europe to spend the summer! 



What's the Use of Grumbling? 

Suppose, my little lady. 

Your doll should break her head, 
Conld you mako it whole by crying 

Till your eyes and nose are red ? 
And wouldn't it be pleasanter 

To treat it as a joke; 
And say you're glad " 'twas Dolly's 

And not your head that broke ?" 

Suppose you're dressed (or walking, 

And the rain comes pouring down, 
Will it clear offthe sooner 

Because you scold and frown V 
And wouldn't it be nicer 

For you to smile than pout, 
And so make sunshine in the hovise 

When there is none without ? 

Suppose your task, my little man. 

Is very hard to get. 
Will it make it any easier 

For you to sit and (ret? 
And wouldn't it be wiser 

Than waiting like a dunce. 
To go to work in earnest 

And learn the thing at once ? 

Suppose some boys have a horfle, 

And some a coach and pair, 
Vfill it tire yon less while walking 

To say, "It isn't (air?" 
And wouldn't it be nobler 

To keep your temper sweet. 
And in your heart be thankful 

You can walk upon you feet ? 

And suppose the world doi^t please you, 

Nor the way some people do, 
Do you think the whole creation 

Will be altered just (or you? 
And isn't it, my boy or girl. 

The wisest, bravest plan. 
Whatever comes, or doesn't come. 

To do the best you can ? 



OecuPATioN FOB Idle Boys. — A contempo- 
rary, in noticing the swarms of idle and mis- 
chievous boys that frequent our larger cities 
and furnish so many grounds of annoyance to 
the law and order abiding, very justly remarks: 
"Possibly no problem of all the vexatious 
list tries the judgment of law-makers so se- 
verely as that of holding in check the incipi- 
ences of crime. To put boys under re- 
pression and render it permanently wholesome, 
is the object of constant solicitude to all think- 
ing, conscientious men. It is not enough that 
you establish places of detention, where, for a 
time, all excesses may be checked and tenden- 
cies carefully restrained. You must combine 
an atmosphere of kindness and confidence, 
which shall move the better instinct of the im- 
mature culprits. Instead of forcing the boys 
into uncongenial trades, give all of them the 
free training of agricultural pursuit. There is 
nothing better for the development of mind 
and muscle at such an age than the wholesome 
labor of farm and garden. Five hundred boys 
could be very profitably employed in the culti- 
vation df a great farm under municipal control. 
Boys, as a general thing revolt from the bind- 
ing necessities of trades, and it would be a wise 
economy to put them to the free work of the 
farm." 



A Sister's Love. — There is something inex- 
pressibly touching in a .sister's love. Her 
heart is a realm of pure and earthly affection, 
and happy should that brother be to whom she 
clings through the changing scenes of the 
blighting world. She has been his companion in 
childhood;she has watched the development of 
his mind and person; she has admonished him 
when wrong, and smiled upon his triumphs; 
she has peopled his mind with the beautiful 
treasures of hej own; she has taught him those 
virtues which will render him a useful member 
of society, prepare him for death and embalm 
his memory when he has passed away. Sooner 
can you bind the free wind than seal up the 
springs of such mysterious affections. They 
will flow on, ,and the desert and cave cannot 
forget their progress. And as sorrow and mis- 
fortunes strip from life its charms and dreams, 
there is one recollection that will come like 
music to a brother's heart — that will thrill upon 
its darkened and troubled depths with a strange 
yet sweet melody, and bring up scenes of 
home and childhood, long unremembered. It 
is the recollection of a sister's love. 



QooD H^i^i-TH' 



Macklin's Advice to His Son. — "I have of- 
ten told you that every man must, to a great 
extent, be the maker or marrer of his own for- 
tune. He who depends upon incessaut indus- 
try and integrity, depends upon patrons of the 
noblest and most exalted kind; these are the 
creators of fortune and fame, the founders of 
families, and can never disappoint and desert 
you. You have genius, you have learning, you 
have industry at times, but you want persever- 
ance; without it you can do nothing. I bid 
you bear this motto in mind— Perseverance." 



WakiiN'o Up. — I have seen little people that 
just hated to wake up. You could hardly coax 
them to go to bed either. No matter how 
sleepy they were, when bed-time came they 
would beg to sit up a few moments longer. 
And in the morning it was nearly impossible to 
get those sleepy eyes- wide open, and oh ! how 
cross they were till after breakfast ! The birds 
don't act so, nor the chickens, nor the flowers. 

The little boys of Eochester, whose street 
ball pl.aying and kite flying has been- slopped 
by order of the police, display considerable in- 
genuity in getting around the command. They 
allow the little girls to fly the kites and play 
ball, while they sit and enjoy themselves. 



The Human Frame. 

No 4.— The Stomach. 

This important organ is a muscular sack, 
formed by a dilatation of the alimentary canal. 
In shape, it somewhat resembles a curved sec- 
tion of a cone; in size, it varies from eight to 
12 inches in width, and from three to four in 
its greatest diameter. It is usually estimated 
to contain about one quart when in a perfectly 
normal condition; but so universally are ox- 
cesses committed in. eating and drinking, that, 
in scores of observations, we do not remember 
to have seen a single one that had not been di- 
lated beyond this capacity. Its situation varies 
considerably, according as it is distended with 
food, or otherwise; its proper position is just 
below the last organ described— the liver. It 
is of a purely carniverous type; being intended 
only for the dissolving or chymifaction of the 
food which has been finely triturated by the 
teeth. It furnishes by far the most important 
of the five solvents concerned in digestion — 
the gastric juice. It actually digests, or reduces 
to chyme, all the elements of the food except 
the non -nitrogenous and hydro-carbons, or 
sugar, starch and oil^ Of these, sugar and 
starch are digested by the duodenal juices; 
oils, by the pancreatic fluid. 

Of its physiological functions we know much; 
the celebrated Martin case, wherein a perman- 
ent fistula or opening, followed a terrible 
gun-shot wound, having afforded wonderful 
facilities for studying its functions, and given 
a great impetus to the investigation of all 
the details of alimentation. Many impor- 
tant facts have been thus obtained; some phy- 
siologists even going so far as to lay down laws 
for the exact time in which any given article of 
food would be digested, atid, consequeutlj', 
classifying all such as wholesome or unwhole- 
some according as they seemed to resist the 
action of the digestive powers of the stomach, 
or otherwise. By such rules pigs' feet and tripe 
were laid down as being digested in an hour; 
trout, in one and a half hours; milk, in two 
hours; roast beef, in three; and so on, until 
the climax was reached with roast pork and 
boiled cabbage, which, they said, required five 
and one-half hours for their proper digestion. 
But, from close observation, it is our belief that 
stomachs have as many whims and idiosyn- 
crasies as have their masters, and that which is 
easily digested by one is "poison" to another. 
Hence, the folly of any set of rules which pre- 
scribe just what all persons shall eat. Each 
person should know enough of his own tem- 
nerament and physiological organization to be 
able to select those articles of food which are 
best adapted to his own individual wants. 

Treated from this common sense stand-point, 
many of the fearfully numerous diseases of the 
digestive organs would cease to' exist. But we 
go on, defying or ignoring Nature's laws; eat- 
ing, in half the time required for perfect 
mastication, double the amount necessary for 
our sustenance; jumping up and going at hard 
brain work, immediately after each meal when 
we ought to take complete mental relaxation 
for some time, in order that our nerve forces 
maybe properly concentrated upon the digestion 
of our food; drugging ourselves with stimu- 
lants, when we see our digestive powers are 
beginning to fail, until the inevitable result 
follows and we become confirmed dyspeptics. 
We then pounce upon the stomach as the un- 
lucky source of all our evils, forgetting that a 
large percentage of our food was never intended 
to be digested by it; forgetting that Nature has 
given us organs of locomotion, demanding 
that they be exercised; free, pure air, requiring 
it to be breathed; proper hours for repose, and 
insisting on their being so occupied. 

Indigestion may also be intestinal, and aggra- 
vated by the use of sugar or starchy substances; 
or it may be pancreatic, and increased by the 
irr proper use of oils; or it may be due to a tor- 
pid liver, or deficient nerve energy, and ren- 
dered doubly worse by sedentary habits. Treat 
your stomach as becomes a rational being; live 
in accordance with the laws of nature, taking 
due exercise, pure air, good food that is suited 
to your own peculiar organization, and above 
all, allow yourself plenty of cheerful, mirth- 
provoking relaxation, and it will be impossible 
for you to suffer from indigestion. 



Hygienic Hints. 

It is possible that the stature of all persons 
may be increased if the conditions of health are 
enforced during infancy and childhood, and 
until the age of puberty is reached. Exercise 
in the open air, and the kinds of food which 
produce the carbonate and phosphates, which 
are found in milk and in the husks of grain, 
are highly conducive to osseous development. 

But few people attach due importance to the 
use of the kind of diet which .contains the ele- 
ments that contribute to the formation of 
bone. 

The constituents of bone are carbonate and 
phosphate of lime, and one-third the weight of 
the bone organic matter, therefore we should 
freely use oatmeal, Graham flour, beans, etc. 
In some localities the water is impregnated 
with lime, owing to the under-stratum of lime- 
stone that exists there, and it contains mineral 
properties sufficient, if used for domestic pur- 
poses, to increase the development of bone and 
muscle. Children should have all the milk 
they can drink. If it is first diluted with wa- 
ter, hot or cold, the proportion should be one 
tablespoonful of water, or a piece of ice, in a 
pint of milk. Sometimes milk disagrees with 
the stomach and forms curds. This tendency 
is entirely obviated by the admixture of water. 

Children are more often fed too little than 
too much; too often their food is not sufficiently 
strong or nutritious. Cakes and candies should 
never be given to children until they have first 
eaten of wholesome food; they should have all 
they want of every kind of farinaceous food, 
and should also be allow. d the judicious use of 
all other kinds, else .some part of the system 
may be deprived of some important element of 
nutrition. They should not be permitted to 
remain long on the wet, damp ground, although 
their feet may be protected" with overshoes. 
There are many days during the year when it 
is better for them to- play on the porches that 
are most expo.sed to the sun. Dwelling-houses 
should have porches on all sides, so that chil- 
dren can have a preference on which to play, 
according to the weather. If they are sick 
give them no food or medicines except fiuits, 
canned or otherwise, and air as pure as that 
which is unconfined, though they should not 
be exposed in a current of air. If there is a fe- 
ver lemonade should be drank freely, and iced 
milk if it is desired. Whatever articles of food 
the appetite has a longingfor maybe judicious- 
ly given. Very fortunate are those children 
who live in healthful localities and have all the 
milk they can drink from healthy cows that are 
properly fed; and they are certain to enjoy ro- 
bust health and develop strong osseous frames 
if they exercise freely in the open air and sleep 
early and as long as they wish to, especially if 
assisted by the under-stratum of limestone 
found in some localities. Even if there is a 
predisposition to hereditary disease, these 
healthful influences will prove great preven- 
tives. Although the importance of food can- 
not be over-estimated, yet heat and light are 
threefold more important. More nutriment is 
furnished by the atmosphere than is found in 
any kind of food. It must be pure, or we are 
deprived of the vital means of life and suste- 
nance; and the solar rays bring to our brains 
and bodies the very essence of lite.— Herald of 
Uealth. 



Exercise. — The various kinds of physical 
exercise are considered by Dr. Bowditch in 
some detail. Walking, he believes, is the best 
form, and most generally applicable. It ex- 
ercises the body better than any other method. 
The most favorable time is about midday in 
winter and in the morning and toward evening 
in summer. Late in the evening is less useful 
because of the liability to dampness and cold- 
ness in the absence of the sun's rays. Fast 
rnuning, in the opinion of the writer, is per- 
nicious to consumptives; it produces violent 
motions of the heart and too rapid breathing, 
and consequently great tendency of blood to 
the lungs. As regards dancing, it is said that, 
at appropriate hours and for a proper length 
of time, nothing can be better. It promotes 
grace and ease of motion and positive health, 
if used thus properly. Horseback exercise for 
consumptives is excellent, and in fact a remedy 
for the disease at its inception. An easy pac- 
ing or galloping horno is better than a hard, 
square, solid trotter, as the latter is apt to 
cause pains in the chest and undue fatigue. 



Modern Surgery. — Life is not only saved or 
prolonged in thousands of instances every year 
through the agency of modern surgical skill, 
but how much more tolerable and happy it has 
been rendered by the wonderful progress made 
in this branch of science. If misfortune over- 
takes us and we are brought under the sur- 
geon's knife, it is only necessary to inhale the 
vapor of a few ounces of ether or chloroform, 
and we become oblivious to all sufiering. Con- 
sciousness returns only to awaken joy that the 
duties of the surgeon are ended. Surgical in- 
struments and appliances are marvelous exam- 
ples of artistic skill and ingenious invention. 
What with the opthalmoscopes, stethoscopes, 
spectroscopes, curious mirrors, etc., the human 
body in most of its parts is brought quite with- 
in the field of vision, so that dark cavities and 
deeply-hidden organs are illuminated and 
forced to reveal to the eye the nature of mor- 
bid conditions. The future for scientific sur- 
gery, and also for medicine and chemistry, is 
full of promise. One difficulty after another will 
be surmounted in the years to come, and per- 
haps there will remain ultimately but one great 
physical catastrophe which cannot be overcome 
by human skill, and that is death.— jBoston 
Journal of Chemistry. 



Drinking Water and Zinc. — In a commu- 
nication to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
James R. Napier called attention to the fact 
that zinc from galvanized iron goods dissolved 
very rapidly in Loch Katrine water. He ex- 
hibited water of a milky color, made so by im- 
mersing 2% lb. of galvanized iron nails and 
other objects for about 30 hours. He also 
showed pieces of a kitchen boiler, which had 
been coated by the so-called galvanizing pro- 
cess, in which, after 12 months' use, the zinc 
coating had entirely disappeared, and the iron 
itself was greatly corroded. 



Barley Water. — The Druggist gives the fol- 
lowing; Take of pearl barley, two ounces; 
boiling water, two quarts; before adding the 
boiling water, let the barley bo well washed. 
Then boil it to one-half, and strain the liquor. 
A little lemon juice and sugar may be added if 
desirable. To be taken ad libitum in inflamma- 
toiy diseases. 




[July 4, 1874- 



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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 4, 1874. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



OENEBAIi EDITORIALS .-J. W. A. Wright, 
Lecturer of California State Grange; Facilities for 
Bringing Fruit to Market, 1. Industrial Fairs 
for 1874: The Shipments for the Last Seapon; Lower 
Rates of Interest: Protection to Game; A Yellow 
Larkspur: Our Holiday: Strawberries from the Foot- 
hills: A Combination, 8. Hints to Amateur Garden- 
ers; Olive Growing: Fair of State Agricultural So- 
ciety. 1874. 9. Notices of Recent Patents; Patents 
and InventioDB. 12. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— J. W. A. Wright, 1. Govern- 
ment Houbp at Svdney, 9. 

CORRKSPONDENCE.— Santa Onii and Surround- 
ings; How our Swamp Laud may be Reclaimed, 2. 
Letter from llotto Mesa; Letter from Kalamazoo, 
Michigan. 3. 

THE VINEYARD.- The Location of Vineyards; 
A New Medicine for Diseased Grape Vines; Cheap 
Protection for Vines, 3. 

CATTLE BREEDERS.— Ool. Vouuger on Short- 
horns; HoK Cholera; Hints to Breeders. 3. 

PATRONS OF HtrSBANDRY.— Progress of the 
Patrons in California; New Granges; Meetings; Etc., 
4. 

HOME CIRCLE. — Xo Time Like the Old Time 
fPoetry); Pen and Pencil Marks on the Boau; A 
Woman at the Bottom of It; The Danbury Man iu 
Liverpool: Companionship and Health, 6. Hair 
Love: "If I had Leisure." 7. 

YOTTNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -What's the Use 
of Grumbling (Poetry); Occupation for Idle Boys; 
A Sister's Love; Macklin's Advice to His Son; Waking 
Up, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH -The Human Frame; Exercise; 
Hygienic Hints; iloderu Surgery; Drinking Water 
and Zinc-: Barley Water, 7- 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various conn- 
ties in California, 12. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Man Five Hundred Thou- 
sand Years Old; T'^st for Alum in Flour or Bread; 
Gutta-Percha and Vulcanized Rubber; To Cut Glass 
Jars; Preservation of Metallic Surfaces: Iron Archl- 
tectnre; Nozzle for Delivering Water; Needles: Clean- 
ing Brass; Transferring Pictures to Glass; The Frog 
Barometer; Straw Board; The Age of Coal: Albumen 
Extracted from Milk, 10. How a Great Discovery 
was Made, 1 1 . 



Itemoval. 



July ISth, 1874, the business ofBce of this Journal 
will be removed Just one block east of our present lo- 
cation, to No. 221 SanBome Street, southeast comer of 
Oallfomia, over the Bank of British Columbia, where 
we have secured large and elegant quarters. This re. 
moval Is made in consequence ot the sale of the build- 
ing in which we are now located, to parties who will 
proceed immediately to demolish the present structure, 
and erect a new and magnificent block in its place. 



Industrial Fairs for 1874. 

CALIFORNIA. 

,.P" .A°,?°J' ,?*''■.'>' ""* S'*'* Agricultural Sooiety for 
1874 will i>e held at Sacramento, to commence on Septem- 
ber 3Ut and closing September 26th, Cary, President 

Robert Beck, Secretarj'. 

The Ninth lolustrial Exhibition of the Mechanics' In- 
stitute, Sin Francisco, opening August iStti, cDntinues 
thirty days. Persons desinng to exhibit will pr. sent their 
applications for space at as early a day »b pisaiblo, address- 
ing iheir aimlioations or imuirie.i to the Socr"tarv of the 
Board of Managers, Mnch inics' Institute, No. '27 Post 
street, San Francisco, California In order to secure snaoe 
applications mast be in before the 20th day of Jnly, 18 74. 

The Fifteenth Annual Fair of the Santa Clara Valley 
Aijrlotiltiirai Society will be held at San Jose October 5ih. 
6th, 7th. 8ih.9th and lOth. William C. Nelson, President, 
D. J. Porter, Secretary. 

The San Joaquin Valley Agrionltural Society's Fair, a 
Stockton, commencoa September 29th, and will continue 
four days. H. T. Compton, Secy. 

The Napa i Solano Agricultural and Mechanical Arts 
Sooiety s annual lair commences on September 8ih. and 
continues four dayi. .1. B. Hovt, President; J E Willis- 
ton, SecrcUry ; J. B. Frisbie, Treasurer. 

AsotTT two hnndred men are grading on the 
North Pacific coast railroad in the vicinity of 
Tomales and San Rafael. It is stated by par- 
ties who claim to be well posted that the whole 
line from Tomales down will be in running or- 
der by the 16th of October. 

The Los Aageles Tobacco Co. are building 
their curing houses. They will commence cut- 
ting their crop early in July. 



Our New Volume. 

The present number commences the eighth 
volume of the Ecbal Peess, and we feel confi- 
dent that our rural friends will extend the same 
congratulations to us in our success that we 
have offered to them in this, their unprecedent- 
ed season of prosperity. And commencing as 
we now do, our new volrfme, just as they are 
harvesting their abundant crops, it aflfords us 
much gratification to think that our labor dur- 
ing the past sis months as an agricultural jour- 
nal and family paper has been to them a help- 
er in their labors, and has added to the attrac- 
tions that have centered about their homes. 
We begin our labors for the coming half year 
with a determination to make the present vol- 
ume still more useful and attractive. 

It will be noticed that we have been able to 
greatly increase the amount of reading matter 
given in the Peess, by changing from leaded to 
solid type. This has been done entirely for 
the benefit of our readers; and we are confi- 
dent that when they consider this, with the 
amount of editorial labor bestowed upon the 
paper, they will credit ns with pablishing one 
of the cheapest as well one of the best papers on 
the Pacific Coast. 

AVe again extend the fraternal grasp to our 
numerous and valued exchanges. They will 
please accept our hearty thanks for their com- 
pliments and general courtesy. It is our wish 
and intention to retain in full our list of ex- 
changes as long as it is. 

Our patrons have our sincere thanks for their 
substantial support, for friendly encourage- 
ment, and for innumerable cotirtesies. 

The Shipments for the Last Season. 

On the 30th of June the ship "Patterdale" 
left this port for Liverpool, with a full cargo of 
wheat ; being the last shipment of the season 
ju '.t closed. This made the two hundred and 
forty-seventh cargo cleared during the season. 
So far as known there have only been two total 
losses among all these. These were the "River 
Krishna," wrecked at Tuskar Rock, ju.st before 
reaching her destination, and the "Durham," 
wrecked in the vicinity of the Society Islands. 
A portion of the cargo of the "St. Marks" was 
thrown overboard, uud parts of a few other car- 
goes have been damaged, but on the whole the 
shipments have been very fortunate. Forty- 
seven vessels were en route at that date also. 

The new season's crop has, of course, been 
coming in for some time, the first arrival being 
on June 11th, and consisting of 974 centals, 
from Hill's Ferry, per steamer " Hattie 
Fitch." This is about the average of arrivals 
of new grain, the dates for the last four seasons 
being 1870, June 'Jth; 1871, June 23d; 187'2, 
June 10th; 1873, June 7th. 

The price obtained for this lot was not up to 
the average ; but, in view of our enormous 
crop this season, this was hardly to be expected. 
The price received was $1.65 ; against $1.80 in 
1870, $1.27 in 1871, $1.85 in 1872, and $1.80 in 
1873. But this slight lowering of the rates 
will be made up ten-fold in our greatly increased 
yield ; so that wo may confidently look to the 
shipping sea.^on we are just entering upon as 
one of unexampled prosperity to our farmers. 

Lower Rates of Interest. 

There are many who manifest a sort of pride 
in referring to the high rates of interest pre- 
vailing in California; considering it as an in- 
dication of great energy; and declaring that 
the fact that we are paying rates of interest 
double those of our Eastern competitors is evi- 
dence of our superior advantages. But how is it 
that at this time, when the energies of all depart- 
ments of trade and industry are exerted as they 
never were before, dividends on loaned money 
are particularly low ? Savings banks, it is 
understood, will declare a lower dividend for 
the month just ended, than any previously 
offered. According to the theory of those who 
favor high rates of interest, the money-lender 
should have reaped as bountiful a harvest of 
real gold in June, as the farmer is reaping of 
the golden grain in July. But instead of this, 
their money went begging at sis and seven 
per cent, throughout the month. We look 
upon this as the best evidence yet produced of 
our real prosperity at present, anti of general 
confidence in the future. For either our pro- 
ducers and dealers had money of their own to 
carry them through, or the confidence of 
capitalists in California enterprise was so 
strong, that they preferred trusting their money 
in these currents, even on terms extremely 
advantageous to the borrower. One of these 
suppositions must be true, and they are alike 
in their healthy indications. 

W. N. Steuben, of Gilroy, has exhibited 
gooseberries raised on his place, measuring 
three inches in circumference and one and a 
lialf in length. 

The son of Tim. Sheehan, of Bower Cave, 
near Coulterville, fell from a mowing machine, 
on 27th ult., and had to have hjs right foot 
amputated at the joint. 



3S3C 



Protection to Game. 

For the benefit of those who are in doubt as 
to where sporting is an infringement of the 
game law, we give]from a contemporary the fol- 
lowing, which will be a safe guide in hunting 
and fishing matters: 

Quail, Ducks, Etc. 

In the counties of Lassen, Plumas and Sier- 
ra, it is unlawful to "take, kill or destroy" 
quail, partridges or grouse between March 15ih 
and September loth, or any kind of broadbill 
ducks between March 15th and August 15th. 

In Los Angeles and San Bernardino it is un- 
lawful to kill quail, partridges, grouse, or any 
broadbill duck between August 1st and the first 
of April of the next year. 

In all the other counties of the State none of 
the feathered creatures above enumerated must 
be moU sted between March 15th and Septem- 
ber 15th. 

Trout. 

Trout cannot be lawfully caught in any part 
of the State between October 15th and April 
1st, in the following year. And it is unlawful 
to catch trout, except with hook and line, at 
any time, in the counties of Santa Clara. Santa 
Cruz, San Mateo, Monterey, Alemeda, Marin, 
Placer and Nevada. It is a misdemeanor to 
take, catch or kill trout in any part of the State, 
by the use of nets, weirs, baskets or traps. 
tik. Deer, Antelope. 

The law protects elk, deer and antelope, from 
January 1st to Aflgust 1st, in all the State ex- 
cept El Dorado, Placer, Nevada, Sierra and 
Siskiyou counties, where it is not permissible 
to hunt such game from February Ist to Au- 
gust. As this is the kind of game onr inquirer 
is longing for, he will have to wait till August. 
[Laws of 1871-72, page 433.] 
Salmon. 

The Penal Code makes it a misdemeanor to 
"take or catch" salmon between Jane 1st 
and September 1ft; nevertheless the restau- 
rants and fish stalls have no lack of salmon at 
present, and have not lacked it during the 
whole of last month. By what authority this 
fish is caught uow it seems difficult to surmise. 
An examination of the laws of 1871-72 and 
those of 1873-74 shows no amendment to the 
Code provisions referred lo. 

A Yellow Larkspur. 

Mr. C. C. Goodrich writes us from Copper- 
ville, L;isseu county, enclosing in his note a 
very pretty specimen of a flower which he pro- 
nounces a yellow larkspur; a flower which bo- 
tanists declare does not exist. Mr. G. sends this 
to disprove a statement which he saw in the 
RnsAL Pbess a year or two ago, and we are 
rather disposed to acknowledge the corq, or the 
larkspur, after examining the flower— for if it 
is not a larkspur "to all intents and purposes," 
it certainly is in appearance. The Pbess, how- 
ever, in asserting that there are no yellow lark- 
spurs, placed its reliance on science, and she 
speaks of the larkspur as "a genus of plants, 
order ranuncuiacea;, which yields May's favor- 
ite garden plants. They are annual herbs, with 
leaven much divided; flowers blue, red or pur- 
ple, but never yellow." It really does seem as 
though science had better limit her instruc- 
tions to things that have an existence, and say 
less about what does not exist. Such a course 
would be particularly advisable in treating of 
California; for nothing is impossible in Califor- 
nia. 

The flower sent by Mr. Goodi;^h was gather- 
ered on the hills near Copperville, where they 
grow in great abundance. 

Apbicots. — We have received from Pentland 
Bros., of Knight's Ferry, a box of very superior 
apricots, for which onr thanks. In a letter re- 
ceived at the same time we were requested to 
note whether finer apricots were in this market, 
in order that buds might be procured of the 
parties raising them. We do not think the 
buds could be changed to advantage, judging 
from the fruit sent to ns. and comparing it with 
that in our markets. With regard to the price 
of apricots given in our market review, queried 
by our correspondents, we find that the quota- 
tion referred to was correct. It should be re- 
membered that, while the RnsAL is dated on 
Saturday, it goes to press Wednesday of each 
week, and consequently this is the latest day 
on which to gather quotations. At the opening 
of the apricot season the price fell rapidly, each 
day making a large difference, and thus it hap- 
pened that only eight cents per pound, instead 
of fifteen, were returned. 

San Lorenzo is the garden spot of the Pacific 
Coast for cherries, which are now in their 
prime. The trees bend beneath the weight of 
the luscious fruit. On Friday quite a party of 
Oakland ladies and escorts visited the girdens 
of Mr. Moat, and returned laden down with 
the largest and the handsomest clusters which 
have yet made their appearance here this sea- 
son. Sau Lorenzo also is famous for its cur- 
rants and berries, and in fact all of the small 
fruits arrive here at the greatest perfection. 

The Southern Pacific R;iiIroad Company an- 
nounce that they will hereafter carry grain from 
the Castrovillc depot to S'ln Francisco at S4 
per ton; to Oakland wharf, $4.25 per ton. This 
includes loading, weighing and storage for the 
entire season. 



Our Holiday. 

Although the date of the Bubal PsEas is 
July 4th, our readers are not to suppose that 
the issuing of it has necessitated anything like 
a desecration of that day; for the busy hands 
and brains that have toiled all the week in 
"getting it up," cksed the labors of the week 
on the "night before theFourth," as the youth- 
ful patriots say. And before the " one gun at 
daybreak" gave the formal announcement of 
the dawning of the glorious day, the Pbess 
was on its way to its thousands of destinations 
far and near. Thnse of us who have kept 
"Fourth of July" for half a century have no- 
ticed a marked difference in regard to the uni- 
formity with which this holiday is celebrated. 
Even twenty years ago it was considered op- 
tional with the employer whether his workmen 
kept holiday or not, and many worked of their 
own choice; sometimes to gratify their greed, 
and sometimes from a supposed necessity. 
Now no emplover requires his workmen to 
stick to their tasks on this day, and they would 
not do it if it were required of them. 

The whole country to-day lays aside its cares, 
runs away from its labors, and throws up its 
cap exnltingly in city and country. Our readers 
have probably discovered before thifc, that the 
Pbess is not given to croaking on any subject; 
and they will not be surprised when we declare, 
as we now do, our belief that the growth of 
true patriotism among the American people is 
in full keeping with their increasing power to 
maintain their liberty. 



Strawberries from the Foot-hills. 



Mr. Felix Gillet, of Nevada City, sends, ac- 
cording to promise, samples of strawberries 
from the vines which he has advertised through 
the RuBAi. Pbess. These strawberries belong 
to the following varieties : " General Grant," 
the " Lady," " Princess Dagmar," " Alice 
Nicholson," " Alcott Pine Apple," " Cox- 
comb " and " Baron Lynau de Lynich." We 
do not hesitate in pronouncing these the 
finest strawberries that have been inspected, or 
prospected, bv us during the present season. 
There was a difftrence of opinion among those 
who sampled these berries, in regard to their 
comparative merits; consequently, we can only 
report the general result of the vote, which was 
to the credit of all. Mr. Gillet did not stint 
his invoice to mere samples, but put in a liberal 
supply of each; and also included a lot of 
cherries, of the " Bigarreau Grosse de Mezel " 
variety, which were very fine. Mr. G. writes 
us that the pear trees imported by him from 
France are doing remarkably well. He also 
informs us that the season haa been quits 
favorable to silk worm raising, and promises to 
furnish us with seme points on this subject, 
one with which he is well acquainted. 

Mr. Gillet will please accept oar thanks for 
the strawberries. 



A Combination. 



The Bay District Horticultural Society have 
made arrangements for co-operating with the 
Mechanics' Indtitute in the ninth annual exhi- 
bition of the latter, which opens in this city on 
Tuesday, August 18th. This combination will 
add much to the interest felt in the approach- 
ing exhibition of the Mechanics' Institute, and 
the advantages which the grand pavilion now 
being erected will afford for a fine horticultural 
display will ensure a grand success for this as 
for other departments. 

The pavilion even in its present incomplete 
state attracts crowds of visitors, its vast dimen- 
sions alone being an object of curiosity; while ■ 
those who are more critical than curious make 
frequent calls at the huge structure to note the 
development of its internal arrangements. We 
hear but one opinion as to the judgment and 
taste of the building committee, thus far 
manifested. Their labors receive general ap- 
proval . There is evidently no lack of en»rgy, 
taste or means on the part of the Board of 
Managers. 

Amebican Pomological Societt. — We have 
received a copy of the proceedings of the 
American Pomological Society at their Four- 
teenth Annual Session, held in Boston, Sep- 
tember. 1873. It is a valuable acquisition to- 
the library of the pomologist. The discussions 
are extremely interesting, and a great amount 
of practical information can be obtained from 
their perusal, while the essays read before the 
society are among the soundest productions 
on fruit culture with which we have became ac- 
quainted. 

J. E. Feeley, viniculturist of Santa Clara, 
has an improvement in harness used for plow- 
ing vineyards, which is described as follow^: 
It consists of a short stretcher, instead of sin- 
gletrees, the ends of the stretcher being covered 
by the heavy leather tugs, the ends of which 
are brought together at the rear of the stretcher, 
and attached to the plow by a ring, staple or 
clevis. The object of this is to prevent the 
destruction to vines or trees caused by the ends 
of the ordinary si&glelree. 

Gboond wiU be broken on Jnly 4th for the 
construction of the Visalia railroad. It ia ex- 
pected that the road wiy b^ completed by the 
15th of August. 



July 4, 1874.1 



Hints to Amateur Gardeners. 

It is not expected that the professional gar- 
dener will be enlightened by the following 
suggestions; nor are they intended for the ben- 
efit of the favored few to whom fortune has 
granted the means for the gratification of an 
expensive horticultural taste, deriving from it 
healthful and pleasant recreation, if not actual 
profit. But there is a largo class of people who 
have small gardens, with little or no experience 
in gardening; and it is to these that we have 
more particularly addressed the following 
hints: 

Early spring is the season when the subject 
of gardening assumes a prominence in a very 
large number of families. The women and 
children are enthusiastic for a garden; but the 
men are not quite so zealous in the matter. 
They anticipate a great amount of hard labor, 
with an urgent call for funds; while the re- 
turns, they are quite sure, will not amount to 
the cost of what they could bring home from 
the market in a couple of baskets. So they 
are firmly resolved to never make another gar- 
den; but their firmness yields to the decision, 
or the teasings of the majority, and each, of 
course, consents to plant the garden jnst once 
more. Now, in this conclusion, he has not 
only showed the goodness of his heart, but 
also the soundness of his judgment. People, 
when they are wavering in the decision to cul- 
tivate the little spot of ground attached 
to their dwellings, (almost every house 
out of the large cities has some ground 
for gardening,) should consider the ques- 
tion, what shall be done with it if it is 
not cultivated. If it is entirely neg- 
lected, it will soon be covered with an 
intolerable mass of weeds, that must, 
at frequent periods, be cut down and 
hauled out of sight; thus demanding an 
amount of labor and expense which, 
if applied to fruit and vegetables, would 
make the place pleasant to behold, and 
furnish many a dainty and wholesome 
dish to the table. They perhaps have 
seen very pleasant places where there 
were neither cultivated gardens nor un- 
sightly weeds; but, instead, pretty grass- 
plots, planted with trees and shrubs. 
But they should bear in mind that it is 
a laborious and expensive job to grade 
and sod these grass-plots at first, and, 
when formed, they require a liberal sup- 
ply of manure, and are only kept at- 
tractive by very frequent cutting and 
clean raking while the trees and shrubs 
demand quite as much, if not more, 
care and labor as those in the cultivated 
garden. Thus, the question, what shall 
we do with our ground if we do not cul- 
tivate it, should be well considered. 

Regarding the profits of gardening, he 
would say, that if the enthusiastic be- 
ginner sits down and estimates the value 
of the anticipated products of his garden 
in dollars and cents, he will, hke begin- 
ners in everything, be disappointed at 
the end of the season. It is the extra- 
vagance and fickleness of such that has 
thrown an air of caution and distrust 
around the subject (as it does, in 
fact, around every subject), and has 
stripped it of the interest which it de- 
serves. They have gone into it rashly, managed 
injudiciously, and instead of turning the expe- 
rience of one season to the benefit of the next, 
they throw down their arms in terror and dis- 
gust. They then set themselves up as veterans 
in the cause, and are ever ready to allow all 
future beginners the benefits of their dearly 
bought wisdom. But they afi'ord a mere cari- 
cature of the matter. They exaggerate its ex- 
penses and troubles, and burlesque its pleas- 
ures and profits. Such wisdom should be 
valued as lightly on this subject as it is wher- 
ever it obtrudes itself upon our notice; still it 
does produce its effects upon the wavering, and 
its shallow and unfair character should be ex- 
posed. Like Henry the Fifth before the battle 
of Agincourt, he would say : 

■' He which hath no etomach for this fight, 
Let him depart; his passport shall be made." 

But to those who are willing to apply the 
same perseverance and economy to it that are 
essential to success in anything, we can safely 
promise not only a large amount of wholesome 
gratification, but also a fair return for money 
expended. The question of profit and loss 
should of course be considered; but it is of little 
consequence when compared with other advan- 
tages derived from gardening. We all need 
some recreation from our daily avocations, 
and for this purpose nothing is so beneficial as 
gardening. In this our physical powers can be 
exercised in the most healthful manner, with 
enough of interest for the mind to enable it to 
throw ofif its galling burdens, and, which is of 
more importance than all other considerations, 
effecting an improvement, not only in our hab- 
its, but also in our dispositions. This has been 
acknowledged by the greatest men of all ages. 
They have derived from it improvement and 
happiness for themselves, and have urged its 
consideration upon nations, communities and 
neighborhoods. It is one of those great truths 
that we can all test and avail ourselvfS of its 
benefits. The man who will take hold of the 
matter in earnest and do his carden justice, 
will soon find that while he has been subduing 
worthless weeds there, and assisting nature in 



producing fruits, vegetables and flowers, he 
has been effecting the same results in himself 
aud family. 

Our homes are considered too much as mere 
places to lodge and eat; and when these wants 
are satisfied, the boys and girls rush forth in 
search of the enjoyment that should be fur- 
nished them at home. The importance of in- 
door attractions at home are duly acknowledged ; 
but these are expected to lose their power when 
the long evenings and inclement seasons are 
past. With the approach of spring there comes 
a longing for out-door exercise and amusement; 
and, for this, a garden, properly cultivated, 
with its different departments of fruit, vegeta- 
bles and flowers, is amply sufScient. 

In order to induce people to give the subject 
the consideration that it demands, we have 
been led to indulge too freely, perhaps, in 
generalities; but as it is to the amateur, and 
not to the old stager, that our hints are offered, 
what more should be expected on this occasion 
than a few generalities? It is more to set the 
readers of the Pbess thinking on the subject of 
gardening than to teach them how to garden — 
to arouse an interest in the art and not to 
make them adepts in it, that the above is 
written. But having practiced amateur gar- 
dening through a period of more than thirty 
years, we have had abundant opportunity to 
test its merits, as a source of substantial, 
wholesome and profitable enjoyment. The 
farmer, who causes two blades of grass to grow 
where only one grew before, has our sincere 
and hearty co-operation; but we have also a 
portion of this admiration and sympathy in 
reserve for the gardener, amateur or profes- 
sional, who causes oije vegetable to grow where 



Olive Growing. 

When will the list of California fruit produc- 
tions be complete ? Pomona, like the rest of 
her sex in California, is mighty hard to please. 
The more she has, the more she wants. There 
is no portion of the earth that can vie with this 
in variety of fruits, and probably there is no 
place where more experimenting is done in in- 
troducing new varieties. The olive is among 
the anticipated acquisitions to the California 
fruit-list, and experiments in localizing it are 
observed by many with a good deal of curi- 
osity. To such, the following from the San 
Diego Union will be of interest: 

Last week we had the pleasure of visiting 
the beautiful place of H. M. Higgins, on the 
Sweetwater. Many of the things seen there 
are worthy of special notice; but at present we 
shall speak simply of the young olive-trees. 
Not many had been planted — only enough for 
an experiment ; but the experiment is worthy 
the attention of all our landholders. The trees 
are of only two years' growth from cuttings, and 
yet they have already begun to bear. An- 
other year will give quite a good crop; and 
each succeeding year the yield will increase 
until the trees have attained full maturity. 
The prevailing impression has been that the 
olive will not bear until 10 years old, this being 
the ordinary time of bearing in other portions 
of the world, with most of the varieties culti- 
vated. But in California, with the varieties 
here planted, the case is different. Colonel 
Hollister's extensive orchard, four miles back 




GOVERNMENT HOUSE AT SYDNEY. 



only two blades of grass formerly grew. We 
shall, therefore, in order to arouse a more 
general taste for gardening, and to diflTuse a 
knowledge of its rudiments, follow up the 
subject in future numbers of the Pbess. 



Chop Pbospects at San Luis Obispo. — 
Judging from the outlook presented to us in 
this county, we are to have a feast, for a boun- 
tiful harvest is being reaped and gathered in on 
every side. Good reports reach us from the 
north, south and central portions of the county. 
Barley will be far more than an average crop. 
Some little damage has been done to the late 
barley by the grasshoppers. In the northern 
part they seem to have committed more depre- 
dations than elsewhere. If the crops had been 
two weeks further along, these long-legged, 
molasses-mouthed marauders would have done' 
no injury to speak of. They have an appetite 
for late barley, it seems. When the grain is 
nearly ripe, all the milk concentrates in the 
stem, just below the head. They drill for the 
milk, and cut the head entirely ofl'. It falls to 
the ground, and of course cannot be recovered. 
There are, perhaps, 4,000 acres in grain di- 
rectly adjoining San Luis Obispo. The wheat 
is good, and will average as high as 40 bushels 
per acre. The barley will go considerably 
above that figure. A great deal of grain has 
already been cut, and is now ready for the 
threshing-machine. Some of the steam thresh- 
ers are already shelling out a stream of golden 
sand. The facilities for moving the grain are 
better now than ever before. The grain sur- 
plus in the northern part can be shipped from 
San Simeon, LeflBngwell's, Cayncos and Mor- 
row landings, while the southern portion natu- 
rally finds an outlet through San Luis Obispo 
harbor, which is the safest and most conven- 
iently arranged landing along our county front. 
— Tribune. 

Idaho has a malformation in the shape of a 
lamb, whose head and neck are covered with 
what might be called feathers, while it has but 
one eye, which solitary optic is set in the cen- 
ter of its head. 



from the coast, at Santa Barbara, was in bear- 
ing three years after planting. The Kimball 
Brothers, also, have two-year old trees full of 
fruit, on their lands at National City, upon the 
Bay of San Diego. Mr. Higgins' place is far- 
ther off the coast, being about eight miles in- 
land, where the air is less saline, and the winds 
from off the ocean are very much moderated. 
At these three places the trees are not planted 
in valley land, but on the mesa or table land. 
By mulching, for a yard or more, all around 
the trees, or by covering the surface with sand 
from fix to eight inches deep, the under-soil 
is kept loose and moist; so that only occasional 
and moderate irrigation is required during the 
first three or four years, until the roots have 
struck suflSciently deep to reach permanent 
moisture. At the Mission of San Diego, the 
old trees, planted by the missionaries, a hun- 
dred years ago, are in valley land, and they 
probably never were irrigated. Their present 
flourishing condition, after many years of neg- 
lect, and the vigorous growth and healthy 
appearance of the trees at the Hollister, Hig- 
gins and Kimball places, show that from Santa 
Barbara down to the Mexican boundary, all 
along the coast, and for at least 10 miles back, 
the soil and the climate, on upland and in valley, 
are peculiarly adapted to the growth of the 
olive. 

Feom farmers living in the vicinity of Soque 
and Aptos, we learn that the late sown grain is 
a failute this year,from rust and blight. Wheat, 
barley and oats, thit had not a fair start before 
the cold rains set in, followed by the hot sun- 
shine, drooped and died. On the Salinas 
plains, in the vicinity of Deep Wells and Sole- 
dad, a simitar misfortune befell the late-sown 
wheat. 

Thk New Local Option Oegan. — The Daily 
Independent Califomian, now in its third week 
of publication, has entered the campaign with 
much earnestness and vigor. It evidently had 
its birth in the Locu,i Option movement; but 
its publishers announce their determination to 
make it a permaneat publication. 



Fair of State Agricultural Society, 

We have received a premium list of the Cali- 
fornia State Agricultural Society for the fair of 
1874, at Sacramento. The fair commences on 
the 21st and ends on the 26th of September. 
Over $20,000 are appropriated to premiums. 
The departments are comprehensive, embrac- 
ing nearly everything of an industrial charac- 
aoter, and much of art, and are judiciously 
classed. 

In this initial but important move the State 
Board of Agriculture manifests a progressive 
spirit and careful judgment, that may be taken 
as a guarantee of u satisfactory exhibition. 
There is every reason to hope and believe that 
the Board will fill its portion of the bill in all 
its labors and arrangements; and there is no 
reason to doubt the interest of the public in 
the fair, and the number of spectators attracted 
thither will far exceed that of any previous ex- 
hibition. It only remains for the exhibitors to 
properly fill their portion of the programme, 
to insure one of the finest agricultural displays 
that the world has ever witnessed. 

An opportunity is now offered for the ardent 
champions of special localities to prove their su- 
perior advantages. The outside world will now 
have a chance to judge each favorite spot by its 
fruits. In no way can a local paper serve the 
interests of its neighborhood so efl'ectively as by 
stimulating its readers to make the best pos- 
sible showing of the products of the locality. 
No country is so closely scrutinized in this re- 
spect as California. The wonderful versatility 
or variety of its climate and soil are well 
known, and the question, In what part 
of California shall the new-comers lo- 
cate ? is as thoroughly ventilated as that 
of coming to the State at all. We hope 
to see each and every part so profusely 
and judiciously advertised at the ap- 
proaching fair that whatever a man may 
want he will know just where to find it 

It is expected that the display of farm 
stock at the coming fair will excel that 
of any previous exhibition, as the past 
year has been remarkable for the in- 
creased enterprise manifested by stock- 
breeders ; especially in the cattle depart- 
ment. The exhibition is also looked 
forward to with the highest anticipa- 
tions, as the growing crop gives promii e 
of unusual excellence. The approach- 
ing lair will also undoubtedly do much 
toward solving the question of the dis- 
posal of our enormous amount of fruit, 
as the great improvements made in dry- 
ing and canning will be properly rep- 
resented there. A more complete lint 
than usual of agricultural implements 
of California manufacture is also antici- 
pated. The above, however, are mert< 
items among the new points of intereht 
connected with the coming fair; while 
the standard merits of our annual exhi- 
bition will, at least, be up to any former 
display. 

There is a large and extremely inter- 
esting class of California industries, 
embracing those matters that as yet hold 
the position of experiments, which we 
hope will be exhibited each in their pres- 
ent degree of perfection. All of them 
will command attention, and some of 
them are of great importance, and are 
expected to become prominent among the 
great interests of the State. Let the 
ardent enthusiasts and patient experimenters 
in these matters show the world at what point 
they have arrived. 

A Scene at Sydney. 

A visitor to New South Wales thus describes 
the subject and surroundings of the engraving 
which we here present to the readers of the 
Press : 

Sydney is really a magnificent place, and 
far superior to what I anticipated it to be. 
Surrounded, as it is, with numerous islands, 
bold, rocky cliffs, fine promenades, splendid 
gardens, and stately mansions — and among the 
most stately is the Governor's palace — the ap- 
proach to which is the most delightful riding 
place I have ever seen — you may almost suppose 
that yon are in " Merrie England." The com- 
forts and every-day habits of the people make 
this still more apparent to the visitor. Unlike 
California, there is not a variety of population 
from all parts of the world. Neither is there 
to be seen the same business activity that you 
meet with all over that State, although this 
city of Sydney is fully as large as San Fran- 
cisco. The climate somewhat resembles that 
of San Francisco. 



BuTTEB Made by Steam. — Mr. C. S. Abbott, 
the owner of the Abbott House, has a dairy 
ranch on the Salinas river, three miles from 
the city. He has 1,500 cows, and makes butter 
altogether. He gets an average of 100 pounds 
per cow, and produces 150,000 pounds of but- 
ter annually. This, we believe, is the largest 
butter ranch in the State. The churning, and 
the regulation of temperature in the milk 
house, is wholly done by steam; and he makes, 
as we know, a number one article of butter. 



TuK wool shipment from Lake aud Mendo- 
cino counties has commenced. It all goes 
through Cloverdale. The clip this year is 
larger and finer tljan any previous year. 



10 



[July 4, 1874 



I 



rSCELL/^fJEOUs. 



Man Five Hundred Thousand Years Old. 

The New York yation condenses from an 
English scientific periodical some interesting 
wpeculations of Dr. Alfred Russell AVallace, on 
the probable antiquity of the human species. 
They may well startle, it says, even those who 
have long since come to the conclusion that 
6,000 years carry us but a small way back to 
the original home. In fact, in Dr. Wallace's 
reckoning, 6,000 years are but a day. He re- 
views the various attempts to determine the 
antiquity of human remains or works of art, 
and finds the bronze age in Europe to have 
been pretty accurately fixed at 3,000 or ■1,000 
years ago)^ the stone age, of the Swiss lake 
dwellings, at 5,000 or 7,000 years, "and an in- 
definite auterior period." 

The burnt brick found sixty feet deep in the 
Nile alluvium, indicates an antiquity of 20,000 
yeiirs; another fragment at seventy-two feet 
gives 30,000 years. A human skeleton found 
at a depth of sixteen feet below four hundred 
buried forests, superimposed upon each other, 
has been calculated by Dr. Dowler to have an 
antiquity of 50,000 years. But all these es- 
timates pale before those which Kent's cavern 
at Torquiiy legitimates. Here the drip of the 
stalagmite is the chief factor of our computa- 
tions, giving us an upper floor which divides 
the relics of the last two or throe thousand 
years from a deposit full of the bones of ex- 
tinct mammalia, indicating an Arctic climate. 

Names cut in the stalagmite more than two 
hundred years ago are still legible; in other 
words, where the stalagmite is twelve feet 
thick and the drip still very copious, not more 
than a hundredth of a foot has been deposited 
in two centuries— a rate of 5 ft. in 100,000 years 
Below this, however, we have a thick, much 
older and more crystalUne (i. e. more slowly 
formed) stalagmite, bene:ith which again, "in 
a solid breccia, very different from the cave 
earth, undoubted works of art have been 
found." Mr. Wallace assumes only 100,000 
years for the upper floors and about 250,000 for 
the lower, and adds 150,000 for the immediate 
cave-earth, by which he arrives at the sum of 
half a million years that have probably elapsed 
since human workmanships were buried in the 
lowest depths of Kent's cavern. 

Test foe Alum in Flouk or Bread.— Ac- 
cording to La Science pour Tous, if a drop of 
alcoholic extract of logwood be allowed to fall 
upon pure bread or flour, a spot of yellowish- 
brown color will be the result. If the flour 
contain alum in the proportion of one or two 
per cent., the color is grey, blue, or grayish- 
violet; if five per cent., the spot is reddish- 
yellow, with an edge of greyish-blue, such spots 
of blue being detected in its disc by means of 
a lens. With 25 per cent., the blue border is 
no longer visible, but the spots may be discov- 
ered. This appears to be given as a recent 
French discovery, but Dr. Letheby used a de- 
coction of logwood as a test for alum in bread 
more than 10 years ago. Mr. Cro6kes, after 
trying it, decided that it was Of no value; but 
other chemists have commended it highly. Mr. 
Horsley's process ia as follows: He makes a 
saturated solution of ammonia carbonate, and 
puts a teaspoonful of it, with the same quan- 
tity of the logwood tincture, into a wiuuglassful 
of Wiiter, in a white ware dish; a slice of bread 
is put in for five minutes, then removed, and 
allowed to drain ; in an hour or two it turns 
blue if alum be present. 

Gctta-Peecha and Vulcanized Kiibber. — 
These are entirely distinct substances. Gutta- 
percha is the gum of the "percha" trees, found 
in the Malay Peninsular, of which the Jcos- 
andra gulUi is the chief. Vulcanized rubber is 
the concentrated gum of several kinds of plants 
and trees rendered hard by the action of 
heat. It usually has a certain proportion of 
sulphur compounded with it. Vulcanized rub- 
ber is not affected by boiling water. Gutta- 
percha, on the contrary, softens in boiling 
water, so that it can be molded into forms which 
it retains when cold. — .4m. Artisan. 



In a note to the French Academy upon the 
diflerent conditions under which lead is attacked 
by water, M. Ad. Bobierre states that he has 
proved by numerous experiments the law that, 
with the exception of rain and distilled water, 
potable waters in general do not attack lead in 
a sensible manner except when the surface is 
alternately in contact with water and air. The 
author believes that a great part of the poison- 
ous mat'rial in a plumbiferous water is often 
held in suspension, and can be removed by 
proper filtration. 

M. DtJM.« has communicated to the French 
Academy some carious experiments of MM. 
Trojst and Hautefeuille, on the hydrates of 
mercury or combinations of hydrogen with that 
metal. These combinations, it is said, so 
strongly resemble those which constitute the 
amalgams of mercury, with silver and other 
white metals, that it is hardly possible to doubt 
that they are themselves amalgams, and hence 
that hydrogen is a metal, a fact apparently in- 
dicated in many other analogies. 

To Car Glass Jabs.— Fill the jar with lard 
oil to where you want to cut the jar; then heat 
ai! iron rod or bar to red heat, immerse in 
the oil; the unequal expansion will check the 
jar all round at the surface of the oil, and you 
can lift off the top part. 



Preservation of Metallic Surfaces. 

The groat tendency of sheet iron to decay by 
oxidation has led to the employment of many 
methods of preventing it. The first and most 
natural seems to be a coating of some sub- 
stance, and paint or oleaginous varnish has 
been much used. This is often employed 
where the exposure of the natural color of the 
iron is of no account, or where there is no do- 
sire to conceal the material of which the work 
to be preserved is made. 

Asphaltum and black varni.sh are largely em- 
ployed in many places, and a surface thus pro- 
tected is susceptible of being gilded and elabo- 
rately finished, after the manner of tea trays, 
waiters, coffee cans, etc. Coating the sheet 
metal by immersion in a bath of melted tin is 
adopted, and is the most common, and perhaps 
the best, protection sheet iron can have. A 
familiar illustration is the numerous articles 
of household use that are so very common. 

There is a process called galvanizing (but 
the term is not properly applied, as the pro- 
cess is not completed by the galvanic current), 
and this is very extensively used now. It con- 
sists in coating the iron by immersion in 
melted zinc, as in coating with tin. Articles of 
cast or malleable iron that are exposed to 
damp, or are for use under water, are coated in 
this way with advantage. Specimens of this 
method may be seen in the iron fixtures of 
washing machines, churns, wringing machines, 
etc. 

Tlyre is also a process of enameling, in 
which the article is dipped into a gummy fluid, 
and the gloss or enamel, reduced by pulveriza- 
tion or grinding to a powder, is dusted on the 
gummy surface, where it adheres. The article 
is then put into a muffle and placed in a fur- 
nace, where, after a short exposure to a certain 
heat, fusion takes place, and a uniform coating 
is obtained, which is a good protection to such 
articles as breadpans, saucepans, etc. Enam- 
eled kettles and saucepans used by the house- 
.^ife for boiling or cooking acid fruits are made 
in this way; and the application of such a 
coating should be more generally adopted. 

To coiit the sheets of iron with either tin, 
zinc or enamel, it is first immersed in sul- 
phuric or muriatic acid for a suflicient time to 
clean them of grease or oxide; after that they 
are washed clean, and again dipped itito a 
solution of muriate of zinc, and finally placed 
in a bath of tin or zinc, a thin coating of 
which immediately adheres to the surface. 

By means of the electro-deposit process sheet 
metal may be coated with gold, silver or cop- 
per; but this process is used most for articles 
of ornament, and is intended to hide the metal 
of which they are formed. As the process is 
quite cheap, when but a light coating of the 
metal is required, it is extensively used, sheet 
brass or soft metal being chiefly selected for 
this purpose. — Iron Age. 



Ibon Auchitectube. — The use of iron as a 
building material has of late years been largely 
increased, especially in works of magnitude 
and import mce, in consequence of the very 
great facility with which it can be manufac- 
tured into almost any required form, and the 
almost uulimited strength it possesses, if judi- 
ciously treated and applied. Yet, notwith- 
standing the enormous amouut of iron con- 
struction that architects see constantly em- 
ployed in all directions by engineers, it would 
appear that very few of them deem it worth 
while to learn anything about its capabilities 
and qualities as a building material. Architects 
do occasionally use iron in columns and gird- 
ers, but they make but little effort to extend its 
use so that it might take the place of the mate- 
rials which have been used from time imme- 
morial, and with which they are more familiar, 
us brick, stone or wood. Hence it is that 
whenever any large building is erected, the 
whole credit of the design and execution is car- 
ried off by an engineer; although, perhaps, 
an architect may be called in to assist in the 
decorative features. And this state of things 
will continue to be so as long as architects are 
contented to take their knowledge of iron-con- 
struction at second-hand from the engineers. 
It is, however, a matter for serious considera- 
tion whether the architectural profession should 
be satisfied with simply endeavoring to imitate 
the styles and modes of building employed in 
former ages, rather than attempt to keep up 
with the rapid advance of the present age, and 
meet its requirements by adopting the use of 
a material of which our ancestors had but very 
limited knowledge. — Builder. 



Nozzle fob Delivebing Wateb. — In a recent 
lecture on "Liquids," at the Koyal Institution, 
Professor Tyndall mentioned that he had 
learned from Shaw, the head of the London 
Fire Department, that a scratch in the nozzle 
of a fire-engine delivery pipe, which an ordi- 
nary workman might overlook, will reduce its 
throwing power from 300 feet down to 150 feet. 
Our hydraulic miners in this State have fre- 
quently noticed strange and unUccouutable va- 
riations in the force of the stream while the 
water remained constant; but we think that a 
falling off of one-half, resulting from an over- 
looked scratch, is rather heavy. 



Type metal is composed of lead witfi % or 
li of its weight of antimony, or: lead 2 parts, 
tin 1 part, antimony 1 part, or: lead 15 parts, 
tin 1 part, antimony, 4 parts. 

A Mauch Chunk man, it ii said, has invented 
a machine to separate slate from coal. 



Needles. 

So little we believe, is popularly known re- 
garding the history and many elaborate pro- 
cesses necessary to transform a piece of simple 
wire into the beautiful and highly finished little 
implement so indispensable to the personal 
comfort of civilized beings, that we feel no 
apology is needed to our reader, if we endeavor 
in this short article to jot down a few interest- 
ing items of information respecting the needle, 
gathered from the Iron Trade Vircular, Loudon. 
In the first place there is the wire in huge 
coils, which are cut by immense shears. The 
wire is again cut into the diflerent sizes re- 
quired, each length b;ing so divided as to make 
two needles. Sever.il thousands of these 
lengths are then placed within two rings, about 
six inches in diameter, made of rough wrought 
iron, and are then straightened by being rubbed 
with a hot iron. The wire is next pointed at 
either end, a beautiful process to witness, in- 
numerable sparks being emitted during the 
operation caused by the friction of the grind- 
stone and wire, and which resemble a shower 
of golden fire. Some idea of the rapidity with 
which this is effected may be formed when it 
is stated that one man is expected to point 22 
packets of 50,000 each in a week. The next 
process is that of brightening the middle por- 
tion of the wire, previously to stamping, that 
is, roughly shaping the head and eye, without 
actually perforating the wire. "Eyeing," as 
it is called, is the next stage, and is done by 
girls with extraordinary rapidity and accuracy; 
a smart hand can punch as many as 40,000 in 
a working day of 10 hours. They are now 
splitted, which consist in two thin wires being 
thrust through the eye; this operation is 
always allotted to boys. "The reader must now 
suppose the needles in "sheets," which have 
next to be filed, that is, the flange formed by 
punching the eye is filed off, the sheets are 
broken in two, now first forming the distinct 
needle. The heads are now again fihd and the 
needles then rubbed and hardened ; next washed 
and "evened," that is, they are sorted into par- 
ticular lengths, and are now ready for "temper- 
ing," perhaps the most delicate operation of 
all, and which is always superintended by one 
of the firm. Picking, straightening, and 
scouring follow, which latter operation, by the 
way, comprises about 14 different processes and 
extends over a fortnight. 

Clranino Brass — A correspondent writes: 
The following is a recipe I have successfully 
tried in cleaning brass and copper: I make a 
mixture of one part of common nitric acid and 
one-half part sulphuric acid in a stone jar; then 
I place ready a pail of fresh water and a box of 
sawdust. I dip the articles to be cleaned in 
the acid, then remove them into the water, after 
which I rub them with sawdust. This imme- 
diately changes them to a brilliant color. If 
the brass is greasy, it must be first dipped in a 
strong solution of potash and soda in warm 
water. This cuts the grease so that the acid 
has the power to act. This is a Government 
recipe used in the arsenals. We will add to 
the above recipe thut first washing in clean 
water, and second in water in which aqua 
ammonia has bden placed to neutralize all trace 
of the remaining acid upon the surface of the 
brass, is an improvement upon the above pro- 
cess, wtich is, in all other respects, a good one. 
After dipping in the ammonia water and clean- 
ing in the sawdust, if a good quality of lacquer 
be used, the effect is very fine. This process 
is excellent in preparing brass _labels stamped 
from thin sheets. — Ariizan. 



Vulcanized rubber coated iron tubes are now 
manufactured in Philadelphia, which will bear 
over 300 degrees heat, the rubber being pre- 
pared at 400 degrees Fahrenheit. The pipes 
can therefore be used for either hot or cold 
water. Gas and vrater are said to have no 
effect on them, and the coating resists sulphuric 
and muriatic acids and caustic potash solution. 

Tbansfebbino Piotubes to Gla,ss. — Coat the 
glass with a varnish of balsam of fir in turpen- 
tine, then press the engraving on smoothly and 
evenly, being careful to remove all air bubbles. 
Let it stand for 24 hours, then dampen the 
back sufficiently to allow the paper to be rub- 
bed off by the lorefinger, rubbing it till a mere 
film is left on the glass, then varnish again. 

Two recipes are given in the Scientific Ameri- 
can for removing tallow and white lead which 
have been applied to polished parts of machin- 
ery to prevent rust: 1. Use turpentine, and 
rub it in well. 2. Try a concentrated solution 
of caustic potash, scrubbing with an old sorub- 
biog brush. 

The Fboo Baromf.ter. — In some countries 
frogs are used as barometers; the species em- 
ployed for this purpose is the green tree frog, 
'fhey are placed in tall glass bottles with little 
wooden ladders, to the top of which they 
always climb in fine wciither, and descend at 
the approach of bad weather. This is a cheap 
and highly interesting weather glass where the 
green tree frog is to be procured in its natural 
state.— Science Gossip. 

Wood can be ornamented by punching down 
carefully in patterns, planing off a little, and 
then wetting; the parts punched down show in 
relief above the planed surface and make quite 
a puzzle. 

Dredging upon the shores of the Baltic pro- 
duced, in 1870, 14 cwt. of amber, value £60,000. 



Straw Board. 

The manufacture of straw board is a growing 
industry. Notwithstanding it is comparatively 
modern, its increase has been so great that it 
has nearly trebled the price of straw during a 
period of 20 years. Although based upon the 
game general principles as paper making, it 
differs from the methods employed for fine 
papers in several important particulars, some 
of the processes being omitted and others not 
required in the latter being necessary. 

The first process consists in boiling the straw 
with quick-lime. This is done in a wooden di- 
gester which takes steam from a boiler. The 
straw is packed in layers with lime between 
them, and the whole boiled for from 10 to 12 
hours, according to circumstances. Straw is 
composed of a tube of woody fiber and cellular 
tissue, having upon its outer surface a cu'iole 
composed of silicates of potassa and soda, with 
some free silica. The woody fiber also con- 
tains some silica. To the silicious cuticle the 
straw owes, in great part, its strength. The 
same cuticle also covers the leaves of the differ- 
ent grains and grasses, and gives them the 
sharp cutting edge often observed in the coar- 
ser varieties. 

The boiling process is therefore chemical in 
its effect. The reaction which takes place is 
the combination of the lime and the silica, 
which leaves the straw in a soft and pulpy 
slate. The mass is now ground by a machine 
similar in principle to that used for grinding 
the ordinary paper pulp — namely, a revolving 
cylinder, upon which knives are fixed, which 
play between a series of fixed knives on a bed- 
plate. The straw is not chopped by these 
knives, but is gradually disintegrated until it is 
reduced to a uniform pulp. 

The entire mass is now drawn into a vat, 
which contains water, and is kept constantly 
agitated by a series of revolving arms. A wire- 
gauze cylinder ia so adjusted that it will revolve 
partially beneath the surface of the fluid mass. 
The pulp adheres to the gauze and is carried 
around to another cylinder, around which an 
endless belt of felt runs. Ihe latter cylinder 
presses upon the gauze, and by this means the 
pulp is ma ie to adhere to the felt, and con- 
densed so as to give it enough consistency to be 
taken up by another cylinder, called a forming 
cylinder. The cylinder is one of a pair made 
of polished metal, and by them the pulp is 
strongly compressed. The pulp is wound 
around the former until the proper thickness is 
reached; this is determined by an indicator. 
Along the forming cylinder there is a groove 
planed out, through which the operator now 
passes a wooden knife, thus severing the soft 
board; and at the same time he unwinds the 
sheet and removes it. These sheets are cut so 
as to form other sizes, and then dried, which 
completes the process. Woolen rags are some- 
times ground and mixed with the straw pulp. 
This makes a mu3h darker-colored and heavier 
board, which is worth considerably more than 
the pure straw board. 

The boards as thus manufactured are appli- 
cable to a great variety of useful purposes, 
among which book-binding, button-making 
and paper-box manufacture are most promin- 
ent. — Furniture Gazette. 

The Age of Coal. 

It seems probable that vegetable matter may, 
under favorable conditions, be converted into 
coal much more rapidly than most chemical 
geologists are in the habit of assuming. At 
least, a curious instance of an approach toward 
such conversion within the historic period has 
been brought before the German Geological 
Society. In one of the old mines of the Upper 
Hartz some of the wood originally employed as 
timbering has become so far altered as to as- 
sume most of the characteristics of a new lignite, 
or brown coal. It appears that certain of the 
levels in the ancient workings of this mine are 
filled with refuse matter, consisting chiefly of 
fragments of clay-slate, more or less saturated 
with mine water, and containing here and there 
fragments of the old timbering. This wood, 
when in the mine, is wet, and of a leathery con- 
sistence, but on exposure to the air it rapidly 
hardens to a solid substance, having most, if 
not all, the characteristics of a true lignite. It 
breaks with a well-marked conchoidal fracture, 
and the parts which are most altered present 
the black lustrous appearance characteristic 
of the German "pitch coals." At the same 
time, chemical examination of the same wood 
shows that it stands actually nearer to true coal 
than do some of the younger tertiary lignites. 
This instance seems, therefore, to prove that 
pine-wood, when placed under highly favorable 
conditions, may be converted into a genuine 
lignite, within a period which, from what we 
know of the history of mining in Hartz, can not 
have extended beyond four centuries. — Alh- 
eiuruia. 

Albumen Extbacted from Milk. — Schwalbe 
has found that if oil of mustard be added to 
cow's milk in the proportion of one drop to 1.1 
drams, the milk does not coagulate even after 
being kept for a considerable period; but that 
the caseino is transformed into albumen. If 
this discovery, says Les Mondes, is confirmed, 
it will be of considerable importance in the 
prjnt< d fabric industry. 



II 



To remove tattoo marks from the skin, blis- 
ter the part with a plaster a little larger than 
the mark; their keep the place open for a week 
with an ointmc it; finally, dress it to get well. 
As the new skin grows the tattoo marks will 
disappear. 



July 4, 1874.1 



U 



How a Great Discovery was Made. 

M. Claude Collas, a celebrated French chem- 
ist, communicates to Les Mondes an interesting 
paper on how discoveries are made. To M. 
Collas is due the honor of first recognizing ni- 
tro-benzol, or, as it is better known, essence of 
mirbane, a yellowish oil derived from coal tar, 
having a very sweet taste and an odor strongly 
resembling that of bitter almonds, which latter 
peculiarity has led to its extended use in per- 
fumery. In telling the story of how he found 
this substance, he says that, during the year 
1848, he was engaged in researches with a view 
of utilizing industrially the quantities of light 
oil which, having no employment, and hence 
very small value, filled up the cisterns in gas 
houses. It was at that time worth about one 
cent a pound. After vainly endeavoring to 
solve the problem for some time, M. Collas 
was about to relinquish the task, when it oc- 
curred to him to treat the oil in the same man- 
ner as gun cotton, that is, with a mixture of 
mouohydrated nitric acid and sulphuric acid. 
"After the operation, the acids being separated 
by water," he says, "I was astonished to find 
at the bottom of my vessel a yellow button. 
The oil, at first lighter than the water, had be- 
come heavier, and hence sunk. I touched it 
with my finger and rubbed it on my hand, 
when the strong characteristic odor became at 
once forcibly apparent. I had found an es- 
sence which, at the cheapest, could replace a 
substance in great demand, and which was 
worth, instead of five centimes (one cent), fifty 
francs (ten dollars), a pound." 

This discovery of mirbane was, however, 
only the prelude of the greater one, subse- 
quently made, of the magnificent colors which 
could be derived from the aniline obtained by 
its deoxidation by means of nascent hydrogen 
evolved from iron filings and acetic acid. In 
1856 Perkin obtained from aniline the beautiful 
violet color known as mauve, and since then 
the dyes thus derived have been produced to 
such an extent that their value to industry is 
almost beyond calculation. The little button 
of mirbane, however, in the modest laboratory 
of a Parisian apothecary, was the germ from 
which the whole grand series sprang. 

There seems to be a kind of fatality about 
great discoveries which brings them forth in 
its own time. Men stumble across valuable 
ideas, and learn important truths too soon, 
which lie dead during their lifetime, only to be 
appreciated by the world after their death. 
The history of arts and sciences abounds in 
examples. Faraday, in 1825. founa benzol in 
the tarry residues of gas works, but that illus- 
trious chemist obtained neither fame nor profit 
for his discovery, which would doubtless have 
remained biiried in the archives of the British 
Royal Institution until the attention of the sci- 
entific and industrial world was drawn to the 
chemical properties of the substance, almost 
forty years later. Again, it often happens that 
discoveries escape those who are, by accident, 
placed in the very position to seize Upon them. 
M. Collas cites, as evidence of this, the case of 
a French chemist who, in 1846, made a yellow 
dye for silk by the action of nitric acid on coal 
oil. The peculiar odor of the mirbane, which 
he must have produced, escaped him, and he 
failed to recognize the new substance which he 
had obtained. — Scientific Amei-ican. 

In a French industrial establishment employ- 
ing 630 men, chiefly vegetarians, the introduc- 
tion of animal food saved twelve days' work a 
year per man, which had previously been lost 
through illness or fatigue. 



NOTICE. 

To Farmers and Grangers. 
LAIRD'S PATENT SEAMLESS BAG. 

"WBI. IjAIKX* a CO., Olainilacturei-s. 

ELLIS READ, Agent. 
10T7-3in U04 Culll'ornla Street. 




Magnetic Spring House at Vine Hill, 

EIGHT MILES FROM SANTA CRUZ, ON THE SAN 
JOSE ROAD. 

The above house has been built for the benefit of 
Invalids, Hunters, Pleasure Seekers and those seeking 
recreation generally. The spring water is heavily 
charged with magnetism, charging knives at times 
so as to pick up a needle. Water has affected wonder- 
ful cures in Neuralgia, Kidney Disease and affections of 
the optic nerve. A splendid view of Monterey Bay 
can be had from the house. Guest giving me a call 
can rely upon it that no pains livill be spared to make 
their stay an agreeable one. Board, $2 a day or $10 a 
week. Hot and cold baths, 25c each. 

25v7.3m C. G. FISK, Proprietor. 



WHA^LE OIL !!*OA.I>, 

— FOB— 

■"^struction of Bugs on Plants, Etc. 

PHCENIX OIL WORKS. 

517 Frojit Street SAN FRANCISCO. 

20v7-lm 



RANCHOS 
FOR SALE ON A LONG TIME. 



The "JURUPA RANCHO," situated on both sides of 
the Santa Ana River, between Anaheim (Los Angeles 
county) and the town of San Bernardino, containing 
35,717 acres, of which a large proportion is level and 
adapted to grain, general agriculture, grapes, semi- 
tropical fruits, etc. The famous "Riverside Colony," 
founded by Judge North, embraces a portion of the 
east end of this Rancho. 

Also, for sale, the Rancho "LA SIERRA SEPUL- 
VIDA," adjoining on the southeast, and containing 
17,7GJ acres. 

The Southern Overland Railroad w 11 necessarily pass 
through or very near the Jiirupa Rancho. Apply to 
ALFRED ROBINSON, Trustee, 
542 MARKET STREET, 



ap25-tf 



N. E. Cor. Montgomery. 



FARM FOR SALE. 

103 A.ox'osS mile from the tnwn ofWindsor; 1 mile 
from depot; 2!^ miles from tlie lamous Russian river. 
The place is beautifully tiiuated ; land all level, divided 
into three fields well imjiroved. Good house of nine 
rooms and cIo>cts : good barn aaJ outhouses ; good orchard 
of superior fruit: vineyard 12 years old. .■\d abundance 
(if sott water; land well adai>ted to grain and vegetables; 
about 2,50y cnr<ls of black oak timber; and wood brings 

t5 per cord at depot. Thne and one-half hours ride from 
an Francisco, on line of N. P. R. R. Title, United States 
patont. For particulars apply to JOSEPH DIMMU-'K 
P. O. Box 22, Windsor, Sonoma Cu., or to Dewey &, Co., 
San FranciKco, Cai. Puce, $40 per acre. aplS-tt 



FOR SALE. 



A splendid HOP RANCH, in one ef the best valleys 
in the State; good dry-house and machinery; about 
thirty acres of hops in good condition. Will be sold 
at a b.irgain; terms to suit. 



apl8-tf 



P. H. SUMNER, 

329 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



FOR SALE. 
lOO ..Vci-ew o±' Groocl Land, 

ONE-FOURTH MILE FROM ST. HELENA. 

A portion of the land suitable for Hops; the remainder 
good for grain or fruit. All fenced and in cultiva- 
tion. Cheap and on reasonable terms. 
Uv7.tf P. H. SUMNER. 



DAIRY RANCH FOR SALE, 

Near San Luis Obispo, well stocked and fenced, with 
fine improvements. Plenty of wood and water. 

Apply to T. H. HATCH & CO., 

320 Front street, San Francisco. 

Or, K. M. PRESTON, Old Creek, San Luis Obispo. 

20v7-:im 

Buy Real Estate while at Low Rates. 

NINE WATER-FRONT LOTS, CHEAP, 
On Gift Map 4, 
Forming about half of a block fronting on the broad 
ship channel of Islais Creek; will be sold so low as to 
make it an inducement to the buyer. Inquire for the 
owner. Room 18, No. 338 Montgomery St., 8. F. bptf 



FARMING LAND, 

TO l^EA.eSE ON &^IIA.Rli:^. 

1,000 ACRES, 

Or auv part of same, being levied and of similar char- 
acter to that of SHERMAN ISLAND. Apply to 
W. T. S. RYER, 
No. 330 Pine street San Fbancisco, Cal. 



POISON ! 

WAKELEES 



POISON ! 
PATENTED 



Granulated Squirrel Exterminator. 

A NEW AND MOST DESTRUCTIVE POISON FOR 
THE WORST PEST OF CALIFORNIA. 

For years the farmers of the Pacific Coast have been 
spending money in experimenting to find a safe, cheap 
and efficient way of ridding their grain-fields of their 
worst enemy,, THE SQUinitELs, which destroy Millions of 
Dollar.s' worth of grain every year; and unless a strong 
and lombined effort is made to kill them off, they will 
become more numerous every year. 

Wakelee's Granulated Squirrel Exterminator 

Is just the thing the farmers of California have been 
looking for. It is sure heath. One or two grains of 
it will kill a Squirrel so quick that it it is five feet 
from his hole it dies before it gets there. The Poison 
is put up DHY and in granular form, and easily han- 
dled; in one pound tins, at $1 per pound. It noes a 
gi'cat way, as 10 to 15 grains of it are sufflcient to 
place at each hole. Also successfully used for killing 
Gophers and Rats. It has been thoroughly tested in 
different parts of the country, and gave universal satis- 
faction. It is kept and sold by druggists and dealers 
generally through the country. The following are 
some of my testimonials, viz. ; 

Santa Olaka, April 20th, 1874. 
II. P. Wakklee, Esq. ;— Your Squirrel Exterminator was 
used according to your diroctidtiB, on my Q"(7o Farm with 
o-tceHent success, and in my estimation is just the thing 
the f;irmor8 want to kill their Squirrels. 

J. R. Arguello. 

San Leandeo, Cal., April 3d, 1874. 
H. P. Wakelee, Esq.— i)mr Sir: I have given your 
Squirrel Exterminator a fair trial and lind it to be an 
economical and very destructive preparation, and I can 
safely recommend it to our farmers, \ours, 

J. ai. EsTUDILLO. 

DoucHERT'V Station, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Mr. H. p. Wakelee, San Francisco: I liave used your 
Squirrel Poison and found it to be j ust what you claim for 
It. It is sure death. Yours, C. M. DouGHERxy. 

H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE. 

Is unsurpassed for its elBcacy in curing all for which 
it is recommended. All Lameness, Spavins, Callous 
Lumps and Blemishes of all kinds are speedily removed 
by it. WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop'rs. 

»v7-3m Stockton, Cal. 



DAIRY PRODUCE 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA STATE GRANGE, 

I». OX^ II., 

414&416 Sansome St., Cor. Commercial, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 

J. H. HEGLER, Manager. 



We aro now prepared to handle and dispose of all 
Daily Produce, Eggs and Poultry. 

This house is under the immediate control of the 
California State Grange; the Business Manager a thor- 
oughly practical farmer and dairyman, Master of Bodega 
Grange and General Deputy for California for the orga- 
nization of Granges in any part of California. Special 
rates to members of the Order; though any one may 
sell through our house and avail himself of our 
mode of doing business. 

In shipments give plainly the name and P. O. address. 
Any persons wishing legitimate information concerning 
our business should write to the hotise, and are cau- 
tioned against accepting for facts many rumors now 
current. All sales guaranteed. ja31-tf 




It educates practically. Its graduates are qualified 
tor bu.sinese and enabled to fill lucrative situations at 
once. Its course of instruction is adapted to all classes 
and all professions — to the farmer, mechanic, lawyer 
and physician, as well as to the man of business. It 
is .just the school for young men or ladies, who wish 
to learn how to earn their own living and succeed in 
life. Pupils can enter at any tiine, as each receives 
separate instruction. Sessions day and evening through- 
out the year For full particulajs call at tlie College, 
24 Post street, or address for circulars 

E. P. HEAXD, 

2T6-tf President Business College, San Francisco. 



SAN JOSE INSTITUTE 

— AND — 

J3u;^iiies!« College. 

The Twenty-Fifth Session commences July 
20th, 1874. 

A day and Boarding School for both sexes; the only 
Institute on the Pacific Coast where a thorough Aca- 
demic and business education can lie obtained. 

The Business College Department 
Is under the supervision of James Vinsouhaller, who 
for many years was at the head of Business Colleges of 
San Francisco. 

For circulars address 

26v7-am JAMES VINSONHALLER. 



TIPTON &. OTJRTT'S!^ 

MEDICINAL t 

SHEEP PREPARATION, 

WARRANTED FREE FROM ALL POISON. 

A sure and positive cure for Scab, Ticks and Lice, 
and a sure jiroinotive of the growth of the wool. It has 
been used in Tehama County for the past two years, 
with most gratifying results, and we have the pleasure 
of referring to the following gentlemen as to its merits, 
viz.; H. a. Rawsou, Jas. Gooch & Bro., J. W. Mont- 
gomery, .J. Eby, Curtiss k Brown, H. Bosauka, Jos. 
Cone, J. W. Gate & Sons. 

It is a liquid and put up ready for use in 2^ gallon 
tins, four tins in a case. 

WHITTIER, FULLER & CO., Sole Agt's, 

21 Front street SAN FRANCISCO. 

28 K street SACRAMENTO. 

2Bv7-tr 



ShippiDg — Yessels ip 



H. E. OXTMUJIIOB. 

1858. 



B. H, BALBTON. 
1873. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast corner of Washing 
ton, Spn Francisco. 

Oiur busluesSi being exclusively CommisKlon, wo have 

o interests tliat will conflict with those of the producer. 

■4v23-lr 



FEED-CUTTER ROLLERS 

Covered and made new in tho best maimer at UHual 
rates, at H. ROYER'S Belt Factory, ^37 Brauuau St. 



19v7-3m 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBARA, OAL. 

A Boarding School for Buys and (JirN. ofTonnR all the 
advaniagos of a thorough modtrn education. French, 
German, Spanish, Latin. Greek, Drawiiin, the Natural 
KcienLes, Gymnastics and Uaiicini: lairr,'li(, witliout extra 
chuTKB Vocal :*nd Inatrumonial Music rcocivo particular 
attention. Pupils furnish onli/ a pair of heavy blankets. 
Next lerm open.s January Jth, 1*174, 

Write for Catalogue to ELWOOD COOPER. 

22v6-ly President Board of Directors. 



FARMERS' LINE. 

B" O R L O N D 0"n DIRECT 

THE MAGNIFICENT. A 1 CLIPPER SHIP, 
MC OIV ET A., 

621 Tons, 
W. SINCLAIR Master. 

FOR LIVERPOOL DIRECT. 

The magnificent A 1 Clipper Ship, 

1288 Tons, 
BAKEK Master 

These fine vessels have nearly full carjioes engaged 
and will have very quick dispatch. Freights taken in 
lots to suit shippers. 

WUl be followed by the splendid A 1 Iron Ship 
GEElVGA.llltY, 
1769 Tons, 
Due here in May; or by other flrst-class vessels, 

Liberal advances made on shipments of produce con- 
sfgned to our Liverpool house, Messrs. Robert Kodgers 
& Co. RODGERS, MEYER & CO. 

lHv7-3m 

liWPORTANT TO FARMERS! 
X Line to Liverpool. 

DIRECT. 
The New A 1 Clipper Ship 

FEIEDLANDEB 1,G38 tons register 

Is intended to sail with dispatch. 
Freight taken in lots to suit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 



PACIFIC POTiTERY, 

Depot— No. 3 California St., San Francisco. 

N. CLARK & CO. 

Manufacturers of 

EARTHEN AND STONEWARE. 



WATER AND SEWERAGE PIPE. 



Our Vitrified Iron Stone Pipe has been thoroughly 
tested on private estates and public works, and its mer- 
rits are fully endorsed by the loading Architects of 
the State. 

J. 15. OWEIVW, Agent. 

m9-bp-3m 



TUB A.I..DEN 

Fruit Preserving Company 

OF CAI^IFOKNIA, 

Is now prepared to sell rights and furnish the necessary 
machinery for using the "ALDEN PROCESS," ac- 
knowledged to be the best method known for 
preserving Fruits, Vegetables, Meats, etc. 

For full particulars call at the company's 

Office— Room 5, 402 Montgomery St., S. F. 

G. W. DEITZLER, President. 
W. M. WHERRY, Vice President. 
FRANK PYLE, Sec'y and Sup't. 
BANK OF CALIFORNIA, Treasurer. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OF EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORClIAlll). ITALIAN RYE, 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, MESI^UIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
RED CLOVER, Ero. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
Kother with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
SKEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA GIGAN- 
TEA, PINIS INSIGNIS, Etc. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 



(Successor to E. E. Moore) . 
425 Washington St., San Francisco. 22v7-ly 



San Francisco Employment Office, 

NO. 606 CLAY STREET, 
Oi'osott «St Co., l»i-<)i>rielorH. 

(Successors to Wm. Vail & Co.) 

COUNTRY ORDERS FOB MEN almost invariably 
filled with FIRST-CLASS HELP. 

F.irmers can always procure men in any number de- 
sirable by giving a little timely notice. Hotels can 
always got the BEST OF MALE OR FEMALE HELP, 
on short notice. Wo liaVo tho BEST OF FACILITIES 
FOR PROCURING HELP. Have an Agent on the im- 
migrant trains distributing circulars, upon the arrival 
of every train. Give us your orders and we will en- 
deavor to give you the fullest satisfaction. apl8-t( 

CHINESE EMPLOYMENT COMPANY. 

We are prepared to furnish nt sliorl notice, Domestic 
Servants, Motel iJooks, l.anndryinon. WaiU'rs, Common 
Ijab'irci-s, Fiinn Hands, (iardeiiers, Mechanics, Factory 
Hands, Wood Choppers, etc. Special attention given to 
furnishing Domestic Scivalitl, 

PIERCE A CO.. m Sacramento St., 

Ilv7-3m iiet. IVtontRcimery and Kearny Sts., S.h' 



Brittan, Hoibrooi( & Co., Importers of 

stoves and Milal.s, Tinners' Gooiln, Tot Is and MachlnoM, 
111 and 113 California, 17 and 19 Davis slreels, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street, Sacramento. 



12 



[July 4, 1874- 

■ 



/^qi\icdLTdR/^L fdojES. 



ALABIEDA. 

Habvbst Time. — Alameda, Advocate, June 27: 
Barley-cutting in this neighborhood is just 
commencing. The first reaper of the season 
is at work on Mr. Fanholt's farm south of the 
railroad. The wheat harvest is expected to 
oommence about two weeks hence. 

Splendid Grain. —Livermore Enterprise, June 
27: We paid a visit to the large ranch of A. D. 
SplivoU, Esq., situated about two and a half 
miles south of Livermore; rode through some 
of the finest and heaviest grain we have seen. 
The hillsides and tops are a perfect mass of 
wheat, and in the valleys it was impossible to 
ride through it. One field of about 260 acres 
was the Cbilanean or bearded wheat, and in 
many places it would measure over seven feet 
in hight, and none less than five. We gathered 
a few heads, most of which will weigh over an 
ounce, and one Mr. Sunol had went over two 
ounces. We dare say that nowhere in the State 
can a similar field of such heavy wheat be 
found. There is upwards of 1,300 acres in wheat, 
and Mr. Sua'ol thinks that 20,000 sacks will 
not be sufficient to remove it from the field. 
Nearly half of the entire crop will give over 60 
bushels to the acre, and not an acre will go less 
than 35 bushels. The harvesting commenced 
on Monday, and it is expected to finish in about 
35 to 40 days. 

WoBKMEN. — During the week there has been 
quite a demand for laborers in the harvest field. 
Our farmers are paying the highest wages, and 
good steady hands find no difficulty in getting 
work. 
BtTTTE. 

Help Wanted.— Butte Record, June 27: 
Farmers complain very much of scarcity of 
labor, it being next to impossible to find men 
to assist in harvesting. A large number of 
sober, industrious men, can find employment 
about Chico for some time. 
CONTBA COSTA. 

Fine Wheat Fields.— Contra Costa Oazelte, 
June 27 : Along the San Ramon road between 
Walnut creek and Danville, there are several 
fields that bid fair to yield 50 bushels or more 
per acre. ' 

Favorable Weatheb. — The cool weather we 
have had for the past week or more has been 
rarely favorable to the maturing grain crops at 
the critical stage of growth, and most of the 
barley is now about ready for the reaper, while 
the early sown wheat is tilling plumply and 
taking on the greenish golden hues peculiar to 
healthy ripening. 
FRESNO. 

Harvesting. — Fresno Expositor, June 27: 
Harvesting is progressing favorably throughout 
the county. The grain is yielding as well or 
b tter than was anticipated. The grain is 
averaging on various farms in this vicinity at 
from eighteen to twenty bushels per acre, and 
is plump and solid. 
INYO. 

Not the Akmt Worm. — Inyo Independent, 
June 20: It turns out that the reported army 
worm operating on Bishop creek and elsewhere 
in the county in places, is not the regular army 
worm, but is the usual volunteer to bo seen on 
corn and cabbage more or less every season. 
But no iriatter by what name, they are making 
unusual inroads on the crops here and there, 
nevertheless. 
KERN. 

Sweet Potatoes.- Tulare Times, June 27 : 
Dr. Stockton, living about sixteen miles from 
Bakersfield, Kern county, informs us that he 
last year raised twelve hundred pounds of the 
finest of sweet potatoes on the sixth of an acre 
of ground, and that this year he is cultivating 
lour acres of the vegetable, and confidently an- 
ticipates a yield of four tons to the acre. 

Salt. — A vein of rock salt has recently been 
discovered in our mountains. It is tinted with 
a pinkish color. Half a ton of it was shipped 
from Tulare this week to San Francisco. This 
will no doubt prove to be very valuable. The 
parties that discovered it have not yet revealed 
the exact whereabouts of the deposit. 
LOS ANQELES. 

Pbospeeous.— Los Angeles Express, June 25: 
But few sections of the State are in as prosper- 
ous and promising condition as this. Agricul- 
turally we are flourishing beyond all compari- 
son. Our crops this season have met with no 
set-back of any kind, and our grain now har- 
vesting is superior in every respect. The 
small fruits are ripening finely, and there will 
be a great abundance. The grape crop this 
fall will be very large. The vintners are look- 
ing forward to a vintage much more ample than 
we have had in any past year. It is believed 
that grape-growers in the vicinity of this city 
can count on much more satisfactory rates for 
their crops than they realized last year. 

From Gallatin.— Cor. Express: Crops will 
be, this year, one-third larger than any pre- 
vious year. We estimate the acreage of this 
valley planted in corn at 7,000 acres, with an 
average of 40 bjishels per acre (which, we be- 
lieve, is not over-estimated), making a total of 
280,000 bushels, worth 50 cents per bushel 
Total amount, $140,000; while we have one- 
third of that amount of land in barley and rye 
making 70,000 bushels of those cereals, worth', 
at present prices, about 40 cents per bushel' 
making a total of $28,000. This estimate inl 
eludes the hay crop, for we are not posted as 
to what amount of grain has been cut for hay 
or harvested for grain; the value in money is 
about the same, giving a total valuation for 



corn and other cereals of $168,000. This esti- 
mate does not include vegetables and fruit, of 
which there is a sufficiency of the former for 
home consumption and to spare. 

MENDOCINO. 

Fob Crops. — Mendocino Democrat, June 27 : 
With the exception of a very few days of hot 
weather, the growing season here could not be 
bettered, and has been marked with a cool 
temperature, calculated to fully mature and 
ripen grain and fruits to perfection. Our far- 
mers have reason to be thankful, and so have 
our people in general, for what benefits the 
first insures the benefit of all. 

The demand for herders this harvest is 
greater than the supply, and many farmers 
wiU be obliged to leave their grain standing 
several days longer than it should, awaiting 
the arrival of machines ordered by telegraph, 
through dealers, from the East. 

HEBCED. 

FiBB in a Grain Field. — Valley Ar^us, June 
27 : A few days ago a fire broke out in the 
grass a few miles from Plainsburg, and al- 
though the people of the neighborhood turned 
out with alacrity to fight the destroying element, 
it swept over a considerable tract of unplowed 
land, and into a grain field belonging to H. E. 
McClure. The grain being quite green, the 
force of men gathered at the scene soon suc- 
ceeded in arresting its progress and saving the 
crop from material damage. Fire has broken 
out in several places in this county since the 
grain commenced to ripen ; but so far, we have 
heard of no great damage being done. 

From the West Side. — We learn that the 
crops on the west side of the San Joaquin 
river, though short, are turning oat better than 
was expected. 
mONTERET. 

The Harvest. — Etxterprise, June 27: A slight 
shrinkage of some portions of the grain iu par- 
ticular fields, will take from what, up to four 
weeks ago, was confidently expected would 
place the yield up to, if not ahead, of previ- 
ous years. However, the crop may be pro- 
nounced a good one, and with fair prices, the 
farmers can event 1874 as one of the prosper- 
ous years. 
NAPA. 

Haying. — Calistoga Free Press, June 27: The 
farmers are getting pretty well through with 
haying. The yield, as anticipated, is very 
large. The crop is commanding about $12 per 
ton for loose hay in the field. 
PLACER. 

Farmers.— Placer Herald, June 27 : The farm- 
ers of Western Placer have about all finished 
haying, and are now engaged in heading and 
reaping their grain. The yield of the hay crop 
to the acre was generally light, although some 
farms, situated on hilly or rolling ground, have 
produced a fair crop. The alfalfa fields have 
all yielded a good return. The second crop is 
now being cut, it having grown and matured 
in about six weeks. There is probably a suffi- 
cient quantity of hay raised for home con- 
sumption. The grain crop, as to acreage, is 
more than an average. Some farmers have 
good crops, while others have comparatively 
nothing; but a greater number have what they 
term a half or two-thirds crop. 

SAH BENITO. 

Tobacco. — San Benito Advance, June 27: 
The tobacco plants look quite healthy on Geo. 
Headen's plantation, about five miles north of 
Hollister. He will have a very large crop. 
Five large drying houses are in course of erec- 
tion. 
SAN JOAaiTIN. 

Calamitous Fire. — Cor . Stockton Independ 
ent, June 27 : A fire broke out this afternoon 
which came near burning the whole country 
around us. It started on the ranch of PhiUp 
Loney, through carelessness in burning weeds 
near the house. His whole 160 acres of wheat, 
which was in the stack, was burned. The fire 
then ran east and south over a large tract of 
sheep range, mostly owned by Aug. Munter, 
then to the ranch of J. F. and N. Harrison, 
occupied by William Campbell. The whole 
ranch, 640 acres, was in grain, and three- 
fourths of it was destroyed. From Mr. Camp- 
bell's place It caught in a field of railroad land, 
occupied by J. G. Schroder. Here 80 acres of 
wheat was burned. The fire was stopped by 
back-firing from a road running north and 
south through Mr. Schroder's place. The 
yield of the greater part of the grain fields 
burned over is estimated at an average of about 
20 bushels to the acre. Had it not been for 
the fact that but very little wind was blowing 
at the time, and from the almost superhuman 
efforts of at least 300 persons, there is no know- 
ing where it would have stopped, for there is 
almost a continuous wheat field for miles east 
and south. The extent of the ground burned 
over is abjut four miles long, and from one and 
a half to two miies wide. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Fbom Watson ville.— Cor. Sentinel: It any 
one could-see the valley at the present time, 
with the magnificent crops ripe for the sickle, 
he would realize to some extent that we are do- 
ing our share toward placing the State of OaU- 
fornia in the front rank of agriculture. From 
the hill-tops to the beach, as far as the eye can 
reach, the valley represents an abundance of 
everything that the husbandman can desire. 
No blight of any kind on either grain or pota- 
toes is anticipated. On the contrary, there 
will be a larger harvest here than ever. Labo- 
rers are in demand, and soon the busy hum of 
the steam-thresher will resound through the 
valley. 



SIERRA. 

SiEBBA Vallky. — Mountain Messenger, June 
27: The prospects of farmers in Sierra valley 
are better this season than they have ever been. 
The hay crop promises to be unusually large 
and the area of grain sowed is greater than any 
previous year. There is no lack of moisture, 
and irrigation of crops in many cases will not 
be necessary, to bring them to maturity. The 
principal kinds of grain growing are barley, 
wheat and oats, the latter predominating. 

STANISLAtrS. 

Babn Burned. — Valley Mirror, June 27: On 
Sunday afternoon last, the barn of Robert Dal- 
las, situated on his ranch on the south side of 
the Tuolumne river, near Waterford, was de- 
stroyed by fire, together with fifteen tons of 
hay. The fire is supposed to have been the 
work of an insane man. It was very fortunate 
that the wind was blowing from the south at 
the time, as otherwise it would have communi- 
cated with the grain near by, and the amount 
of damage resulting therefrom would have been 
almost incalculable. 

TTTLARE. 

Linn Valley. — Visalia Delta, June 25: I 
have just returned home from a trip down Tale 
river to Tulare City, and through Visalia and 
Porterville. Plenty everywhere is the fruit of 
the farmers' labor. On Tule river haying is 
almost finished, but the grain is not yet ripe 
enough to be cut for threshing. At the Eight- 
een Mile house several headers were at work on 
the barley, and that being finished, the wheat 
will be ready to pour its abundance into the 
garner of the industrious husbandman. I saw 
on the ranch of Mr. James McCahey, of Doer 
creek, a piece of alfalfa which was planted last 
year and yielded three crops. This year it has 
been cut once, and when I saw it it stood three 
feet high, commencing to bloom, and promised 
a yield of one and one-half tons per acre, and 
for the year not less than five tons per acre — 
probably much more. There is but little in our 
own valley to communicate. The crops are 
just beginning to heud, though promise a fair 
yield. The grass is still green in the flat lands. 
YOLO. 

From Capay. — Cor. Yolo Mail, June 27 : 
The farmers are all hard at work. Harvest is 
upon them, and the golden grain is ready for 
the header. All reports are favorable for a 
l&rge return in grain for the labor bestowed 
upon the ground. All say that the berry this 
year is the heaviest and best filled they have 
ever seen, particularly that of the winter sow- 
ing. The north winds of the past week have 
done considerable damage to the ripe grain. 

Our town is improving rapidly. The new 
Grange hall, upon which work has been com- 
menced, will be an ornament to this part of the 
county. It will have a front of 30 feSt, by GO 
feet deep. F. S. Freeman & Co., of Woodland, 
will occupy the lower room as a store. Several 
other new buildings are going up. 

Threshing. — The farmers in the regions of 
the foot-liills, and particularly in Hungry Hol- 
low, in this county, have been threshing wheat 
for nearly a week. We have had reports from 
two or three parties, who represent that the 
berry is very large and plump, but that the 
yield per acre is not so great as was anticipated. 
We have not heard of any being marketed yet. 



Patents & Invent ions 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
saed to Faolfic Coast Inventors. 

[Fbom Official Bepobtb fob the Mining and Scien- 
TIFIG Press, DEWEY k CO., Publishers and 

U. S. AND FOBEION PATENT AOENTS.J 

By Special Dispatch, Dated Washington, 
D. C, Jxine 30th, 1874. 

Fob Week Ending June 16th. 1874." 

Peach and Plum-Cutting Machine.— Philo 

J. Isbell, Placerville, Cal. 
Amalgamator and Concenteatob. — William H. 

Patton, Oakland, Cal. 
Gkaining Machine. — Charles Rapp, S. F., 

Cal. 
Bellows. — James Campbell, S. F., Gal. 
Draft Equalizeb. — Josiah Dodge, Grass Val- 
ley, Cal. 
Combined Pump and Condenses fob Steam 

Engines.— Charles O. Faricot, S. F., Cal. 
Tank Roof.— Henry G. Fiske, S. F., Cal. 
Vault Cover. — William Lynch, S. F., Cal. 
Guiding Balloons. — Charles F. McGlashan, 

Truckee, Cal. 
Abtificial Stone. — Ernest L. Ransome, S. F., 

Cal. 
Mold for Mending Cbacked Bells.— Daniel 

L. Riggs, Salem, Oregon. 

Design. 

Centerpiece. — Samuel Kellett, S. F., Cal. 

*The patents fcre not ready for delivery tiy tte 

Patent Office nntil some II days after the date of issue. 
Note. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewev & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business tor Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
perfect secnrity and in the shortest time possible. 



One of our most valued exchanges is the Pacific 
Rural Press, published by Dewey & Co., San Francisco, 
California. Every number contains a vast amount of 
general news from the far west, besides much valuable 
information in the way of Grange news.— Tke Farmer's 
Friend, Mechamabvrg, Pa, 



Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Go's., Mining and Scientific Pbess, 
American and Foreign Patent Agency, the fol- 
lowing are worthy of mention: 

Machine fob Riving Shingles. — Daniel 
Shankland, Watsonville, Cal. This invention 
relates to a machine for splitting or riving 
shakes or shingles. The block of wood is se- 
cured in a carriage which feeds it uniformly to 
the frow or splitting knife. An arrangement 
for giving the knife a twist when it has entered 
the block splits the shingle off, and throws it 
clear of the machine. 

Obe Conckntbatoe and Washes. — Jonas B. 
Wilder, Sonora, Cal. Relates to a sluice section 
which is mounted on springs and given a pecu- 
liar motion and jar. The section has inclined 
diagonal grooves or channels passing across it 
which extend through the sides of the E^luice. 
The tailings from the main sluice must pass 
through this mounted section. The peculiar 
motion and jar which are given to the section 
cause the sulphurets and heavy particles to 
travel up the inclined channels and through 
the sides of the sluice, where they are dis- 
charged. 

Pbunino Implkment.— Rufus E. Farrington, 
Anaheim, Cal. This patent covers an improved 
handle for pruning instruments by which they 
can be more easily handled and operated while 
trimming the higher branches of a tree. It 
also covers improvements in the construction 
of the pruning instrument. 

AiB Compbessob.— Wm. H. Fauntleroy, 
Eureka, Cal. Mr. Fauntleroy proposes to 
compress air by hydraulic pressure so as to 
produce either light, heat or force, and des- 
cribes a system of connections with proper 
reservoirs by which the air may be transmitted 
from one point to another for the purpose of 
providing power or force for various purposes. 

Stage Ship foe Theaters. — Samuel H. 
Chapman, Sacramento, Cal. This invention 
relates to an extension ship for spectacular 
efi'ects upon the stage of a theater. The ship 
is BO constructed that when first seen by the 
audience it is quite small and seemingly in the 
distance; gradually the hull of the vessel ex- 
tends in length; gradually the masts rise; 
nearer and nearer the*ship seems to approach, 
until, finally, it stands before the audience a 
full rigged ship, filling the entire space upon the 
stag^. All this is done by men in the hull of 
the ship, who by turning a crank operate slides 
which lengthen the ship. 

Package fob Axle Grease. — J. G. Hucks, 
S. F., Cal. This invention relates to an open 
top metal can, which Mr. Hucks provides with 
a wooden cover, the edge of which is bevelled. 
This cover is crowded into the upper open end 
of the can so as to fit tightly. When the cover 
is removed the entire top of the can is open, so 
that its contents can be easily removed. 

Mechanism eor Moving Lumber. — Totham- 
mer & Osborne, S. F., Cal. This patent relates 
to a machine for moving lumber from one 
place to another; but its principal use is for 
unloading lumber from ships and depositing it 
upon the wharf or in the lumber yard, as de- 
sired. It consists of a series of jointed seo- 
tions,having rollers mounted transversely across 
them. The rollers are rotated by a belt or gear- 
ing, and are provided with spurs or projections, 
so that the lumber is moved along from one to 
the other until it arrives at its destination. 

Button Hole Sewing Machine. — J. J. Grafif, 
S. F., Cal. An improvement upon the Hum- 
phrey Button Hole Sewing Machine, by which 
the button hole is finished without taking the 
cloth from the machine, thus saving the trouble 
of finishing them by hand, as heretofore. The 
improvement is very simple, and accomplishes 
the finishing neatly and perfectly. 



DURHAM STOCK AS BTTTTER MAKERS. 

The following letter is published at the instance of 
Peter Wall, Esq. 

Gbben Valley Banch, Marin Co., May 8th, 187i. 

Mr. J. B. Redmond— i)ear Sir: We have Joat churned 
the cream obtained in seven days from our thre«-year- 
old heifer which we bought of you, and the result 1h 
foul-teen and a half pounds (14^ pounds). 

Thinking that you might be interested in the matter 
I thought best to drop you a line. If any person 
thinks that your Durham stock does not milk well I 
would like to liave them swallow this statement. 

Last year after bringing her from your place (and of 
course as a two-year-old) , and after four months from 
calving, she made, on dry feed in August, in one week, 
nine and a half pounds. Respectfully yours, 

25v7-4t O. ALLEN & SON. 



The End-Shake Tbbesheh.— The following letter is 
Irom Wm. P. Harkey, Esq., Sheriff of Sutter county, 
referring to the value of the Lanfenberg End-Shake 
Shoe for threshing machines: 

Yuba Crrr, Cal., March 2S, 1874. 

Messrs. Tbeadwell & Co., San Francisco.- (?CTt/Z«mCTi.- 
In regard to the Lanfenberg End-Shake Shoe, which I 
bought of you last season, I will say I have given it a 
thorough trial, and if I could not get another I would 
not take One Thousand Dollars for It. I nsed it 
throughout the season on a Russell Separator, which I 
had run previously with a side-shake, and it saved me 
a great deal of trouble and much loss. It saves all the 
grain. 1 eonslder it the t>p8t and most valuable im- 
provement on the threshing machine yet brought nut. 
It is absolutely indispensable to the economical working 
of a good thresher. Wm. P. Babket. 

13v7-3m 



July 4, 1074.] 

r , .1 



iWHAm ^1 



13 



S. p. P/^f^KET ^Ep©l\T. 



At Wholesale when not Otherwise Indicated. 



Weekly Market Review. 

[By oar own Reporter,] 

DOUESTIO PRODITOE. 

San Fbahcisco, Wednesday, July Ut, 1874. 

We are now just enteriug the harvest season of the 
year. It is a time when the tboiights naturally ttirn 
backward to the season past, and with anticipation for- 
ward to the future. As noted elsewhere, the last ship 
tarrying a cargo of Wheat of the crop year 1873-'74 has 
sailed. The harvests of last year are at last so nearly 
marketed that in a very short time they will exert no 
perceptible influence on the market, and even now the 
trade in them is very nearly ended. The annual sum- 
ming up will show In most quarters a favorable balance 
sheet. For the present year, we start with at least a 
splendid set of crops. To the State the gain must be 
large; though the increase in the quantity of grain is 
mostly due to additional acreage under cultivation, and 
so will not benefit the individual producers so much as 
a smaller yield, from less territory, mit,ht do. 

It is yet too early to predict with assurance the 
course of the grain market during the coming fall and 
winter. At the present prices for the new crops are 
quite low. What they will be, a few months hence, 
will dejjend entirely upon outside influences, and these 
are as yet uncertain. It should be noted, however, 
that quotations are not as low as might have been ex- 
pected some time ago, when crop reports manifested 
such a tendency towards exaggeration. 

The Fruits and Vegetables, as wrfl as the Cereals, 
are now matters of great importance to the State. In 
these the difficulty is rather to find a market than to 
produce choice kinds and plenty. The cost of freight 
to this city cuts off the margin of profit pretty closely, 
when Fruits that have every qualification are brought 
<lown to one, two and three cent^ ^ Hi. 

Keceipts 

Of Produce at this port during the past week were as 
follows: Flour, 6,900 barrels; Wheat, 32,200 centals; 
Barley, 18,100 centals; Oats, 4,840 centals; Corn, 2,240 
centals; Beans, 620 sacks; Potatoes, 17,3.30 sacks; 
Onions, 1,445 sacks; Hides, 3,4'.)4; Wool, 820 bales; Hay, 
l,460tons; Straw, 42 tons; Lemons, 1,160. 

Receipts of Oregon Produce for the month of June 
were as follows: Flour, 12,918 barrels; Wheat, 5,777 cen- 
tals; Barley, 1,231 centals; Oats, 20,392 centals; Pota- 
toes, 100 sacks; Hides, 4,52B; Wool, 1,039 bales. Ship- 
ments of Flour and Wheat from Oregon to San Fran- 
cisco, since August 1st, 1873, reduced to the Wheat 
basis, amounted to 681,900 centals; of which, however, 
most was reshlpped to Liverpool. 

Barley. 

Several hundred sacks of the new crop changed 
ihands yesterday at prices ranging from 92^c to $1.10. 
The latter price is the very best which can be obtained. 
When the Barley becomes old enough for brewing pur- 
poses, the call for this object will h^ sutllcient, alone, 
to bring up the price. During the past year receipts 
amounted to 1,115,000 centals, and exports to 484,300 
■centals. 

Dairy Produce. 

Butter is a trifle weaker to-day for Fresh, while Fir- 
kin and Pickled EoU hold theirown. California Cheese 
is still lower, and stocks are accumulating in this city. 
It is diflicuU to obtain quotations for Eastern, as little 
ts being done on account of the general depression of 
Cheese, and holders are naturally unwilling to sell at 
less than the price obtained at Eastern factories— a resul t 
which the present state of the market would seem 
likely to bring about. 

Ecre's. 

Eggs are in very scanty supply, and prices are firm. 
Feed. 

Hay still ranges from $10 to $1.5 ^ ton. Volunteer 
sellsat $11, and good Wild Oat at $14. What old Hay 
remains in market is rated at $20. Very little Straw 
has yet come in; but receipts will be large before 
long. Feed Corn Meal has again been advanced. 
Hops. 

Business Is still very dull, and quotations are almost 
nominal. The arrival of the new crop will cteatc a 
movement, at all events. We extract from Emmet 
Wells," New York, Circular, of June IH: A moderate de- 
maud has prevailed during the week for the better 
grades of California and "State," the former meeting 
with the most favor, owing to superiority in quality. 
A large proportion of our brewers having secured sup- 
plies sufficient to carry them through to the new crop, 
the only busiuest now current is that of supplying the 
Immediate wants of those who are not stocked. The 
mew crop, the world over, is looking too promising at 
this time to give any hope of a better market, and hold- 
ers of last year's crop should lose no opportunity to 
sell. Although there is still considerable complaint of 
fly in the English plantations, the reports will have to 
prove more serious than they have at any time this 
season in order to affect this market favorably. Ger- 
many always produces a surplus, and from present 
appearances that country will be able to make good 
any deficiency there may be in England. The chances 
are that America also will be able to spare a few thous- 
and bales tor export. 

Potatoes. 

Sherman Island Potatoes have been added to the list, 
and other Sacramento River Potatoes will soon be in. 
Prices of all kinds have met a severe decline this week, 
•nd are now very low Indeed. The falling oft has been 
•bout 40c V cental throughout the lino. 
Poultry. 

There has been no change In quotations. Turkeys 
•re a shade firmer, at the same rates; while Chickens 
•re slow of sale. 



Wheat. 

The export of Wheat to Europe for this year was 
2,551,838 centals less than that of the previous year; 
but the diflference of $1,004,776, in value, was in favor 
of the smaller crop. Going back one year further, to 
1871-'72, we find the value of our Wheat export to have 
been only $3,172,127. This shows how much the in- 
crease in the production of this staple is. Sales ol 
3,000 sacks of old at $1.75, 500 do. of new at ?1.70, and 
400 tons, brought by the ZfaHie .PtcAee, at $1.65@1.67>!, 
and at private rates have been made during the week. 
Wool. 

The Wool trade of this city has fallen off during the 
week under review, as the deliveries of the spring clip 
are nearly over for the season. So far, 53,714 bales have 
been received, as compared with 42,572 bales during 
the corresponding period of last year. New York and 
Boston report a good business for the week. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

Wkdnesdat m., July 1, 1874. 
Notwithstanding the large receipts of Bags juBt oome to 
hand, the demand is so urgent, owing to the large har- 
vests, that quotations are very buoyant. We note a still 
further advance this week. It is said that the top of the 
market has not yet been reached, and that still higher 
prices may be looked for. .Just now, the Bag and Bagging 
trade is very lively, and has been entered as a speculation 
by parties outside of the reRular busines.',. The imports of 
Coffee from January Ist to June 16th, were as follows; Ja- 
va, 248.636 lbs. ; Central Am., 6,730,780 lbs., Manila, 1.54,-)00 
lbs. ; La Guayra, 12,000 lbs.; Hawaiian, 11,000 lbs.: total, 
7,167.662. Sugars .-iold very well at the auction of Monday. 



-llMfffH' 



-mi 

—'m— 
-aiSM 

—®\h'i 
-(3)1 



@ 3 00 

® 2 T.l 

@ 4 2.T 

a 3 50 



24 



Eng. Stand Wht .- 
Detrick's Machine 
Sewed. 22x36 E . . - —®\V,'i 
do 22x36, do E W- -(aU4 
do20x4U, do A....— — fe'14^4 
Flour Sacks ^8.. lii;^— ai2'-!, 
■■ !43. 6'^-'g V/i 
Stand. Gunnies., 
double seam. . . — 15 
single seam. . . . — 13 
" Wool Sacka. 65 
Bariey Bags 24x3S — 
do 23x4U - 

do 24x40 — 

do 2ii36 — 

Hessian 40-in.gds Wi— ;a»10 
do 45 lo;<,— (3ill 

do 60 — wil.^ 

CANNED QOOD!4. 
AsBt'dPie Fruits 
in 2J^ 11) cans. 2 75 
do Table do . . . — 
Jams & Jellies 3 75 
Pickles ;^ gl.. — 
Sardines. or boxl 75 

do hf boxes.3 00 (a) 

CO A I<— .1 obltl UK. 
Ans trahan.l^ton II 00 rcj— 

Coos Bay @10 00 

Bellingham Bay. @ 8 60 

Seattle ^11— 

Oumberrd,ck8..22 00 mti 00 
do bulk.. .18 00 ^2000 

Mt. Diablo 6 2.i @8 25 

Lehigh 20 00 ®22 SO 

Liverpool 11 00 ffll.!— 

West Hartley... .12 00 @14- 

Scotch J .50 iffilO 00 

Soranton . ..!5 00 @17 .50 
Vancouver's Isl.. 11 00 Mil 50 
Charcoal, ^,sk... 75® - 

Coke, ^bbl - @ 60 

COFFKK. 
Sandwich Island — '3 22 
Costa Rioa per B) 23.' 

Guatemala 23 

Java 30 

Manilla 22 

Ground in cs — — 

Chicory 10 

FISH. 
Pao.Dry Ood.new 5 

cases 6 

do boneless.... 11 

Eastern Cod 6 

Salmon in bbl8..8 50 

do ii bbl85 00 

do 1)4'^ cans — 

do 2Iti cans. .2 80 

ao 1 tt) cans .2 OiJ 

UoOol. H. '^b... - 

Pick. Ood. bbl8.22 (10 

do a bhlsll 00 

Bos . Sm'k'dHer'g40 

Mack'l,No.l,'.4b:sU- 

Extra — 

" in kits 2 75 

" Ex mess. ,3 .50 

" Ex mess.^^bs— 

Sm'k Herr'g. bx. 50 

NAILS. 
Assorted size, tt). 5^ 

OILS. 
Pacific 01 ue Co. 
NeatF't No. 1. 

Pure 1 25 

Castor Oil, No. 1.. — 
do do No. 2.. — 

Cocoanut 45 

Olive Plagniol..5 00 
do Possel....4 (5 

Palm.... 9 

do Bagicalupi. — 
Linseed, raw.... — 

do boiled — 

China nut in 08.. — ■ _ 

do bulk 70 @ 72 

Sperm, crude..,. — @1 40 
do bleached.. — @2 20 
Coast Whales... 35 
Polar, refined.. . . .50 

Sperm 1 40 

Lard 95 

Coal, refined Pet 37;ii 

Oleophine — 

Devoe's Bril't... 27 @ 29 
Long Island — — m 34 

ISureka 37,'^® 40 

Devoe's Petro'm 26 (gi 29 
Barrel kerosene — (d) 26 
Olive 400 &9 .■» 




— m 00 



%\ 112 
ii 0; 



Downer Keroae'e — @ 45 

Gas Light Oil... - (dt n 

PAINTS. 

Atlan. W. Lead. V.m 

Whiting 

Putty 

Chalk 

Paris White 

Ochre 

Venetian Red. .. 

Red Lead 

Litharge 

Eng. Vermillion 

RICK. 
China No. 1, ^, B> 6>t 
do 2, do. 

Japan 

Siam ('leaned. . . 

Patna 

Hawaiian 

Jarolina 

SALT. 

Oal. Bay,per ton 10 OiKa!l4 00 

do Common.. 6 00® 7 (ii) 

Carmen Island. .U 00ra)I3 UO 

Liverpool fine.. .23 00(2)25 00 

do coarselD Wwii) 00 

SOAP. 

Castile ^ ft in (g ]] 

Local brands 5 @ 8 

SPICES. 
Allspice, per ft».. — (i$ 18 

OlovoB — (q^ 62 

Cassia — ;a) 26 

Citron - [ia m 

Nutmetf. — (Si 07 

Whole Pepper... 18 ® 19 

Pimento — 2) 1.5 

Qr'nd Allspprdz — @1 00 

do Cassia do . . — ®1 50 

do Cloves do.. — Ml hii 

do Mustard do — w.! 25 

do Ginger do.. — @1 00 

do Pepper do.. — @l 00 

do Mace do.. . — (5)1 60 

SUeAR, ETC. 

Oal. Cube per lb.. 10 @ — 

Partz' Pro. Cube 

bbl or 100 ft bxs — @ 10 

do in .50 ft bxs.. — M 10 

doin25ftbx3. — (a II 

Circle A crushed 

Powdered 

Granulated 

Dry granulated 

Hawaiian 8 @ 9 

California Beet. — K) 10 

Uolden 9 'a) — 

do Hcy'g grade 6 ® — 
Oal. Syrupin ol8. »— ® 27?^ 
dj in '^ bis. ~ (a 30 
do inkoRs.. — (d) 35 
Hawaiian Molas- 
ses 10 @ 20 

TEA. 
Uolong,Canton,ft 19 & 25 
do Amoy... 23 @ 50 
do Formosa 40 ® 80 
[inperiiil, Canton 25 @ 40 
do Pingsuey 46 @ 80 
do Moyune . 60 wl 00 
Gunpo'der.Oant. 30 (3 42!^ 
do Pingsuey 50 SIO 
do Moyune. 65 @1 25 
Y'ng Hy., Canton 28 M 40 
do Pini^suey 40 m 70 
do Moyune.. 66 ® 85 
Japan. ^^ chests, 

bulk 30 i§ 76 

Jap.in, lacquered 

bxs,4'4and5tti8 46 fa) 67 
Japan clo.3 ft bxs 45 @ 90 
do prnbx,4'4ft 35 @ 65 
do %(fel ft paper 30 @ 55 
TOBACCO— Jobblnit. 

BriglU Navys 

Dark do .... 

Dwaif Twist 

12 inch do 

Liyht Pressed... 
Hard do 

Conn. Wrap'r 

Penn. Wrapper.. 
Ohio do 
Virgi'aSniok'g.. 
Fine ct che'g,er..8 .50 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.f* lb.. 75 
Banner fiae cut.. — 

Eureka Gala 8 75 

TURPENTINE. 
Eastern 70 ® 



10 @ — 
— @ lOM 
- @ 9'.i 




!9 00 
®9 00 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



LEATHER. 

WEDNK.SDAy M., July 1, 1874. 
Medium Grades of Jodots are hard to obtain; there are 
plenty of light weight in this market. Buff Leather has 
declined Ic ^ foot. Tlie Leither trade is moderately 
fair. 

City Tanned Leather,* ft J.5@2S 

Santa Cruz Leather, ^ ft 25,®29 

Country Leather, % ft 24@28 

Stockton Leather, 1* ft 25a2S 

Jodot, 8 Kil., perdoz *50 00® .54 01) 

Jodot, 11 to 19 KiL.perdoz 66 00® 90 00 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil. ?« doz 55 00® 72 00 

Cornellian,12 to 16 Ko 57 00® 67 On 

Oornellian Females, 12 to 13 6(1 1)0® 64 00 

Cornelliao Females. 14 to- 16 Kil 66 iKi® 74 ("i 

Beaumcrville, 15 Kil , 60 00® 

Simon, 18 Kil.,» doz 61 00® 63 "0 

Simon, 20 Kil. » doz 65 00® 67 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. ?1 doz 72 00® 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00® 40 00 

French Kipa, |» ft 1 OO9 115 

California Kip, ^ doz 40 00@; f ' 10 

ICrench Sheep, all colors, ^ doz 8 UO® 15 00 

Kastern Calf for Backs, |> ft 1 OOia 126 

Sheep Roans for Tooping, all colors, * doz — i) OO® 13 00 

Sheep Koansfor Linings,** doz 5 .50@ 10 H) 

Oahfornialiussett Sheep Lioinga 17-5® 4 50 

Best Jodot Calf Bool Logs, Impair 5 003 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, # pair 4 00® 4 75 

French Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 4 00® 

Harness Leather, * lb 30® H% 

fair Bridle Leather, « doz 48 00® 7 i 00 

Skirting Leather, ^ ft 3ta) Xli^ 

Welt Leather, «» doz SO 0019 H) 00 

Buff Leather, ft foot Isa 21 

Wax Side Leather. V foot Vim 19 

Eastern Wax LeMlMr -® 



Wkdkesdav m.. July 1, 1874. 



BEANS. 

Be.ans om'l wh.ft 5J4® 

do, batter 6 Sii 

do, large, do... 6 ® 

do, ba.vo 2%@ 

OO, pink 2'i® - 

do, pea s;!® 6' 

dOLLima 6 ® 7 

BROOM CORN. 

P"r ton JRO ®200 

DAIRY PROnVCE 
Butter, Oal. choice 

ft 30 ® 

do, good 27 ® 

dc, inferior 22H@ 

do, firkin 25 ® 

do, pickled M ® 

Cheese, Cal. new 9 m 
do. Eastern ... 14 01 
EOOS. 
Eggs, Cal. fresh 25 @ 

do. Oregon 22 ® 

do. Eastern... . — Ot 

do, DucLs' \V/i@i 

FERD. 
Bran, per '.01.....I6 00dl7 00 

Middlings 26 00§'27 .50 

Hay 10 VS'i\i 00 

Straw 8 OOcS 

dof* oale 9.5® 1 00 

Oil cake meal... —(^32 50 

Corn Meal 43 0Oa)45 K' 

Fr.OUR.— Saperflne ai 

Extr.-u 
AlviBO Mills. bbl4 25 @5 75 

California 4 25 @5 75 

City Mills 4 25 135 75 

Uomme'l Mills. .4 25 @5 75 

Golden Gate 4 25 a5 75 

Golden Age 4 25 ®5 75 

National Mills.. .4 25 @5 75 
SantaClaraMills 4 25 0$5 75 
Geneste Mills...4 25 ®5 75 

Oregon 4 25 ®5 75 

Vallejo Star 4 25 ®5 "' 



514 



2% 



32 
30 

•n 

28 

32!^ 

|4 

17 

30 
24 

20 



Venns, Oakland. .4 25 ffl5 75 
Stockton City... 4 25 ®5 75 
Lamhard. Sac...4 25 (a5 75 

FRESH MEAT 
Beef, fr quality., ft 

ao, second do.. 5 f<71 

do, third do 

Veal 

Mutton 

Lamb 

Pork, undressed. 

do. drfssed 

QRAIN, m:. 
Wh't.Cal. c'st.cl.l 70 

do new 

du, shipping . 

do, milling 

Barley, Feed 

do new 

do. Brewing. . 
Oats, good to 

chi ice 

do common . 
Corn. While 

do. Yellow 
Buckwheat 

Rye 1 .iO 

HOPS. 
CaliforDia,187;l. 36 ® 37'.^ 
Easrrn.'73.ch'ice S'i.'a® 4.4 

MISCELI.ANEOtJS 



Coc'anuts,'* 100.. 7 00® — 
Alm'dsh'rd shell 10 @ - 

do, soft 22 'i® — 

■■'Ihert" 18 (a) — 

POTATOES. 
Sweet.nnr 100 lbs — ® — 
CuffeeOove — ® — 
H. M. Bay..l 00 ®1 10 
PiL'eon Pt... — (S) — 
Humboldt.. — a — 
Petalnma . . — ® — 
Mission ....1 00 ®1 20 

Salinas — M — 

Bodegn ~ ® — 

Sac. River.. 60 ® 90 
S'taBarbara. 95 ®1 (5 
Old Potatoes.... ,50 (S 76 
POCl>TRV dfe eAMK. 
Live Turkeys, 

hens per ft 16 ® 18 

do gobblers... 14 ® 16 

Hens, per.dz 7 00 ®8 00 

Roosters, young, 

large 6 50 ®8 .50 

Broilers 3 00 .S)6 00 

Ducks, tame,do;:5 00 ®6 .50 
Geese, per pair. 1 60 ®2 Oil 
Hare, per doz... 2 00 ®3 00 
Snipe, Eng., doz — @ — 
Quail, per doz . .. — (oi — 
Mallard Duoks.. — ® — 

do small - ^ — 

Wild Geese, gray — ® — 

do white — ® — 

Doves, per dozenl 00 ®1 25 
Prairie Chickens — @ — 

Grouse — ^1 — 

Rabbits 1 00 ®1 ,50 

do tame 4 00 @5 00 

Venison, per lb.. — ® — 

PROVISIONS. 
i"al. Bacon, Light 13^® 14 

do Medium — ® 123^ 

do Heavy — ® 12 

Kastern do IS'a® 14 



S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATl 




Beeswax.per lb.. 25 ® 
Bonev, choice 

Norlhern 22)^® 

do Dark 8 (0 

do Strained 8 @ 

Pulu — ® 

Onions . . 75 ® 

NUTS -JOBBING. 

Cal. Walnuts .... 14 ® 15 

Peanuts per lb... 6 ® 7 

Chile Walnuts.. 12 @ 12!-^ 

Pecan nuts 16 ® — 

Brazil do 15 @ — 



27rj 

IT/i 
10 
12'^ 
9'^ 
90 



Hams Cal 13 ' 

do Whittakers — 

do DufBeld, ch — 
do Plankton & 

.Armour — 

do Boyd's — 

do Stewart's .. — 

Eastern Should's 9 

do new hams — 

Oal. Smoked Beet 10 

l,ard,Oal 13 

do Eastern.... 13 
SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 13 

(J.'^nary 5 

Flaxseed 5 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 40 

Nlillet 12 

Mustard, white, 2 

do. Brown 3 

Italian Rye 25 

Perennial do 30 

Timothy 13 

Sweet V Grass.. 60 

Orchard do.... 30 

Red Top do... 30 

Hungarian do 10 

Lawn do 50 

('lover Red — 

do White 60 @ 

Alsike — @ 

Esparto GrasBin — 

Packets — ® 

WOOI>, ETC. 

Spring, short.ft. 22,'-^® 

do cnoice Nort 24 ® 

Medium grades.. 18 ® 

Fall clip — <K\ 

Surry 14 (A 

Hides, dly 16 ® 

do wet salted 8 ® 

Tallow. Crude.. 6'^® 

do Refined... 7.'i® 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

Wednesday m., July 1, 1874. 
The Fruit market is well supplied with the summer vari- 
eties. There are as yet no Figs in first hands, all havinR 
been passed to the retailers. There are very few wild 
Blackberries to be had ; cultivated have fallen to 10@15c ^ 
lb. Strawberries are selling at 3{5)10c, but are not of very 
good quality. Currants are vei-y plenty, and have touched 
Ic '^ lb, though better samples run up to 3c. Apricots are 
also very low, and 3c to-day is the top of the market. 
Plums have declined to 2;^@.'>c. Peaches are held at 3@5c . 
butasyet do not make a very good .'Showing. The ^VzN 
says: "The fruit crop of the State this season is probably 
the largest ever produced. Entire exemption from frosts 
with copious spring rains, has contributed to this result, 
and the quantities now cominj; forward are far in excess of 
the requirements of the trade. The market has been suc- 
cessively glutted with Strawberries, Gooseberries, Cur- 
rants, and now with Apricots, while the supply of Peaches 
soon to come in, is expected to exceed all former experi- 
ence in the trade. Under these circumstances will it not 
be manifestly to the advantage of the producer to dry a 
large portion of the Peach crop, and by so doing secure 
fair prices for the remainder? Dried Fruit of all kinds 
brought good prices last season, and the market was com- 
pletely cleared of old stock and is now in good condition 
for the reception of new. Theshipments to Eastern mar- 
kets last season introduced the California product, anvi 
will doubtless be the moans of causing a renewed demand 
Unless something is done to relieve this market of a por- 
tion of the surplus, producers may look for lower prices 
than they ever before received." 

There are no changes to report in the Dried Fruit Mar- 
ket. 

In Vegetables, Green Peas have advanced to 2''jrai3c ; (,'u- 
cumbers, now tolertibiy plenty, have fallen to 10c T}^ dozen ; 
and Egg Plant, the tirst ol which has just been received, 
sellsat 12>4tttil^G If* lb. 



Wednesday m.. July 1, 1874. 
Poultry is in good supply, but Hens have been slightly 
advanced. Farralones Eggs are now sold at the marker 

stands, bringing 30c ^ dozen. Game is very scarce. There 
are no more Snipe in the market. Salmon are 3c higher- 
Smelts have advanced 2c "jj* lb. The range in size of young 
Salmon is larger. Tom Cod are selling at 8@lOc. Sea Bas-.s 
are again in market, and command 20c V- Ih. Soles are 
lower. 



Hens. 

Eegs ■ ■ 

do Ducks' ■ 

do Farralones. 
Turkeys, It* tt*.. \ 
Ducks, CanBk,pr ■ 

do Mallard, pr • 

Tame, do 

Teal, ^ doz.... 
Geese, wild, pair. 

Tame, % pair., 3 i 
Snipe. ^ doz — 
Quail, per dozen 
Prairie Ch'k's, ea 
Pigeons, dom. dz - 

Wild, do 

Squabs 

Hares, each ... I 
Rabbits, tame, pr ' 

Wild.do.^(lz.2 I 

Squirrels (lo 

Beet, tend, % S). 



FKUIT MAKK.ET. 

Tahati. Or. ^ M 35 00^40 00 

Lorita, do — @ — 

Oal. do 30 mCt^h^ 00 

Limes. ^ M.... mih 00 

Oal. Lemons,^ M @40 00 

Australian do ..W 00 a> 

do per box 7 00(a» 8 Oil 

Bananas, 1* bnch3 oO mh 00 
Coooanuts.li* 100.9 00 @10 00 
Pineapples, ^dz 7 00 m 00 



Appl 

Cherries ■> (tu 

do choice 10 {n), 

Blackberries.... 10 (^ 

d" wild — fcD 

Strawberries'^ lb y (^ 

lioosebeiries 2'i® 

Raspberries T) (§ 

Currants I 

Apricots V-i'^ 

Plums 2'4a* 

Peaches, Tfi lb. . a @ 

Pears, Eating ...1 00 '0\ 

do Cookini: — — (^ 

do. Bartlott... - (q^ 

(^rab Apples — m 

Nectarines .. — @ 

Wttt'rmeralftlOO — lcO> 

Canlelo'8%4100... - (g) 

Pomegran'B,^ dz — (^ 

Figs — @ 

Grapes.Bl'k H'g — (oi 

do Muscat.. — (ol 

do Malavo'e,. — m 

do Sweetw'r. — m 

do Mission .... ~ Cg) 
do Rose of Pern— ^ 

do Tokay -- m 

do Morocco - m 



1>UIK]» FRUIT. 

\pples. V' tti., fitf^ 8^i 

-'cars, ^ D) 10 mV/2 

Peacho.-*. f tt> II @l2Vj 

Apncois, ^ lb — m— 

Plum.'*, il lb 8 c2lO 

Pitted, do fl lb .... 15 f^20 

do Extra, ^ lb.. — (i— 

Raisins, T}4 lb ■V-^(a»I2H 

Black Kig8. ^ lb.... 8 ^10 

White, do 10 %\h 

Prunes 6 (a' 8 

do German,... 12)^@ IS 

VKOKTAMLKH. 

Asparagus 8 fHilO 

Beet.-f — (a 1 

Oal)baKe, "^ 100 lb.*..- '^J 2 00 

do new, doz ftO ^nBO 

Carrots,^ 100 n>8....1 OOtol 25 
Caulillower,,doz..,;.fM> (a>fiO 

rdory, doz 50 (^jHS 

Garlic.^ lb \V//^\h 

Green Peas VM^ -1 

Green Corn H* doz..—, @13 

SuMi'rSquash, Jb 4 lOt 5 

Murro'Iat Sq'flh.inbO OOfoi— 
Artichokes.^ doz.. 15 mlh 
Strlnir Beans.^lb ...— U 6 

Lima Beans — .^— 

Parsnips 12S@I5 

ShcllHeanH.Windsor 3 (ii 4 

Peppers,^ lb — afiO 

Okralj* lb 25 (S»40 

Okra, (ireeii — (%50 

Cucumbers, doz ,....— silO 

Tomatoes S @ 5 

K2i.' Plants lb 12H@15 

Rhubarb 2%^ 3 

Lettuce 12^920 



blounder, 1? tt>... 

Salmon, « lb 

Smoked. 


_ 


m 


l.'-i 


l-^' 


'■'4 


\S 






III 


Pickled.* 11.. 


— 


\at 


h 


do Spr'g p'krd 


[b 


(U 


IH 


Salmon ^)(■llle^ 


■iU 


<<U 


a.'i 


Book Cod. V.to.. 


11, 


fu) 


12' 


Cod l<isli. dry. lb 


« 


<4 


l.'i 


do Jrcsli 


— 


(Ol 


l.'l 


Percn, .*; water, lb 





IW 


III 


Fresh water, £» 


10 


'a, 


l.'l 


Lake Big. Trout' 


•ih 


'<•) 


Jll 


Smelts, latKe%4 lb 


— 


X 


III 


Small Smells.... 


12 




UerrinK, Sm'kd. 


i.'i 


c« 


— 


do frebli 


— 




— 


Pilchards, ^ a.. 


— 


l.'i 


Tomcod, IS lb.... 


N 


at 


III 


Terrapin, * do2.3 0« 


(5ia 


.10 


Mackerel, p'k.ea 


l^>!i«l) 




Fresh, do lb . . . 




(ni 




Sea Bass, # lb... 


— 


H 


■m 


Halibut 


•Vl 


Ol 




Sturgeon, "^ lb.. 


— 


<3) 


.■> 


Oysters, « 100...1 00 


« 


— 


Chesp. 1* doz.. 
Clams % 100 


Ml 


(4 


— . 


— 


fa) 


.w 


Mussels do 


- 


m 


M 


Turbot 


— 




7.1 


Oraba ^ doz....! 


U(l 


^ 


— 


do Soft Shell. 


■th 


(4 


411 


Shrimps 


10 


(a) 


— 




10 
8 




11 


Anchovies 


10 


Solca 


— 


(01 


•i!> 


YounsjTrout.bay 


76 


ml 


(Kl 


Vouny Saliuoii,. 


7.^ 


Al 


.V) 


Salmon Tiout cal 00 


ff7tl 


.11) 


Skale, each 


10 


(tt! 


M 


Whitebait, %• lb.. 




'tn 


1.1 


Crawti-h ii» lb... 


— 




III 


Grucn Till tie... 


, — 


^ 




do "t* tb 


— 


(li. 


- 



Corned, f, lb.. 

Smoked.^ lb.. 
Porter llouscSt'k 

Sirloin do 

Round do 

Pork, rib. etc., lb 

Chops, do, ^ lb 
Veal, li lb 

Outlet, do 

Mutton—chops,* 
LegMutton, ^5 lb 

Lamb, fi tt« 

Venison 

Tongues, beef, .. 

do, do, smoked 
Tongues, pig, lb 
Bacon, Oal., |i ttt 
Hams, Cal, ^ lb. 
Hams, Cross' s o 

Choice D'ffield 

WhittaUer'a.. 18 & lit 

r K U ITS, V KO JUT A U L.&>i. ETC. 

The retail stands now make a very fine display. The 
bright colored Cherries, Plums, Currantsand Apricots ren- 
der the Fruit market an attractive scene. Apricots retail 
at^@8c ^ lb. Peaches have fallen to 6@15c; Plums to TiK 
@15c; Blackberries to 20c, and Currants to 6@8c. Fresh 
Figs are in market, though not. yet at all plentiful; they 
sell at 20@!25c li* lb. 

Cucumbers have declined to 20c. Tomatoes are rather 
scarce to-day, and retail at 10@l2>^c, but the rise is only 
temporai-y. Egg Plant is worth 15@20c ^ lb. Green Corn 
is more plenty ; the retail price is now 25c ^ dozen. Green 
Chillies are also in better supply, and are reduced in price 
to 25@30c. 

lOanliflower. + .. 10 
Cabbage, per lb.. 2 
|OysterPlant,bch — 
2 Carrots, 13 doz. . 20 
Celery,^ dz 75 



Lady Apples ^ lb- (o 

Apples, pr lb.... 10 [c 

Pears, per lb 6 & 

Apricots, lb 8 ^ 

Peaches, lb 8 ^ 



5 ^^1 00 



Plums. 

PineApples.eacb 
Crab Apples — 

Grapes 

Bananas, ^ doz, . 

Canteleups 

Watermelons. . . 
Blackberries 

do wild 

CaL Walnuts, lb. 
Green Almonds. 
Oranber'es, Or.,g 

do Eastern 
Huckleberries.. 
Strawberries, lb 
Chili Stra'bernes 
Raspberries, lb,. 
Gooseberries*. . . 
Currant-s. 

do Black 

Cherries.^ !».. 

Nectarines 

Oranges.^ do2,. 

Quinces 

Lemons 

Limes, per doz ,. 
Figs. dried Cal. • 

Figs, fresh 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 
Asparagus. !b.* 
Artichokes, doz. 

do Jerusalem. . 

Beets, ^ doz 20 (a» 

Potatoes, %^ lb.... 2 (at 
Potatoes, sweet,* — @ 
Broccoli, eacb.. 10 ffH 



50 fa) 
lO (ai 
40 (a^. 
12.U'^ 
6 @ 

— &. 



25 
20 
75 
(3il 00 
60 



25 Co* 

20 ® 

25 (Of 

10 ^ 

25 ^ 



25 

1 00 

■0)1 00 




2U 

h 
10 

2U 



Cucumbers, dez. 

Tomatoes, ^ fi).. 10 

Green Peas 3 

String Beuns..., 4 
Egg Plant, n>,,.. 
Cress, ^ doz bun 

Onions 

Turnips, 1^ doz 

bunches 

Brussels Sprouts — 

Eschalots 20 

Dried Herbs, doz 25 

Garlic^ tt. 12! 

Green Corn, doz. 25 _ 

Lettuce, '^ doz. . 20 (ui 25 

Mint, "^ m 8 @ 10 

Mushrooms, 1ft lb 25 ' 

Horse radish,>.lb 20 

Okra. dried, |l lb — 

do fresh, 1* lb 50 

Pumpkins. ^ lb. 6 

Parsnips, doz 15 

Parsley 15 

Pickles.frsh.^lb - 

Radishes, doz.. 20 



Summer Squash 
Marrowfat, do 
Hubbard, do 
Dry Lima, sh. - — 
Spinage. W> bskt. 25 

Rnubarb 4 

Green Chilies.. 25 

Dry do 25 

Butter Bean;) ... — 
Italian Chestnuts — 




TREADWELL & CO. 

We certify that the partnership of Treadwell & Co., 
doing businesB in San !• ranciero, California, is compOBcd 
of Leonard L, Treadwell and James F. Place, who both 
reside in the city and county of San Francisco, and 
William O. M. Berry, who resides in Oakland, Almeda 
county, California. 
San Francisco, Oal., May 26th, 1874. 

Leonabd L. Tbeadwkli., 
Jas. F. Place, 
Wm. O. M. Behby. 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA, ^ 

City and County of San FiiANCiico. ) 

On this May 27th, 1874, before mo Henry 0. Blake, a 
Notary Public, in and for said city and county, peraou- 
ally appeared Leonard L. Treadwell, 'Tames F. Pluro 
and William 0. M. Berry, known to me to be the per- 
sons whose names are subscribed to the within Instru- 
ment, and ackuowlcdged to me that they executed the 
same. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto sot my baud 
and affixed my official seal, the day and year in this 
certificate first above written. 

HENRY C. BLAKE, Nota-n) Public. 
FiledMay Ist, 1871. 

WM. HARNEY, County Clerk, 
jy4-4w By S. C. ELLIS, Deputy. 



A COMPLIMKNT. 



pLAiNsntmo, Mehoed Co., Cal., .June 22, 1874. 

Dewey & Co.— (ienlUmen : I herewith tender my 
grateful acknowledgements for the energy, promptness 
and efficiency which you havt displayed In procuring 
my i)ateut. 

Although you wore entire* strangers to me when I 
first communicated with yon, I soon felt satisfied you 
wore gentlemen of integrity, and shall always be happy 
to ri'presont you as such. Very truly yours, 

H. W. EUOKER, M. D. 



No DKALKB in Agricultural Implements who pretends 
to sell REALLY first-clasH goods, can pretend to call his 
stock complete if he does not keep ou Bale the excellent 
"Blanchard Churn." They are made only by Porter 
Blanchard's Sons, Concord, N. H. 



Db. E. .T. Fbarrb, Homeopathic Physician and Sur- 
geon, has removed his ofllco and residence from 103 
gtockton street to No 305 Kearny Btre«t, northwest 
comer of Bush. 6v7-Sm 



14 



wm &W'^A% wwE^ 



[July 4, 1874 




300 Head Pure Blooded French Merino 
Rams and Ewes, 

For nale by MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, of Centrevillc, 
Alameda tunly, Cal., near Niles Station, on the Wt'Kt- 
tirn ana auuthern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep nre guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at RambouiUet. 

And are equal, if not superior, to any of this breed 
in size and quality of wool, and are provid to W the 
h eaviest shearers in the world. 12vo-3m 




Gr. »i»TO]VE!BJIFK«, 

BREEDER OF 

Pure Blooded French Merino Sheep, 

Has for sale a choice lot .of Rams and Ewes, on the 
Oristimba Ranch, sixmiles west of Hill's Ferry, Stanis- 
laus County, Cal. 22v7-3m 



B.W.OWENB, San Francisco. | E. Hoobe, Stockton, Cal. 




c) w K rv js At m: O O R, K , 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

DEAIXB8 IN 

WOOL, HIDES, PELTS AND GRAIN. 

Office -405 Front street, S. F. 14y7-,3m 



Cotswold Bucks For Sale. 



About three hundred Bucks, half and three-quarter 
bred Cotswold, and a few Thoroughbreds, for sale at 
Low Prices. 

REFERENCES: 

1400DY & PARISH, San Francisco. 

SHIPPEE, McKEE & CO., Stockton. 

Orders left with the latter firm will receive prompt 
attention. 

A. VEOIIAN, 

2Jv7-4t Jenny Lind, Calaveras Co., Cal. 



LIVE STOCK EXCHANGE, P# 

COR. FIFTH & BRYANT STS. Jimlim 

Cattle, Sheep, Milch Cows, Hogs and Horses sold on 
conimiKBiou or bought on farm for cash. 

Our accommodations for Live Stock are the most con- 
venient, complete and eitcnsive in the city or State 
Thoroughbred Durham Cows wanted. Address 

I'AWSON k BANCROFT, 449 8th St., 8. F. 

Special rates to members of the Grange. m9 



SOUTH DOWN RAMS FOR SALE. 

The subscriber offers for sale in this city Six FULL 
BLOODED SOUTH DOWN RAMS, lambed in February 
and March last. Weight of oldest not less than liiO lbs. 
Will be sold at a bargain, and may be seen at the cr- 
uer of Howard and Twentieth streets, directly opposite 
my residence. 

RTJFUS ROWE. 
San Francisco, .Tune 2d, 1874. jnO 



1 horoughbred Jersey Bull Calves for Sale. 

I have now on hand twelve Thoroughbred Jersey 
Bull Calves, bred by me from my last importation to 
California, and will sell them cheaper than they could 
be brought from the East. 

A. MAILLIARD, 

17v7-3m San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal. 



BONNEY'S PATENT EXTENSION TOOTHED HAY RAKE. 

The only rake that gathers all the hay upon rough as well as smooth ground, free from dirt and dust, and does 
not roll or wad it together. The teeth.can be used any length, and replaced without delay when worn out. 

PATENT IMPROVED BAND SAWING MACHINE. 

EQUAL TO THE BEST EASTERN, FOR LESS TH.VN HALF THE CO.ST. 

PATENT ADJUSTABLE GRAIN LIFTER. 

The best in use. light, strong and durable. Can be run at any inclination 
to the ground, as seen at D in cut. Parties can save additional the cost of 
a set in one day's nin of Header. 





Also, HEADER APRONS. GRAIN BELTS and FARMING IMPLEMENTS Generally. 

O. BONIVE^i", Jj-., IVfauufactufex*, 
No. 221 Mission Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 



I4v7-lam-3m 



W. M. JACKSON'S PATENT GRAIN LIFTER. 




This is the only Lifter that has enabled the Header to cut all kinds of lodged grain. It has been in use 
several years and gives entire satisfaction, not only in cutting lodged grain, but in saving crinkled or straw 
fallen grain. The Lifter can be had by addressing W. M. JACKSON, Woodland. The price will be SIXTY 
DOLLARS for ten-feet headers; HEVENTI DOLLARS for twelve-feet headers. I will sell them to dealers when 
ordered the same as heretofore; also to the Grange Agent as a dealer. 

W. M. JACKSON, 

25v7-4t -Woodland, Cal. 



HIGHEST HONORS AWARDED TO THE WEED SEWING MACHINE ! 



AT THE 

Vlonjia E:x:posltIon, "73. 

Grand Medal of Progress ! 

Grand Medal of Merit! 

AND TO CAP THE CLIMAX, 

Grand Medal of Honor. 

Mr. Oko. a. FAinniXD, the Inventor and 
SuperinteiKient of the Company's works, 
as co-operator for VALUABLIS IMPROVE- 
MENTS. 




THE BEST 

Sewing Machine 

FOR ALL KINDS OF 
WORIt 

THAT WAS EVER PUT BEFORE THE 

PUBLIC 

Send for Descriptive Circulars and sam- 
ples of work. 



A. MEAD & CO,, GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE PACIFIC COAST, 

152 New Montgomery Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 3v7-6m 



c^lmoi^e: 

i'mPOBTE^j BREEDER 




: i I ■. V SK<<).\D. 

I.H.riim.m Ml P:uiii,: Rural Press January 4, 1873. 
Address N. GIX.MORE, 

F.l Dorado, El Dorado County, Cal. 




We respectfully invite the attention ol wool growers 
to our line stock of Cotswool Sheep and Angora Goats. 
We have 200 head of Pure Breed Angoras to select from; 
we have some of the finest Goats in America: we 
guarantee everything we sell to be as represented; our 
prices are as low as any in America for the same grade 
of stock. Call and see, or address, 

liANDRTTM & RODGERS, 
13v7-eow-tf WatsouviUc, Cal. 



Kentucky Sales of Short-Horn Cattle 
for 1874. 

No. Head. 

Hughes i Richardson, Lexington. July 22 60 

Wjn. Warfield & Co., Lexington, Julv 28 140 

B. F. k A. Vanmetcr. Winchester, July 24 80 

J. V. Grigsby, Winchester, July 26 BO 

I. O. Robinson fc Co., Winchester, July 27 40 

Warnock & Megibben, Cynthiana, July 28 SO 

F. J. Barbee, Paris, July 29 60 

C. M.Clay Jr., Paris, July 30 , 90 

J. Scott & Co., Paris. JnlySl 70 

J. Sudduth, Newtown, Aug. 1 40 

The above sales comprise all of the most popular 
families of Short-Horn Cattle in America, and many 
imported animals. 

Apply to the above addresses for their Catalogues. 
m30-6w 



Short-Horned Cattle & Berkshire Pigs. 

FOR mA.l^'Ei 

A few fine yonng Bulls, one and two years old, got by 
Grand Turk, of Oak Home. Number of Bull in herd- 
book, 8,258. Also, pure Berkshire Pigs, Work Horses 
and Mules, to be sold on reasonable terms. 

WILLIAM L. OVERHISER, 

Oak Home Ranch, Waterloo Boad, thre* miles from 
Stockton. 3v7-3m 



JERMlEY OATTLE. 

A few bead of very choice Jersey Cows — Heifers and 
and Hull Calves — for sale. Apply to 
lSv7-3m R O. 8NEATH. Menlo Park. 



!SiTAlVr>A«r> WOA.P CO.'« 

CARBOLIC SOAP 

roB 

SHEEP WASH! 




COMPOSri ION— OLEIC ACID, NICOTINE, 
SULPHUK, CARBOLIC ACID & ALKALI. 

It destroyes and removes Scab, Ticks, Fleas, Mange, 
Scratches, Insects on Plants and Trees, Foot-Rot, etc., 
etc. Being strongly impregnated with CARBOLIC 
ACID, it is one of the best disinfectants known. Its 
healing, cleansing' and disinfecting qualities are unsur- 
passed. 

The STANDARD SOAP COMPANY also manufactures 
Laundry Soap, Family Soap, Hard Soap, Soft Soap, 
Marine Soap, Kane's Condensed Soap, Washing Powder, 
Washing Fluid, Liquid Laundry Blueing, Harness Soap, 
Thomas' Cool Water Bleaching Soap, Thomas' Patent 
Glycerine Soap, Mottled and White Castile Soap,8lllca- 
ted Saponla, Bay Rum, Florida Water, Hair Oils, Ex- 
tracts, Perfumes, Colognes, Cosmetics, etc., etc. 
204, 206 and 208 Sacramento Street, 

16v7-3m SAN FRANCISCO, CAL, 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 
Manufacturers of and Dealers In 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

421 Pine street, between Montgomery and | 

Eeamy, fUn Fbamoisoo, 

21va-ly 



1 



July 4, 1074.] 



FOR THE HARVEST OF 1874. 




NA^^jicW^^^^E^- 




8^" Hoadley Engines, Kussell End-Shake Thresh- 
ers, Pitts' Po\(rer3, Treadwell's Single-Gear Head- 
ers, Whitewater Wagons, etc., etc. Send for onr II- 
UBtrated Price List, to Treadwelii & Co., San Francisco. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls withovit changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 
Uv2-3m MATTESON k WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton, Oal. 



THE 



CELEBRATED MITCHELL WAGON 




WATERHOUSE & LESTER, 

IMPORTERS OF 

WAGON AND CARRIAGE MATERIAL, 

BODIES, OAEEIAGE PAET3, 
Wheels, Axles, Springs & Carriage Hardware 

SOLE AOENTS FOR THE PACIFIC COAST FOR 

Clarke's Adjustable Phaeton Sunshades. 

B^ Send for price list. 

ALSO AGENTS FOE 

"Woolsey's Patent "VVlieols, 

The best and handsomest Wheel made, having great 
strength and a fine, finish. There is no other wheel 
that has the metallic-shouldered band; and it can be 
repaired as easily as the common wood wheel. 
B^" Send for illustrated circular. Adddress 

"WATERHOUSE & LESTER, 

SAN FEANCISCO. 



122 and 124 Market street, and) 
19 and 21 California street,) 
17, 19 and 21 Seventh street, - - SACRAMENTO. 
21v7-am 



MANUFACTUREB OF 

Patent Self-Feeder & Elevator Attachment 

For Separators, at the Yolo Planing Mill and Ma- 
chine Shop, Woodland, Yolo County, Cal. 

This improvement was patented in 1867 and in 1870. 
For the past two years I have been introducing it to the 
public with great success. It is pronounced by all that 
have tried it to be the greatest labor saving invention 
of the age. No Thresher will be without it after wit- 
nessing its operation. It saves all the hard work of 
feeding and injury to health, and one-half the labor re- 
quired to supply the grain from the stacks. It will pay 
tor itself in less than thirty days, besides doing better 
work. For particulars send for circular; it gives all 
necessary information, besides the best plan for using 
the Horse Forks ever adopted. Entire satisfaction 
guaranteed if properly used. 21v7-3m 



Patent, First Premium Windmills & Horse Powers, 
W. I. TUSTIN, Patentee. 




Pioneer and Largest Manufacturer of Machinery (In this 
line) on the Pacific Coast, 

FACTORY, Corner Market and Beale Streets, 

SAN IE AN CISCO. 
8^ Send for Circular and Price List."^ 



ECONOMY. 





cast, and are in 



ETJKEKA. 

We have made the man- 
ufacture of Pumping Ma- 
chinery a specialty for the 
past twenty-four years in 
California. Eeceivad all 
the First Premiums 
awarded by the Mechan- 
ics' Institute for the past 
seven years, in our line. 

Our Windmills are pre- 
ferred by the great Eail- 
road Companies of this 
general use along their lino, giving perfect satisfaction, which can be proved by reference. 
9v7-iam 



EAGIiE— For One or Two Horses. 



B.o.Bowi,«v Q^o. H. TAY &. CO., 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importers a/iid Mianiifactrwrers 

— OE— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Merchant's Exchangee, 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANOIROO 



Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to our fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebr.ated makers: 

Charles S. Coffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfield & Jackson, Eahway, New Jersey, 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 
And other first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double F'T- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

0. Graham, New York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Laji Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

OREGO & BOWLEY, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

24v5-3m San Francisco. 



STOCKTON, CAL. 

Agricultural Implements, 

201 and 203 El Dorado St., Sign of "Webster Bros." 
General Agent for the San Joaquin Valley for the 
Vibrator Threshers, Studebaker Farm Wagons 
and Improved Single Geared Headers. 
The Baxter & Webster Single Gear Headers are built 
only at my establishment. Address, H. C. SHAW, 
14v7-3m Box 95, Stockton, Cal. 



T Ix e i?^ e >v i n g- ]>!; ti c h i n c 

— FOR THE — 

GRANGERS. 



NO COMBINATION ! 



NO MONOPOLY! 



he Hew Improved PLOIlENCE,\^ 

Qide Feed and Back Feed. 

•^Ajjency establistiod on the Pacific 
Coast in ISO.t. Tlic lighte<it riiii- 
niuf^:, most simple, and most easily 
operated Se-nrlig{; Macliiiic i» the 
Market. Always in order and ready 
for work. If tliere is a Florence 
Sewing: Machine witliin one tlion- 
sand miles of San Francisco not 
working: well I will fl.v it without 
any expense to the owner. .Samuel 
Hill, Agent, 1<> Kew Montg;omery 
Mreet, Grand Hotel Buildiu 
San Francisco. 
A /i 



air. I. G. Gardner, State Agent for the California 
Granges, is authorized to make liberal terms to all 
Grangers who purchase the FLORENCE. No combina- 
tion against favoring the Grangers has ever been joined 
by Florence Agents. 

SAMUEL HILL, General Agent. 
18v7.3m 



614, 616 and 618 Battery St., S. F.. 

OFFER FOR SALE 

IRON PIPE, 

JBI^A-CIC and O A. I^V.4-1N IZ I :i>. 

PUMPS— LIFT AND FORCE. 

RUBBER HOSE, ETC 
STOVES jiiKl K.A.]VGHt5.*!, 

THE RICHMOND RANGE, 

THE HENRY CLAY, 

THE EMPIRE CITY, 

THE ALVARADO. 

THE MONITOR, wrought iron body, east iron top 
and hearth, will cook for !50 to 500 men; an excellent 
stove for large ranches during harvesting season. 

AND A GHEAT VARIETY OF 

COOKING STOVES AND RANGES, FARMERS' 
BOILERS AND CALDRON KETTLES. 

Ralph's Patent Oneida Cheese Vats. 

DAIEYMEN'S GOODS, 
MILK PAILS, PANS, CHEESE HOOPS, ETC. 

"Wire for Fencing and Baling- 

ALSO, METALS. HOUSE FURNISHING HARDWARE, 
JAPANNED GOODS, ETC., ETC. 

22v"-3ni 



Ryder's American Fruit Di. 




PRICK, !gS50. 



The New Wilson 

SEWING MACHINE 

Has points of superiority over 
all others. A reliable warran- 
ty is given with each machine 
lor 

FIVE YEARS. 
It is unequaled f3r light and 
heavy work. Examine and 
compare it with the highest 
priced machine in the market 
G. A. NORTON, Gen. Ag't 
tor the Pacific Coast. 

,'m Kearny St., 8. F. 
ap'25-tf 



Farmers write for your paper. 



NOTICE TO FARMERS. 
Sometliiiis: Entirely IVe-w. 

HOME SEWING MACHINE. 

This machine is manufactured after an experitiice of 
twenty years. It contains within itself every known 
improvement. It is the best because the simplest, 
easiest to understand and by (ar the lig-htest to 
run, and theequitable adjustment of all itsprirts makes 
it the most durable Machine in tlio market. Take 
the INTEBESTtD STATEMENTS OF NONE, but 

DEXA-aillVE for YOUrt-*EI^F'. 

SEND FOR A CIRCULAR. 
It uses a Shuttle, Strais-ht Needle, Two 
Threads, and makes a stitch alike on both sides. 

E. W. HAINES, Agent, 

17 New Montgomery St., Grand Hotel Build'g,S. F. 

We also continue to sell another machine, the 

HOME SHUTTLE SEWING MACHINE. 

I»rlce, SS^Ji. 
Mme. Demorest's Reliable Paper Cut Pat- 
terns. Send for a Catalogue. ISvT-eow-Um 




This DRIER is a perfect success in the East, and will 
be on this Coast when its merits are known. Its cheap- 
ness brings it within the means of every Fruit Grower. 
The uniformity and perfection of its work challenge 
comparison. The principle claimed for this Drier 
(and violated in all other Driers in use), is, that no 
moisture shall come in contact with the fruit after the 
cut surfaces are once sealed by the heat, to open llie 
cells and allow the aroma and fine qualities of the fruit to 
escape, which makes it undeniably the most perfect, as 
it is the most simple mechanical method for ciu'eing 
Fruits, Vegetables, Meats and Grains ever invented. 
This Drier can make Raisins and the most beautiful 
crystalized fruit confection, equal to any imported. 
Can any other Drier do this? The fruit cured on this 
Drier last season, in this State, took the premium at 
the State Fair. Our Factory Drier will cure 60 bushels 
of peaches in a day. Send for Circulars. Farm, County 
and State Rights, and Driers with Heaters, sold by 

J. M. KEELER, General Ag-ent, 
30G California street, San Francisco 

THE CELEBRATED 

ijRLTJTlXOXJIt FUMII*, 



FARMERS WANTING TO HIRE AN 

Engine and Engineer for the season, for threshing, can 
hear of one by calling at, <>: addressing, 

,J. W. RILEY, 
23v7-tf No. B4 Third street, San Francisco 




Now mimnfactured in the East, in the most perfec 
manner. Guaranteed in every particular, surpassing 
any other in the market, for Farm, Ship, Irrigating 
and Mining piirposes. Our large Force, • properly 
mounted, makes a most effective Fire Engine. 

KIPP'S UPRIGHT ENGINE, the cheapest and best 
we could find in the East. 

CHASE PIPE CUTTI.'^G AND THREADING MA- 
CHINE, a most perfect hand or power machine. One 
boy against two men WJth any other in use. Has the 
highest testimonials. It cuts a thread and makes nip- 
ples for all sizes of pipes from 'i to 2 inches, and only 
$150. Also, Metal Ornamental Goods, Fountains, 
Vases, Statuary, etc. Send for Circulars. 

J. M. KEELER & CO., 
Commission and Forwarding Merchants. 

Agents for Eastern Manufacturers, 30C California 
street, San Francisco. 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 

TO RAISE LARGE CUorS 

YOTJ IVITJST IHRIGA.TlsJ. 

To irrigate successfully, you mu<t hafe the power that 
does not give out when the wind fails. 

Laufkotter Bros. & Churclimaii's Horse-Power, 




lI'ArLNtl.U JEIUI Mil IJTH, lit to- j 

Never fails to supply more water than four or live Wintl- 
mills, even supposing von hail all the wind you want. It is 
also suitable for runninR light machinery, such as Barley 
Crackers, Coru Shelters, Fanning Mills, Grain Separators, 
or, for Sawing Wood. Tliey are never failing, cannot get 
out of order, easily worked, substantial, and always giva 
satisfaction wherever tlie.y liave been useil. One horse can 
easily work two K-inch pumps, with a continuous How of 
water. Force Pumps, irom a,000 to 10,11011 callous per hour. 

WINDMILLS of all kinds nianufaotured to order. Wolls 
Bored, Windmills and Horse-I'owers set in any part of the 
State, and repairing nf all kinds done. 

Manufactured and for sale Ijy 

LAUFKOTTER BROS., 

20v7-2m-3m Cor. J and 10th Sts., Sacramento. 



the oelebkated new draw-feed 
Wheeler & Wilson 

Are without exception the most desirable for family 
use. They are the LIGHTES l' RUNNING Machine 
in the market, and 6ew"from the thinest to the 
thickest material with equal facility. 
These machines have, since their invention, stood at 
the head of the list in public favor, and the recent im- 
provements to them have increased their superiority 
still more. Buy no Sewing Machine until you have 
tried these. 

WHEELER & WILSON MANF'G CO. 

E. W. HARRAL, Agent, 

20v7-4m-lBp 427 Montgomery street, S. F. 



PEPPER'S nurseries, 

PETALUMA, OAL. 

Having Increased onr facilities for growing Tree» and 
Plants, and permanently located our Greenhouses and 
Tree Depot corner Washington and Liberty utriiets, we 
are prepared to furnish Fruit and Shade Trees, Small 
Fruits, Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, Flowering Shrubs, 
Greenhouse and Bedding Plants, etc. Send for De- 
scriptive Catalogue and list of prices. 

Address, W. H. & G. B. PEPPER, 

21v6-ly Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Oal. 



16 



w^sMmm mwaAS 



[July 4, 1874 



M:^S0N & H^IS^LIlNr org^n comip^ny. 



RECEIVED TWO MEDALS AND 
DIPLOMA OF HONOR 



V I E IV IV A 



NO OTHER American Organ 
deemed worthy of even a diploma. 






SEND FOR CATALOGUE 



NEW HTYI..EW 



PRICES FROM $65 TO $750, 



Being 25 to 50 per cent, lower than 

prices agked for any other Organ 

in the conutry. 



IC<3IIILiE:I=1, OHjA^SES cC3 0<3., C3rOXiox-al j^^oxxts. 



633 and 635 Clay Street, 



19v7-lara-Sm-16p 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



Our A.B:eiits. 

Ottb Friends can do mnch In aid of our paper and tht 
cauBe of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
intlaence and encouraging favors. We Intend to send 
none but wsrthy men. 

L. P. McCaktt — Oeneral Agent. 

A. 0. E»ox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

W. H. Kattenberry— California. 

Chas. W. Otis— Solano County. 

C. M. Daly— Colusa County. 

CaAS. T. Bku.— Alameda, Santa Clara and Santa Cr^K 
Counties. 

.T. D. Caret- Sonoma County. 

.I.W. Anderson— Orange and Santa Ana, In Los .Angeles 
County, Cal. 

Hood Alston- San Luis Obispo, Ban Bernardino and 
SanDlngo Counties. 

New Inventions ! 

Of real merit, if brought plainly before the public 
when fresh, are most likely to become profitable to the 
patentee. For this reason, patentees (of worthy de- 
vices) should have the best of Eugravinga Made, and 
published in the Press. Superior Engravings Made, 
at reasonable rates, by artists in this ofBce. bo-tf 



H:^RDM:A.]Nr PIA^TsTO 



SEEDS! 



SEEDS! 



CROP OF IS-rS. 

I am now receiving a choice collection of 



Vegetable, 




THE BEST IS THE CHEAPEST. 




Agricultural, 



and Flower Seeds 'Messrs. A. L. Bancroft & Company have secured the Pacific Coast Agency for 



CoDtaiBlog all the BEST varieties, and selected with 
great care. 

ALFALFA! 

A choice quality of California growth. 

Orassand Clover Seeds- 

Eentdcst Blue Grass, 
Enolish Bye Qrasb, 
Red Top, 

Orchard Ohass, 

TmoTHT, 

MKsguiT, 

Red Clover, 

Whitk Clover. 
FOR SALE AT WHOLESALE OR RETAIU 

GEO E. SSJIX^VESSTEH, 

No. 817 WashlnKton Street, 
_6v2-iyi6p 8ANFBANCI8CO. 

EsTjsrs ! Essm I Ecer^ ! 

I'or hatching, from reliable breeding stock 

one of the oldest and best yards of pure 

bred poultry in the United States. 



THE IMPROVED HARDMAN PIANO, 

WHICH IS THE MOST SUCCESSFUL MEDIUM-PRICED INSTRUMENT NOW 

MANUFACTURED. IT IS A MAGNIFICENT SQUARE GRAND, 

FULL-SIZED, AND OF ORNAMENPAL FINISH. 



m: 



FALLON ^. 




SEVENTH AND OAK STS., OAKLAND. 
Offers for sale Eggs from the following varieties of fowls: 
Light and Dark Brahmas, 
Buff. Partridge and "White Cochins. 
Spangled, Oolden and Silver Poliah, 
Spangled, Golden and Silver Hamburgs, 
Pure Whitefaced Black Spanish. 
Silkies, Qame, Leghorns, 'White & Brown, 
Silver Gray Dorkins and Houdans, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks, 
Bronze Turkeys, the largest in California 

Also, CHESTER COUNTY WHITE PIGS, CHINA PIGS. 
7v6-tf.l6p2 

MOUNT DIABLO VINEYARD— FOR SALE. 



The HARDMAN PIANOS are made with the Improved French Grand Action, the best in use; the keys and 
ivory are also of the best quality, and the Pianos are heavily strung with the beet Imported wire, the cases being 
made strong to bear the strain. 

The cases are Jirst-class, both in solidity and durability of construction and beauty of finish. They are double ' 
veneered with the finest rosewood that can be procured, and have solid rosewood mouldings, solid blockings and 
solid bottoms. ! 

The Pianos of this new scale combine every improvement th^t has been recognised of practical utility by : 
people of cultivated musical taste, and the tone is equal in power and quality to that of any other piano manu- 
factured. 

Elach instrument will be fally warranted for five years. 

Mr. Hugh Hardnian's Factories in New York are turning out Thirti Pianos ■ week, and the leading piano | 
d»-alers in the Eastern cities are acting as his agents. 1 

Our MuBlc Warerooms contain a large assortment of Plauos, square and npriijht, by popular makers; also, ' 
a fine stock of the celebrated | 

PRINCE CABINET ORGANS, 

Sheet Music, Music Books, and Musical Merchandise. For circulars and price lists, address 



THREE SIZES— Warranted to Clean from 
i 60 to 200 Bushels p r Hour, Perfectly. 

PBICES-$40,- <^',/ AND $75. 

' The Nash 1: Cults' Machln^ -nly machine that 

has taken the First Premium a^ v '' pmia State Fairs 
In 1870, 1871. 1872 and 1873. 
N.<tsh k Catts' Machine will thoroughly separate 
f Mustard Seed, Cheat, Barley, Oats, Cracked Wheat, etc., 
from Wheat in a rapid and satisitctory manner. 

No zinc sieves used in the Nash k Cntts' Grain Sepa- 
rator and Fan Mill; therefore we can 

; Clean Faster, Better, and with Less Work 
and Troable, 
Than any other machine now in use. 
The Nash k Outts' machine is the only one that will 
clean Alfalfa Seed. All we ask of any one in want of 
a Grain Separator is to give the Nash k Cutts' a trial. 
EVERY MACHINE FULLY WARRANTED. 
The Nash Jk Cutts' Machine is for sale by all Agri- 
cultural Implement Dealers in California. 
For further particulars address 

NASH, UILLEB & CO., 

No. 264 K street. Sacramento, Cal. 
Only manufacturers of the Nash fc CatU' Grain Sepa- 
rator for the Pacific Coast. Iv8-3m 

IMPROVE YOUR POULTRY. 

It Costs No Hore to Keep Good Fowls than 
Poor Ones ) 



Music Department— 721 Market Street, 



L. BANCROFT & CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Consl 
wine th 
base of 
Barrels 
Spring 
selling 
variety 
can be 
sold at 



sts of to acres; can make 11,(00 gallons of 
is year. Climate mild. Situated at the northern 
Mount Diablo. Good Brandy Distiller?; Wine 
;; Wine Press; Largo Concrete Wine Collar". Good 
of living water handy. Good reasouij given for 
Ago of Vines from eight to ton years. A choice 
of Vines. A large quantity of fine grape land 
bought adjoining the above. The whole to be 
a great bargain. Apply to 

B. F. CLAYTON, San Jose. 
Or C. J. CLAYTON. 
■''"o Clayton, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 




LOOK.! 

ALBERT E. BUBBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. Also Egge 
for hatching from the flnest of im- 
ported stock. Eggs and Fowls at 
reduced prices. Send for Price 
List. 

ALBERT E. BDRBANK, 
lv8-3m 43 i4J Cal. Market, S.F. 



Napa Ladies' Seminary. 

The lext term will o.immenco on TUESDAY. Al(J UST 
4XH. 1874. and continue for twenty-two weeks. Thislllsf^- 
tution offers thorough instruction in a quiet, healthful 
location, easy of access frum an.v part of the Stale. 

Instructions in Piano-forte. Guitar and Vocal music by a 
superior teacher. French tauRhl by a competent teacher. 

It is very desirable that pupils should be present at the 
opei ing of school, altlioUKh thev can enter at any time, 
and be charged from the time of entrance. For particu- 
lars of school apply to 

MISS. .S. F. McDonald. Principal, 

Napa City, Cal. 

REFKHENCER . 

Rev. R. Wylie. Napa; Hon. V. Hartson, Nana; R. T. 
Mon gomery, Esq., Napa: G. E Goodman, Esq.. Napa; D 
Mc lure. Esq.. Naiia: Rev. Dr. GooUbridge. San Francisco; 
Rev. P. V. N'oeder. Yokohama, Japan; (ieo. K, Gluya*,. 
Esq.. San Francisco; James A. t'row. Esq.. Stockton; R. 
O. Baldwin. E-q . San Ramon : J. H. McDonald. E^q., Gray- 
•on; J. B. Uio*. Ksn., Hills Ferry; Rev. U. M. Blake. San 
Irancisco; Miiior Snyder, Sonoma; S. Alstroni. Esq.. 
"hite Sulphur Spiing.s; Goo. I.. Kenny. Esq., San Fran- 
cisco: Hon. R. O. ('lark, hacrame mo. Iv8-2m 



EGGS FOR HATCHING, 

FHOM PUKE IMPORTED roWI..»». 

White-Faced Black Spanish, Light and Dark Brahmas 
and Buff Cochins, $4 00 per doz.; Houdan,|6.00 per doz.; 
Crevecoeur, Sfi.OO per doz.; Games, $9.00 per doz. Eggc 
carefully packed and warranted fresh. Chickens for 
sale. No Eggs sent C. O. D. P. J. PHILIPS, 

llv7-lm 608 Clay street, 8. F. 



L.EA. ^k. I»ERrtI3VS' 

-lEt.KBRATED— 

Worcestershire Sauce. 



316 California Street, 



- SAN FRANCISCO. 






For the very best Photographs go to BRAD- 
LEY k BDLOFSON'S GALLERY, with an •' Elevator, 
429 Montgomery street, Ban Francisco. 2T7.6m 



Declared by Connois- 
seurs to be the only good 
SAUCE. 

Caution Against Fraud. 

Tho success of this most 
delicious and unrivalled 
Condiment having caused certain dealers to 

... apply the name of "Worcestershire Sauce" 

s:)'^^;/! to their own interior compounds, the pub- 
" lie is hereby informed that the only way 
to M>cure the genuine is to ask for LEA k 
PKRRINS' SAUCE, and see that their names 
arc upon the wrapper, labels, stopper and 
bottle. 

Some of the foreign markets having been 
supplied with a spurious Worcestershire 
n the wrapper and labels of which the names 
1 Lea S Fcrrins have been forged, L. k P. give notice 
that they have furnished their correspondents with 
power of attorney to take instant proceedings against 
manufactiin-ra and vendors of such, or any other imi- 
tations by which their right may be Infringed. 

Ask for LEA & PERKINS' Sauce, and see name on 
wrapper, label, bottle and stopper. 

Wholesale and for export by the Proprietors, Worcea- 
ier; Cix>ase k Blackwell, London, ^c, &c., and by 
Grocers and Oilmen universally. 
IvS-ly 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

COR. liJTH AND CASTRO STREETS. OAKIJVND. C»L. 

A few trios of imported Dark Brahmas. of the cele. 
brated Black Prince strain, for sale at $;)0 per trio. 
Also, one trio Imported Golden Polish, at $30. 

For further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, containing a full description of all the best 
known and most profitable Fowls in the world, to 
GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

P. 0. Box 669, San Francisco. 
9»7tf 



W. M. BBANDOK. 



JACOB W. BOOFJU 



BRANDON & ROGERS, 
California Land Agency, 

635 CALIFORNU STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, 
Bay and sell nnimproved lands, famiB and city property 
throughout the Hiate oi California. Farma to exehanyv 
I'or city property and city propt»rty fur farms. Eaatern 
' property to excnange for California property. Tract* 
I favorably located, furniabed fov Colonies. A large llat of 
I property to select from. Money Invested for other itartidH 
I on advantageous terms. Loni; experience in the busia«9» 
and extensive acquaintance In Oalifornia and the £asiern 
' Stales, enable us to effect speedy and satisfactory sales and 
1 excbangea. 20v«-ly-iep 




Volume VIII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY n, 1874. 



[Number 2. 



Who is this that Cometh from 
North ? " 



the 



The Oometl He 1b on his way, 

And BiDgiog as he flies; 
The whizzing planets shrink before 

The specter of the skies; 
Ah I wel 1 may regal orbs burn blue, 

And satellites turn pale, 
Ten million cubic miles of head. 

Ten billion leagues of tail I 

Thus sang HolmeR of a big fellow of a comet 
which visited our solar system many years ago; 
and now "Who is this that cometh from the 
North?" may well be asked by every one who, 
as deepening twilight brings out the "starry 
hosts," turns his eye to the north, and there, 
amid the old familiar stars, beholds a stranger 
flaunting his fiery banner in the face of the ven- 
erable polar star, while "threatening a flank 
attack on the very nose of the celestial 
grizzly I" No wonder that such apparations 
have in past ages caused more 
or less consternation among 
people in the common walks 
of life, and perplexed and even 
frightened to desperate straits 
men of science, and powerful 
monarchs, even, with fears of 
physical or political change or 
calamity. But in the present 
age of enlightenment and as- 
tronomical research, these 
sublime wanderers in the 
infinity of space are having 
thtir motions defined, their 
paths mapped out, and their 
masses scientifically interro- 
gated, in such a manner that 
the scientist is not only able 
to determine their approximate 
weights, but so to analyze their 
substance, as to determine the 
very elements of which theyjare 
composed, aiid their actual 
conditions of existence. 

Instead of the present ap- 
pearance, all imposing and 
majestic as it is or promises to 
become, being a cause of dread 
or fear, it is now welcomed as 
presenting a most unexpected 
and fortunate occasion to add 
a new and important leaf to 
the pages of science. How 
great is the joy, to-day, of the 
many patient night watchers 
on their lookout towers, at the 
appearance of this celestial 
visitor! The busy world at 
large, which has no taste or 
opportunity for holding such 
intimate communion with the 
starry hosts, can not indeed 
conceive of the extent of this 
joy ; but all ■»rho have 
knowledge of the opportunity which is now 
for the first time presented to the as- 
tronomer of applying thb recently devised in 
struments and newly discovered principles of 
research to this class of heavenly bodies, must 
feel a marked gratification at the probability of 
soon finding a new lesson in ike science of as- 
tronomy, prepared and spread out by the pa- 
tient star gazers for their leisurely and ready 
comprehension. 

The present aerial perambulatoi promises to 
become the comet par exaelknce of perhaps the 
age. Although we know not whencthe comes 
or whither he goes, his rapid inereaA of bril- 
liancy and extent of caud.il appendage, which 
his course evidently proves must yet be vastly 
increased, cannot fail to soon render it oije of 
the most remarkable heavenly wanderers whtah 
have visited our system for many centuries— if, 
indeed, ever before. Its approach to the esrth 
will be amply near for the most careful apiJi. 
cation, in all its details, of that most wonder^! 
instrument, the spectroscope, which, in ig 
present high state of improvement, has neve 
before been applied to a comet, under anythinfi 
like the present favorable circumstances. 
Comets' Tails— What are They? 
There is nothing about a comet, or in all na- 
ture, more mysterious than the appearance and 
motion of the tail or train of a comet. Theories 



by scores, and wild enough to make one's hair 
stand on end, have been suggested to account 
for these phenomena, but almost invariably the 
propounders soon find themselves utterly disre- 
garding all the workings of known physical 
laws, and are compelled, one after another, to 
abandon the theories they have conceived. 

When a comet is first seen by the telescope 
in the far ofi' regions of space, it is generally 
without any tail. That appendage is developed 
and grows more and more conspicuous as the 
body approaches the central luminary, and is 
always observed upon the side opposite to the 
sun, or pointing away from it. 

Of what does that appendage consist? Is it 
matter? If so how can we account for the in- 
conceivable rapidity of its motion, especially 
when "swinging round the circle" at its peri- 
helion passage. If these appendages do con- 
sist of matter, emitted from the comet's body, 
it must be under the control of forces incom- 
parably more energetic than gravitation, and of 
a nature entirely diflferent. Professor Pierce 
and Prof. Bessel have each, independently of 
the other, offered the suggestion that they may 



ciple under discussion is as follows: A comet is 
held to be a mass of vapor, decomposable by 
solar light — the tail being an actinic cloud, 
resulting from such decomposition, and pro- 
jected into space. The tail is therefore not 
matter projected from the comet, but simply a 
beam of actinic light (the other rays being 
mostly absorbed by the comet) projected from 
the sua into space, and upon which interplan- 
etary matter, or coimic dust, is precipitated, 
and thus made visible, precisely as the atoms 
of dust are made visible by a beam of light 
passing through a dark room. 

This explanation, of course, supposes that 
the sunlight has a difi'erent power, on being 
passed through a vapory comet, from that which 
It possesses when it has not traversed such a 
medium ; otherwise all space would be lit up like 
a comet's tail. It seems to be the aclinic rays 
alone which possess this power, the other rays 
being absorbed by the vapory mass upon which 
they haT3 fallen, rendering that mass even 
more bright than the cosmic dust illuminated 
in the track of the penetrating actinic rays. 
Thus the caudal appendage of a comet is in a 




"GOVERNOB BOOTH," THE CELEBRATED 



PACIFIC HU/ftL PUSS'S 
SHORT-HORN BULL.. 



any general 



consist of electricity. Some have supposed 
they might be simply the result of light — that 
the sun's rays, in their passage through the un- 
known substance of the nucleus of the comet, 
may acquire some new power, analagous per- 
haps, to polarization, by which they become 
visible; while those rays which simply pene- 
trate space, are, as we know, invisible. This 
latter theory has received a powerful impetus in 
connection with some marvelous results which 
Prof. Tyndall has obtained in his researches 
upon the actinic power of light. By passing a 
beam of light through a cei tain chemical sub- 
stance— the vapor of liquid, hydrochloric acid — 
the Professor found that in even the most at- 
tenuated form to which he could reduce the 
amount of that vapor, a luminous white actinic 
cloud was formed, resembling in all known 
respects and phenomena the substance of the 
tail of a comet — and particularly in its absolute 
^anspnrency and luminosity. The cloud, which 
w&s formed within a glass tube, did not present 
the smallest conceivable obscuration to any 
object placed behind it. And still the cloud 
itself gave ofi' a large amount of light. 
Nothing could give a , better idea of the sub- 
\ stance of the tail of a comet than such an ac- 
linic cloud. 
\ The Phenomena Explained. 

The application of Professor Tyndall's dis- 
co\ry to the explanation of the cometary prin- 



perpetual state of renovation, as is a beam of 
light thrown into a dark room by means of a 
movable lens. The beam of light only is in 
motion, not necessarily the particles of dust, 
either in the room or in space. 

The curvilinear form of a comet's tail is also 
thus readily explained. If the body is moving 
in a direct line, or one approximately so, the 
tail would be straight. If in a curvilinear 
line, the tail would necessarily take a curvi- 
linear form. This fact may be shown by pro- 
jecting a firebrand rapidly in a direct or cur- 
vilinear line, and observing the line of fire 
painted upon the retina. Of course, there may 
be comets whose constitution may be such that 
their vapor cannot be so decomposed by the 
sun as to allow of the formation of the actinic 
cloud or tail. Hence such comets will have no 
tail — as is often the case. Moreover, the length 
of the tail will be varied by the greater or less 
degree in which the sun's rays are enabled to 
act upon the substance of the nucleus. 

In fact, nearly all the phenomena observed 
in these mysterious bodies are readily account- 
ed for by Professor Tyndall's theory, which 
will undoubtedly be carefully studied, and, if 
possible, verified during the continuance of the 
present illustrious stranger within our reach of 
vision. 

A CHILD of D. McNulty, living near Yreka, 
died last week from the bite of a scorpion. 



A Noble Animal. 

On our first page to-day we give a fine cut, 
executed by our own artist, of the short-horn 
bull Gov. Booth. This animal is a member of 
the celebrated " Gabilan Herd," the property 
of .1. D. Carr and W. S. Chapman, Gabilan, 
Monterey county. His sire and dam are both 
of the pure Booth stock, and were imported 
from England. This stock is noted for early 
maturity and fattening qualities. Gov. Booth 
is two years old, and is remarkably well form- 
ed. It is believed that he is the first pure 
Booth brought to the State ; as sixth Lord Ox- 
ford is the first Bates. He is pure Duke on 
the sire's side, and pure Oxford on that of hia 
dam. These are the two strains that brought 
such high prices at the great New York Mills 
(Campbell's) sale last year. Gov. Booth, al- 
though youD2, has already proved himself a 
good stock getter, having left a number of calves 
back in Canada. He won the first prize as 
a yearling at Montreal last 
fall. Is a grand handler and 
feeder. His pedigree is as 
follows: Governor Booth (late 
Cavalier.) Bed roan, calved 
March 13'h, 1872. Got by 
Royal Britton, (27,351.) Dam, 
White Rose, by Mountain 
Chief, (20,383) 2d dam. 
British Rose, by Prince 
George, (13,510.) 3d dam, 
British Girl, by British Boy, 

(11,206 ) 4ih dam, , by 

Lejnij.is. (10,414.) 5th dam, 

, by Leonard, (4,210.) 

Mountnin Chief (20,383), 
cot, by Lord of the Hills 
(18,267\ out of Soldier's 
Bride, by Windsor (14,013) 
Lord of the Hills by Sir 
S imuel ( a son of Crown 
Prince) out of Red Rose, by 
Harbinger. 

Prince George, got by Crown 
Prince, out of Monica, by 
Raspberry (4,875.) 

British Boy, by Water King 
(11.204), out of British Queen 
by Buckingham. 

M0N.STKK GOOSKBEKBIES. — 

One of our city seedsmen 
brought to our office this 
morning tramples of the lar- 
gest gooseberries that it has 
ever been our fortune to see. 
They were grown by a gen- 
tleman of Bolinaa, Marin Co., 
in close proximity to Bolinas 
bay. They are from the stand- 
ard English gooseberry stock, 
and have been cultivated up 
to their present size by the 
producer, whose name we are 
not at present permitted to 
give. They are said to have never saflTered 
from mildew, a blight which has done 
much toward discouraging the cultivation 
of this old-time fruit. Possibly their proxi- 
mity to the bay may save them from 
mildew, by imbibing a needed saline property 
from the soil and atmosphere. None of the 
berries presented to us were fully ripe; but a 
few were suflSoiently so to enable ua to test 
their eating merits, which are quite satisfac- 
tory. This fruit should be widely disseminated, 
as it would be a decided acquisition to our 
market. 

The Capabilities or Sandt Cactus Land. — 
The Los Angeles Herald of July 1st has the 
following: "Dr. A. B. Haywood, a fruit- 
grower from Orange, in this county, called on 
us yesterday and reports everything prosperovis 
in his vicinity. He has a new place, 52 acres 
of tillable land; 1,300 fruit and nut trees set 
out in orchard; 2,000 two-year old vines, Mus- 
cat, in vine yard, and 30,000 cuttings in nurs- 
ery; his barley and wheat crop yielded three 
tons to the acre; the corn on his little place 
looks well, the first planting will afi'ord roast- 
ing ears in a week ; his trees and vines grow 
well without irrigation. This is his second 
year on this place. It was sandy cactus land. 
Some of his friends laughed at him for buying 
worthless, barren land. He has proved what 
good cultivation does here." 



ii 



18 



[July II, 1874. 



'ORRESPONDENCE. 



[The Rural Press, in openiofr the columns of this de- 



Faots are always thankfully received ; and eufffirestions »nd 
matters of opinion on subjects connected with agriculture 
are also acceptable : though correspondents are ^^ be un- 
derstood as speaking for themselves and not for the Pres6. J 



Hor^TicJLTiii^E. 



Important Questions. 

Editoes Pbess:— Can I, through yonr widely- 
circulating journal, elicit information in regard 
to these questions, viz. : What gang plow will 
do good in stiff, adobe soil ? And what pump 
can be relied on to raise water from a well 110 
feet deep ? 

For months I have been seeking information 
on these points by private correspondence, and 
have obtained nothing satisfactory. In most 
cases my letters have been referred to agents or 
manufacturers, who severally recommend their 
own plows or pumps. 

I want a plow, the best, that will do good 
work in a stiff, adobe soil, wet or dry, and not 
of heavy draught. Is tliere any such? The 
plows that I have used do not scour when the 
soil is wet; and do not plow deep enough when 
dry. What plow will turn up the soil six or 
eight inches, wet or dry, and do good work 
with a force of four or six horses? 

Again, after much inquiry among experienced 
men and dealers, when in San Francisco last 
July, I bought Hooker's deep well pump and 
put it into my well 110 feet deep, and could not 
make it work satisfactorily. I took it out, In- 
formed the agent, who wrote me specific in- 
Btruclions in relation to setting the pump, pipe, 

fiston-rod, etc., and requested another trial, 
employed an experienced mechanic and put 
in th« pump again, with no better result. 

I want a pump that will do good work; not 
easily out of repair; and when so, can be re- 
paired without lifting all out of the well, and 
that is capable of lifting water enough to sup- 
ply a band of a thousand or fifteen hundred 
sheep, if need be, without running all day. 
Is there such a pump ? Where can it be ob- 
tained and what is the most economical power 
to work it ? 

Messrs, editors, satisfactory information in 
regard to the above will be of great service to 
myself, and many others like myself, just open- 
ing ranches on these adobe plains. 

Crops here near Deer creek are good. 

Yours truly, S. A. Baker. 

Piano, Cal., June 29th. 

[For the benefit of our correspondent and 
his neighbors, we hope that those who have 
any practical acquaintance with the implements 
mentioned above will give their experience, 
either through the columns of the Rdhal Pbess 
or to Mr. Baker by private correspondence. 
Mr. B. evidently does not desire to hear from 
dealers in these articles, but from those who 
have tried them and have tested their merits. — 
Eds. Press. J 

Sherman island. 

Editobb Peess : — Sherman Island contains 
14,000 acres, and is situated above the junction 
of the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers. It 
has been occupied for a number of years, but 
until recently has been subject to overflow from 
these rivers. A few years since the owners of 
of the island formed a company under the State 
law for the reclaiming of swamp and overflowed 
lands, to build a substantial levee. 

Immense labor and thousands of dollars were 
expended before its completion ; but at last its 
completion has placed the farmers in compara- 
tive security. It has stood the present high 
water with but one important break; and the 
experience gained in construction has given 
confidence and a feeling pf security never be- 
fore enjoyed. The final success of the enter- 
prise is largely due to Mr. J. M. Upham, who 
owns 4,000 acres, and whose foresight and en- 
ergy inspires the rest to activity. He has a 
large number of tenants, and his courteous 
bearing and genial manners and kindness to 
them nave produced a feeling of confidence 
and good will, alike agreeable and advantageous. 
AVould that the rich could ever be thus ! 

" Emmatown," 
So named, from Mrs. Emma Upham, is situ- 
ated towards the upper extremity of the island, 
on the Sacramento river, and is wholly the 
result of Mr. Upham's enterprise. A good 
wharf affords ample shipping facilities. A store, 
blacksmith and wagon shops, hotel and poorly- 
patronized saloon and a few dwelling houses 
comprise the list. Two immense warehouses 
are in process of erection, to hold the immense 
crop now being harvested. Let other sections 
boast of heavy grain, but when acre after acre of 
wheat stands G ft. high; when an enormous crop 
of barley is followed by large crops of beans or 
potatoes, the same season, they may equal the 
products of this island. Nothing can excel the 
richness of the soil— of rich vegetable mould, 
resembling peat, in many places, and on the 
Sacramento side, of fine sand; nothing could 
be better. 

The island needs more forest and fruit-trees. 
For the supply of the latter Mr. Upham has a 
nursery of 10 acres, which includes a large 
variety of trees, under the care of Dr. D. U. 
Perry, whose skill is well attested by the fine 
appearance of the nursery. 

Our visit was full of interest and will be long 
and pleasantly remembered. C. W. O. 



Cherry Culture. 

C. W. Eeed, of Washington, Yolo, produces 
this year about ten tons of;cherrieB. W. H. 
Pepper, of Sonoma, produced, in 1872, about 
ten tons; in 1873, about eight and a half tons. 
This year his crop is not quite so large, on ac- 
count of the cool, wet spring, but is better in 
quality. J. W. Cassidy, of Sonoma, in ordinary 
good years, produces about eight tons; this year 
not quite so many. Prices for cherries gener- 
ally start at twenty-five to fifty cents per pound; 
they are now quoted at from eight to ten cents 
for common, and fifteen to twenty-five cents 
for choice. We do not now remember the num- 
ber of trees in Mr. Keed's orchard, but Mr. 
Pepper has about 800, and Mr. Cassidy about 
400. From these figures we learn that Mr, Pep- 
per's trees average in good seasons about thirty- 
three pounds to the tree, and Mr. Cassidy 's 
about forty. Placing the average price per 
pound at fifteen cents, it would make Mr. Pep- 
per's trees average him, say, $5, and Mr. Cas- 
sidy 's $6 a tree; or, would give Mr. Pepper an 
income, for his 600 trees, of $3,000, and M--. 
Cassidy, for bis 400 trees, an income of $2,400. 
Allowing 20 per cent, for rent of land an'l inter- 
est on cost of orchard and labor, it would leave 
Mr. Pepper a net income of $2,400, and Mr. 
Cassidy, $1,920. Allowing 200trees to the acre, 
Mr. Pepper's trees, occupying three acres, and 
Mr. Cassidy 's two acres, this shows that Mr 
Pepper's land brings him $800, and Mr. Cas- 
idy's $960 per acreper annum. Now, we state 
these facts to show those who do not know 
what to do in this State how little capital is re- 
quired to begin and build up a good business 
in a few years. Land just as good for cherry 
culture as that of Mr. Pepper's, Mr. Cassi- 
dy's or Mr. Seed's can be had almost any 
where in Sonoma or Yolo counties at from $15 
to $50 per acre. Just as good and better land 
can be had in the foothills of the Sierra or 
Coast Range mountains, in Butte, Placer, El 
Dorado, Amador, Tuolumne, Mariposa, Stan- 
islaus, or any other county in the State partly 
in the foothills, at from $1 25 to $5 an acre. 

The trees will cost on an average, say 30eents 
apiece, or $60 to plant an acre of land. They 
will begin to bear the third year after being 
planted, and at six years after planting will 
bring in a good profit. Here, then, is a plain, 
straightfoward road by which an industrious 
man or boy can in the course of six or eight 
years, by an outlay of $300 or $400 at the most 
on the start, secure an income of $3,000 to $4,- 
000 annually. While his orchard is coming in- 
to bearing he can, besides attending the same, 
make his living by working for v ages, by rais- 
ing poultry aud vegetables, or strnwherries, or 
other berries, or all on the same land, without 
injury to his cherry orchard. With snch open- 
ings before him in California no one need be 
without something that will pay to do. We 
should mention that the varieties principally cul- 
tivated in this State for the market, and which 
pay the best, are Black Tartarian, Governor 
Wood, Napoleon Bigerron, White Heart. 

Teansplanting. — Many farmers imagine if 
theycan plant the seeds of vegetables in the hills 
where they are to grow, that will gain some 
time which is lost in transplanting. But in 
some vegetables this is a mistake. Lettuce, 
cabbage and tomatoes are especially benefited 
by transplanting. And if they are carefully 
transplanted twice, they are improved. It 
makes them more stalky and robust in their 
growth. Florists have also found that it im- 
proves some kinds of flowers to transplant. 
And trees, especially evergreens, are benefited 
by yearly removal for two or three years. In 
this removal we do not intend to imply that 
careless bruising and breaking of plants or 
trees of any kind will improve them. Plants 
and trees must be removed with dirt adhering 
to them, protecting the fibrous roots. Celery, 
cabbage and tooiatoes should be cut around 
with a knife from one to three inches from the 
stem, according to age, and carefully trans- 
planted without checking their growth. Gar- 
den vegetables do not grow wild, and without 
care avid labor, but when carefully nursed they 
always pay the bill. It is all wrong to permit 
a bed of cabbage plants to grow up so crowded 
that they produce so slender a stem that it 
would be folly to ever look for them to bear 
large heads. So soon as they produce the sec- 
ond leaves they should be set out at least two 
inches apart, and the ground cultivated between 
them, which will insure strong and vigorous 
plants. 

A Splendid Sight. — Upon the grounds of 
John B. Boyd, Ballymacool, in North Ireland, 
there bloomed the past year a monster rhodo- 
dendron {R. lancifolium) . It is about 16 feet 
high, 50 feet in diameter of branches and ex- 
panded upward of 400 spendid scarlet trusses 
of flowers. Mr. Boyd says the brilliancy of its 
color, the admirable shape of its blossoms and 
the way in which the foliage falls down about 
the trusses, so as to set off to the best advan- 
tage, render this the most beautiful rhododen- 
dron ever seen in this kingdom. — Borticulturist . 

A PEACH orchard in Maryland contains 1,013 
acres. At the bight of the past season 600 
hands were employed in picking, paring and 
caning the fruit, and the daily work was about 
4,000 baske ts, or 30,000 cans. 

Nevee allow flowers to be watered or sprin- 
kled with cold water, especially in cold weather. 
Tepid water is always better, even in summer. 



New Fruits. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, in his address be- 
fore the American Pomological Convention, 
uttered the following sentiment: 

" That as fine fruits can be raised from seed 
here as have been produced in any other coun- 
try, there is no longer a doubt. That this is 
the plan prescribed by our bountiful Creator for 
their production and improvement, is equally 
true. That there is any limit to its progress 
and extent, we have no reason to believe. 'True, 
the number of superior fruits is small compared 
with the host of indifferent varieties that have 
come down to us from the past. One reason 
for this is, that our taste for finer fruits has 
been elevated to a higher standard, and those 
of an indifferent or medium quality fall out by 
the way; and we have no doubt that the old 
pears so highly lauded by historians were 
most, if not all of them, only coarse unmelting 
kinds. 

' ■ When we reflect upon what has been accom- 
plished in the improvement of animals and 
vegetables in our own day, and how many 
splendid acquisitions have been brought forth 
that command the admiration of the world, — 
when we reflect upon the many fine American 
fruits already obtained with but comparatively 
little eflbrt, — we surely have cause forgreat en- 
couragement and perseverance. There is no 
limit to progress now or hereafter, and we be- 
lieve that the fruits of this earth are to become 
more and more perfect as time advances." 






Cracking in Pears. 

We know that lime and potash are specifics 
for pear-trees, even if they do not acccomplish 
all claimed for them by " H.," in the Garden- 
ers' Montldy, whose assertions we copy: 

Pears do not crack when the soil is sufii- 
ciently supplied with lime and potash; and 
they crack most where those salts are deficient. 
Common wood ashes contain these salts nearly 
in the quantity and proportions that pear trees 
on such soil require — .40 per cent, of potash 
and .30 per cent, of lime. Reasoning from 
these facts, I applied wood ashes at the rate of 
400 bushels to the acre, after the fruit had 
formed and cracked. Many of them healed up 
and made perfect fruit the same season, others 
not until the next season. A friend, at my 
suggestion, applied it heavily to a favorite But- 
ter pear-tree in his own garden for several 
years in succession, and has had for several 
years perfect and delicious pears; and I will 
guarantee it to cure any case, where the ashes 
are fairly and abundantly applied. 

I was told by an experienced hand that I 
would kill the trees, but on the contrary, I 
cured them. Therefore, do not be afraid; if one 
application will not suflice, give them a larger 
dose next year. A moist atmosphere undoubt- 
edly encourages the growth of the tree and 
fruit, while the insufficiency of proper food 
prevents the perfection of either; hence, crack- 
ed fruit and "rough old bark." 

The Pineapple. — The history of the pine- 
apple dates back for three or four centuries. 
Columbus found it on the island of Gnadaloupe 
in 1492. The Japanese cultivated it as early as 
1599, and it is supposed that it was first 
brought to Europe from Java. It appears that 
this fruit was transplanted from South America 
to Asia and Africa, for in 1592 it was carried to 
Bengal and China from that country. It thrived 
in Brazil, and, according to Humboldt, grows 
wild in the forest of Orinoco. They spoil very 
easily, and sometimes during the voyage here 
the whole cargo of a vessel is spoiled. It is 
considered a good trip if three-quarters of the 
cargo is in good condition when the vessel ar- 
rives. This depends not only upon the length 
of the voyage, but also on the bad weather ex- 
perienced, thunder showers being particularly 
destructive to them. It is estimated that 4,200,- 
000 pineapples are brought into New York an- 
nually. The business of canning this fruit is 
becoming quite extensive, and likewise profita- 
ble in this city, and several firms are engaged 
in this preparation, and they put up at least a 
million pineapples in cans every year. — Ex- 
change. 

The Best Vaeieti op Steawbebbt. — It is re- 
markable that a variety so old as the Albany 
Seedling, or "Wilson," as it is popularly 
known, should hold its own so many years, in 
spite of numerous new introductions. Gradu- 
ally, however, it seems to be giving way to 
others. Last season the markets of Baltimore, 
Philadelphia and Washington had large quan- 
tities of other kinds, and itwas noted that these 
varying varieties were much more abundant 
than in former years. Among the leading kinds 
which, by this test, are growing in popularity, 
were Downer's Prolific, Boy den's 32 Green 
Prolific, Jucunda and Charles Downing. Tri- 
omphe de Gand, which for a long time seemed 
to contest the ground with the Wilson, was not 
so often seen. Still for all this the leading kind 
in all these three markets was the Wilson. It 
biars so abundantly, and grows so well gener- 
ally, without being choice about the character 
of the soil or situation, that in spite of some 
deficiencies, in other respects it will probably 
be in favo r for some years yet. — Ex. 

A Maidstone, England, correspondent has 
this to say, in The Gardeners' Chronicle, of 
Conover's Colossal asparagus: "We find the 
new American variety rather earlier for use, 
and plants of the same age as the Giant are 
nearly double the size, so that we consider it a 
valuable addition, although it does not attain 
the gigantic dimensions of the 'Yankee' color- 
ed plate." 



A New Peach Enemy. 

As our readers know, our friends in the 
peach-growing districts never let a chance go 
by to "bull" or "bear" peach-stock, according 
as it may be their interest to do. If a little 
freeze come unexpectedly along, it is a capital 
chance to prepare people for high prices, and 
then we hear woeful accounts of the destruction 
of the peach-buds. Then, when it can be no 
longer a question that there will be a fair crop, 
it is the interest to keep distant growers out of 
the market, and then we hear that there ia 
"such a tremendous crop that it will not pay to 
market them." 

Now comes to us a sad and sor:owful tale of 
the attack on the young peach-trees, by 
myriads of energetic "black fellows," who in 
the course of a few days will leave thousands 
of peach-trees in the condition of dried sticks. 
Rumors of this have reached us for some weeks 
past, but in view of past experiences we hardly 
knew on which side of the stock-board we had 
better range ourselves. By a recent issue, 
however, of the Wilmington Ccnnmercial, we 
judge that the appearance of the insect is a real 
and serious trouble, and may have as marked 
an influence on the future of peach-culture as 
the Colorado beetle has had in some places on 
the potato crop. 

By the account referred to we note that some 
of the insects and specimens of the injury 
caused by them have been submitted to one 
of our intelligent Germantown friends, who 
pronounces them to be an allied insect to the 
common black aphis, which at times so seriously 
affects the cherry tree. This cherry aphis, 
however, though onc3 in a while very annoy- 
ing to the cherry-raiser, comes and goes, and 
does not seem to be a settled pest; and it is 
possible this may be one of that class, and the 
trouble after all not be as great as apprehended. 
— Oermantoicn Telegraph. 

The inhabitants of Sumatra produce great 
quantities of coffee which they export. They 
do not, however, make use of the oerries, but 
their beverage consists of an infusion of the 
parched leaves. An Englishman who used this 
drink for a long time is loud in its praise. He 
drank it morning and evening, and found it in- 
valuable, giving immediate relief to hunger and 
fatigue, and clearing the brain of cobwebs. 
The Sumatrans hold that the best liquor is ob- 
tained from leaves shed by the plants ; but their 
usual method of proceeding is to take off the 
ends of the branches and suckers, and break 
them up into twelve or fifteen inch lengths. 
These are fixed side by side in a split bamboo, 
so that the leaves all appear on one side and 
the stalks on the other, by which means equal- 
ity of roasting is ensured, the leaves |being 
roasted together and the stalks together. After 
tying up the bamboo, the truss of leaves and 
stalks is held over a smokeless fire, and kept 
moving about, so as to roast without singeing 
it. The stalks are considered quite as valuable 
as the leaves, and when the operation is com- 
pleted, leaves and stalks are rubbed between 
the hands into a coarse powder, and then they 
are ready for use. The infusion is of a deep- 
brown color, and extremely fragrant, its odor — 
like its taste — resembling that of a mixture of 
tea and coffee. — Prairie Farmer. 



The foreign papers state that at a recent 
meeting of horticulturists in Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, the sparrow difficulty was the principal 
subject of discussion. To snch dimensions 
have the losses of stone and small fruits attain- 
ed that the growers feel themselves face to 
face with the most serious obstacle they have 
ever had to encounter. By the introduction of 
the English sparrow the balance of Nature has 
been completely upset ; the native birds which 
used to visit the gardens at certain seasons — 
many of them insect destroyers-have been driv- 
en away by the pugnacious strangers, to whose 
rapacity fruits, grain and seeds are alike sac- 
rificed. 

Do not use fresh manure for bulbs ; old, thor- 
oughly decayed compost is preferable. Plant 
deeply, especially the tuberose. If the soil is 
naturally very stiff, remove it, place a few stones 
at the bottom of the bed for drainage, and fill 
in with light sandy mould. Stake at once and 
tie up the stem as it lengthens. Neat, plain 
painted supports make the flowers appear to bet- 
ter advantage. Green is the best color, with a 
small white space at the top on which to write 
the name. A shade of hesvy muslin or paper 
spread over the flowers Juring the heat of the 
day, helps to retain their beauty. 

The rust on verbenas has possibly done more 
to discourage their eultivation than we are gen- 
erally aware of, asd yet it is weakness to be 
cast down by such trifles. A friend, especial ly 
successful in the* culture, never uses cuttings 
for increasing b-s stock of this plant, but goes 
back to first p-inciples and raises them directly 
from seed. ^ » good strain is procured, and 
seed saved f^ none but the very best color, 
and finest ''"sseB of bloom, one can, he says, 
at all tinvJS have as showy a bed as Neighbor 
Highflyjr. who wants "only the named varieties; 
ggeijjj^P' are too common, Sir." 

jSypfCTs OF Gas on Plants. — At a meeting of 
the lope rial Academy of Sciences at Vienna, 
Prof>ssor Bohm described experiments prov- 
ing he injurious action of gas on plants. The 
plaits of fuchsias and salvias, as examples, 
w<re put in pots, gas was constantly conducted 
tfthe roots, and seven died in four months. 
I was shown that gas does not, in the first in- 
tance, kill the plants, but that it poisDns the 
jpround. 



July ri, 1874-] 



LE Oi\iiOEt\8. 



Holland, and Holstein when they are red, 
browD, and other colored beef cattle from Hol- 
stein. — jBx. 



Letter from Jesse D. Carr. 

Editobs Pbess:— Some days since I was in- 
formed that Ool. Coleman Younger had given 
me a passing notice in the June number of 
the California Agriculturist, a monthly journal 
published in San Jos6. I was unabled to ob- 
tain a copy of this paper until yesterday ; but 
now take great pleasure in replying to the Col- 
onel's enquiries. 

Ist. I procured the pedigree of ' 'Butterdale" 
on the dam's side up to "Sally" from the gen- 
tleman that I purchased him from, viz.: Mr. 
Wm. Quinn, of Santa Clara county. From 
Sally Ist I traced it in the Herd Book myself. 

2d. I did write to Colonel Younger under 
date April 25th, and have his reply thereto, but 
find no mention in the letter of either Forbes 
or Mayo, nor can I find any letter from Col- 
onel Younger in which either of these gentle- 
men's names are alluded to. 

3d. I did not make out Butterdale's pedi- 
gree in the ofi&ce of the State Agricultural So- 
ciety. I did examine the Herd Book there, 
and I think at the time mentioned by the Col- 
onel; and it is from this fact that I presume he 
drew his conclusion that I "made up" the pedi- 
gree in question at that time and place. 

I will here mention for the satisfaction of 
the Colonel and the public, that I forwarded 
the pedigree given me by Mr. Qainn to Mr. 
Lewis F. Allen, publisher of the American 
Herd Book, and that several letters were ex- 
changed between us on the subject, the result of 
which was that Mr. Allen concluded the pedi- 
gree was correct, and admitted it to record. 
During the following year, however, I learned 
that there was trouble about the pedigree on 
the side of his sire, Tyrone (bred, I believe, by 
Colonel Younger), which determined me to dis- 
pose of the bull. This I did at the State Fair 
in 1872, selling him "on his merits," but not 
as a thoroughbred. 

4th. I believe I did tell Colonel Younger 
that I considered Butterdale one of the finest 
bull calves that I had seen, for I certainly was 
of that opinion then, and am yet; and had his 
pedigree been pure or beyond dispute, I do not 
think that I would have parted with him. Up 
to the present day, I have never seen a bull 
calf raised in this State, which, pedigrees being 
alike, I should have been willing to exchange 
him for. 80 much for Butterdale. 

5tb. As to the cow Maude, I do not recol-. 
lect that I ever owned one by that name — cer 
tainly not a thoroughbred. I exhibited either 
two or three cows in 1872, and have their pedi- 
grees; their names are Twin, Laura and 
Clara. 

Now, as to the resolution offered by me and 
passed at our association's meeting, in May 
last, I ask for no better argument to prove that 
my resolution was proper and correct than 
Colonel Younger's own communication, that I 
am now replying to. His argument in favor of 
Short-horns fully sustains me in my view of 
the case, "that they are much more valuable 
than any others." The Colonel also accuses 
me of "having followed him with a vindictive- 
ness unparalleled in Short-horn societies;" 
this is simply a stretch, and a great stretch of 
the Colonel's fanciful imagination, and too 
ridiculous to take the slightest notice of. If 
there is another breeder in this or any State 
who has so much to say in favor of his own, 
and so little in favor of his neighbor's stock as 
Colonel Younger has, I confess I have not yet 
met him. 

I believe that I have replied to all of Colonel 
Younger's enquiries, and trust that my answers 
will prove satisfactory. If such be not the 
case, he has but to state what is still lacking 
and I shall hasten to satisfy him. 

J. D. Cabp. 
Gabilan Bancho, Monterey Co., June 29th, 
1874. 

FoEM OF THE Ateshiee. — The proper form 
for an Ayrshire cow is that which would be 
regarded as a model form for a milk-producer 
as distinguished from a Short-horn or Hereford, 
which are par ixcdknce beef-producers. The 
two special points wlaioh are regarded as of 
more significance than any other are the form 
of the body, which shoul^i be wedge-shape, or 
tapering from the hind-qu&rters to the head, 
and the udder, which should oe capacious, not 
fleshy, should show well behind, and be carried 
broadly and squarely forward, retaining also a 
proper depth. The teats sho'ald be of good 
size and length, not "spiked," and should 
stand wide apart. It is not easy to convey a 
very clear idea in regard to the fi»er points of 
an animal, except in the presence of one or 
more specimens. 

Jebsbt and Aldebney. — Ihe un^tunate 
confusion of ideas as to the proper nomencla- 
ture of these cattle, will probably exiv; for 
some time to come, and make it necessai^ for 
this oft-repeated statement to be repeateti a 
hundred times. Alderney group of islands, 
Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Sark. As tie 
cattle are really distinct breeds, and have bee) 
very strictly kept so for many years, the namv 
of each island is now, and has for some years 
been given to its own particular breed of cat- \ 
tie. Jersey and Alderney are therefore two 
distinct breeds. The same trouble is now lay- 
ing up in regard to Dutch and Holland cattle, 
which are Dutch only when they are large, 
blaok and white, heavy-milking cattle from 



l^E O^it^Y' 



How the Best Quality of Cheese is 
Made. 

The editor of the Utica Herald recently 
visited the celebrated Weeks factory, the pro- 
duct of which has most of the time taken the 
lead in the Utica market. We make the follow- 
ing extract from his report: 

The cheese is firm and meaty, and more than 
ordinarily fine-flavored. The manufacture is 
very even, and the cheese is as much alike as 
it could be. It is plain enough to be seen why 
this cheese demands top prices. 

The factory does not seem to enjoy special 
advantages of any kind. There is no reason to 
suppose that the feed is better than that most 
factories have. Indeed, there is a good deal of 
swampy pasture in that region. It is claimed 
that the superiority of the cheese is the result 
of the careful manufacture. 

We made inquiries about the process, and do 
not see that it differs materially from that of 
most factories, save that some of the operations 
are slower. The setting is done at the usual 
temperature, and the heat carried to 96* or 98° 
according to the condition of the milk. Rennet 
enough is added to cause coagulation to begin 
in fifteen or twenty minutes. The cutting is 
completed in one hour to one hour and twenty 
minutes. The heat is raised slowly to the re- 
quired point, and the stirring is moderate and 
careful, though done with a rake, which we 
much prefer to the hand, as cleaner, if nothing 
else. The curd is allowed to stand in the whey 
until ready to dip, and it is hardly necessary to 
say that it is dipped at the right point— that 
point on which so much depends, and which is 
so difficult to determine. When dipped there 
is no grinding, but stirring and airing, until the 
salt is added, at the rate of 2.7 pounds to 1,000 
pounds of milk. It is then put to press, and 
kept under the screws until the next forenoon, 
when it is taken out and set on the ranges, 
where it is turned and cared for the ordinary 
way. 

We noticed one peculiarity in the hoops, 
which does away with the trouble of pulling on 
bandages. The top of the hoop is cut off 
about four inches or so, and a band put around 
the lower edge, so that it will slip over the top 
of the hoop. The bandage is put into the 
hoop, the edge turned over the upper edge and 
the movable top-piece slipped on, which holds 
the bandage in its place, leaving the hoop 
smooth and perfect inside. It is only neces- 
sary to take off the top of the hoop in place of 
taking out the cheese, and turn down the edges 
of the bandage. There is no patent on this, 
and factory men are at liberty to use it. 

An agitator is used during the night, to keep 
the cream from rising, and cold water is kept 
running around the milk vat. The milk is all 
delivered twice a day. 

Yield of Milk per Cow. — Professor Miles, 
in his address before the Northwestern Dairy- 
men's Association, made the following state- 
ment: The last census showed that there were 
10,303,500 cows in the United States, which 
were valued at $29,408,983. Most of these were 
of a very inferior kind. The average yield of 
milk, in the Northwest, was only 2,530 pounds 
per cow; but a dairyman in New York has suc- 
ceeded in getting a yield of almost 8,000 pounds 
per cow from a herd. Mr. Fish, of Herkimer 
Co., New York, by judicious selections, ob- 
tained a herd of cows that averaged 834 pounds 
of cheese per cow each year. The cow " Red 
Rose" gave 2.956 pounds of milk from August 1 
to Sept. 15, and one day gave 76 pounds. An 
Ayrshire cow, "Lass," gave in the same time 
2,746 pounds, and bred till she was 19 years 
old. 'The cow " Nettie" gave 1,364 pounds in 
July, an average of 44 pounds daily. The 
cow "Beauty," belonging to E. T. Miles, of 
Massachusetts, gave, in 1870, 9,911 pounds of 
milk; in 1871, 7,922 pounds; in 1872, 7,555 
pounds. At the last date she was 11 years old, 
and weighed 985 pounds. 



Tl|E Swtf^E YA^^' 



Salt fob Milch Cows. — Milch cows in the 
flush of feed require more salt than at any 
other season of the year. Dairymen should 
look well to this matter at the present time. 
Saline matter seems to be required by their 
very natures, as is attested by the bovine tribes 
going long distances to obtain it, when in an 
undomesticated condition. Dairy cows that 
are amply provided with salt when grass is 
fresh and vigorous, thrive better than they 
otherwise would, give a greater quantity of 
milk, and for the benefit of housewives, let us 
add, impart to cream an element which makes 
it more readily converted into butter.— OWo 
Farmer, 

The Ideal Milch Cow. — The characteristics 
af a good milch cow must be irrespective of 
breeds, in a general sense. Milk is created 
from the blood, and her vital energies which 
make blood— that is, the indispensable condi- 
tion. The good milch 00 w must have a well 

eveloped chest, a healthy digestive apparatus, 

■■e mammillary glands must be perfect, and 
e udder must be soft and pliable, elastic as a 

P\oe of India rubber to the touch, whether 

th\bag is full or empty. 



Treatment of Breeding Sows. 

The first and most important point in the 
treatment of breeding sows before farrowing is 
to supply such food as will produce the great- 
est supply of milk for the expected litter. To 
do this the slop from the dairy is as good as 
any, if not the very best, while bran slop is 
also very good. Feed very little grain, and 
that which you do feed should be given in the 
form of slop, made by boiling or steaming the 
meal. Green food is also very desirable when 
it can be obtained, to be used in conjunction 
with the others; and, in lieu of this, boiled po- 
tatoes, beets, carrots or turnips can be advan- 
tageously used. They should be boiled or 
steamed, and then mashed well while hot, after 
which a quantity of meal or bran should be 
thoroughly mixed with the mass and left until 
nearly cool, when the heat of the roots will 
partially cook the meal; then add water to 
make a thick slop. A small quantity of salt 
should be added to make the m iss more palat- 
able. A couple of weeks before farrowing it is 
well to give the sow a tablespoonful of flour 
of sulphur, say three times a week. This can 
be mixed with the food. 

If you wish to move the sow into any par- 
ticul-ir pen do not leave it until a week or two 
before farrowing, for if left until so late the 
sow is apt to become restless, and often causes 
the death of some of her litter. 

After farrowing, feed nothing but milk or 
thin slop; or, at least, no grain food, as such 
food is too heating for her at this period. Keep 
the sty clean, and well supplied with short 
straw, and give green food or its substitutes as 
often as necessary. — Live Stock Jaurnal. 



Kidney Woems in Swine. — A writer in the 
Prairie Farmer says: "Kidney worm" 13 not 
a common disease in hogs. Occasionally one 
or two in a number of hogs suffer from the 
presence of one or more worms in the kidneys; 
but the ailment is not often fatal, and becomes 
so only after a long time of suffering and con- 
sequent disease or degeneration in one or both 
kidneys. In a strong pig two drams of turpen- 
tine may be given in four ounces of linseed oil 
and a little gruel. Great care should be exer- 
cised in not killing the pig by drenching it im- 
properly. Besides this the pigs should have 
sour food, or a little brine of herrings mixed in 
the food. When in s?ason, sourkrout, radishes, 
unripe fruit, cucumbers, celery-tops, and es- 
pecially acorns. Wood ashes should occasion- 
ally be mixed in the food. Hogs should 
have access to clean and fresh drinking 
water. 



Buttermilk and Scurvy.— The Colorado 
Agriculturist says: A correspondent informs 
us that he finds buttermilk to be an almost un- 
failing cure for scurvy in hogs. To prove the 
fact, among other cases which have come under 
his notice, he says he owns several pigs which, 
a few weeks since, were suffering terribly from 
the effects of the disease, and that a speedy 
cure was effected by merely pouring the butter- 
milk over them a few times in the pen. 
Readers will do well to remember this simple 
remedy. 

Sows Eating Piqs. — A veterinarian in the 
Prairie Farmer thus advises a correspondent : 
Watch the hog the first few days after the pigs 
are born, and if she evinces a desire to eat her 
pigs, give her an emetic composed of tartar 
emetic, three grains; powdered ipecacuanha 
and powdered white hellebore of each eight 
grains; mix and throw dry into the mouth of 
the hog. 



Observation in Bee Culture. 

We have often reminded farmers that obser- 
vation is the surest road to advancement. We 
are glad to see that the bee culturists are carry- 
ing on their business with observing eyes and 
understanding minds. When those engaged in 
any occupation will do this, they will be in no 
danger of going astray. One of the best illus- 
trations of this was the prompt exposure of the 
errors of that most erudite Agassiz. If bee- 
keepers had not for years past been studying, 
with almost the zeal of scientists, everything 
relating to the habits of the honey bee, the 
the statements of this learned professor would 
have passed unchallenged. We hope this care- 
ful observation of everything relating to bee- 
culture will continue till all unsettled points 
shall be made clear. The honey product has 
become one of great importance in the food 
supply. We think the great losses in 
wintering bees will soon be better under- 
stood and guarded against. But this 
must be done by observation and study 
of facts, not by speculation. The bee 
conventions, held so frequently within the last 
few years, have given a remarkable impetus to 
this industry. At these conventions observa- 
tions on all points are compared and errors de- 
tected, much better than they can be through 
communications to the bee journals. Here, 
any one may be corrected on the spot, and the 
suggestions made by so many minds, all look- 
ing at the subject from difffrdnt standpoiots, 
will bo much more likely to effect a true solu- 
tion. We wish every branch of agriculture 
was as well organized as bee-keeping; it would 



produce a wonderful advance during the next 
ten years.— iiue Stock Journal. 

Rich Soils best foe Honey Peoduoinq 
Plants.— Mr. E. Gallup, of Iowa, has noted 
the conditions of soil and climate most favora- 
ble for the production of honey in flowers. The 
facts he gives are worth remembering: If the 
atmosphere is moist and warm, and well charged 
with electricity, then is the time our flowers 
produce the most forage. On the contrary, the 
air may be dry, warm or hot, and flowers pro- 
duce nothing. But by heavily manuring a 
piece of land for white clover or buckwheat, 
we can cause it to produce honey in a dry or 
cool season. Manure warms up the land, and 
it also causes a vapor of moisture to arise from 
the soil, which does not arise from an impov- 
erished soil. We have noticed this repeatedly. 
We have seen a row of currant bushes alive 
with bees, that had been heavily manured the 
season previous, while a row that was not ma- 
nured was not visited by the bees. We have 
seen a four-acre patch of white clover that had 
been heavily manured the season previous, 
covered with bees, while the clover field by the 
side of it was not visited by a single bee. We 
have had some buckwheat on poor land, and on 
rich land at the same time. That on the poor 
land was not visited, while that on the rich 
land was alive with bees, and fairly scented the 
air with sweet around. White clover on warm, 
sandy land, produced abundance of forage the 
past season, while on clay soil it produced 
nothing. 

Fertile Workers. — I get rid of fertile work- 
ers thus : Change places with a strong stock and 
let them remain a few days. Then open the 
hive, and if no eggs are found, I introduce a 
queen. I succeeded once in rearing a queen, 
having her fertilized, and remain in a stock 
with a fertile worker, and she did well. It was 
a stand of pure Italians, very quiet and peacea- 
ble.— >r. H. Nicholson. 



Qeanulated Honey. — The Jews of Moldavia 
and the Ukraine, prepare from honey a sort of 
sugar, which is solid and as white as snow, 
which they send to the distilleries at Dantzic. 
They expose the honey to frost for three weeks, 
where neither sun nor snow can reach it, and 
in a vessel which is a bad conductor of caloric, 
by which process the honey becomes clear and 
hard, like sugar. 



ISCELL/^fJEOtJs. 



The Sex of Eggs.- In a late issue of the 
Rural New Yorker, a correspondent pretends 
to have settled the question of sex in eggs by 
studying their shape. Will you please insert 
the following paragraph copied from Capell's 
Household Guide ? 

Hundreds of years ago it was thought that 
the sex of eggs could be distinguished by the 
shape — the cocks being produced from those 
of elongated shape, and hens from the short or 
round. Others have pretended to discern the 
future sex from the position of the air bubble 
at the large end. We need scarcely say that 
these and all other fancies have hundreds of 
times been proved to be erroneous. There is 
not a breeder of prize poultry in England, who 
would not gladly give £20 for the coveted 
knowledge, and thenceforth breed no more 
cockerels than he really wanted; but the secret 
has never been discovered yet, and it is even 
impossible to say before an egg has been set 
upon a short time whether it will produce a 
chicken or not.— Cor. Rural New Yorker. 

Poultry Raising.- The best time to com- 
mence keeping poultry is in the fall or early 
winter. At that time young hens can be pur- 
chased readily. In the spring farmers' wives 
are not anxious to sell their fowls. If they are 
fed well and a warm place provided, some of 
the hens may be set in February or earlier, and 
some early broods may be hatched out and sold 
for early chickens. On eight or ten acres 500 
fowls might easily be kept, or if skillfully man- 
aged double that number. One variety would 
be found most profitable, unless fancy poultry 
were kept, when, of course, there must be a 
separate house and yard for each kind. A 
change of roosters should be made each year. — 
American Agriculturist. 

Traveling on the Farm. — Did any of your 
readers ever think of the amount of travel it 
takes to raise a crop of corn ? I never saw an 
illustration in priu^ and I thought I would give 
you one. I have a 20-8cre field, 40 by 80 rods. 
To break this up would take 166 miles. Har- 
rowing it, about 40 miles. Furrowing out, 90 
miles. Planting, 45 miles, if with a planter; 
and if dropped and then covered, 90 miles. 
Thus you will see it takes about 800 or 900 
miles of travel to raise twenty acres of corn, 
not counting going to or returning from the 
field. Besides, there are replanting, thinning, 
rolling, etc. — Ind. Farmer. 

Dr. Geiffith, of Chico, has this'year culti- 
vated 3,000 acres of grain, which will yield an 
average of at least 30 bushels to the acre. He 
has also harvested 700 tons of hay. The Doc- 
tor sold a short time since 25,000 pounds of 
bacon in the Marysville market. 

It is calculated that 2,600 Chinamen are now 
engaged in picking fruit in the vicinity of San 
Leandro, San Lorenzo and Hayward. 

A 8H0ET crop of potatoes in Oregon is re- 
ported this year. 



20 



wjMtne u:wAM.% w^^i 



[July II, 187 4- 




The Oalifomia State Orangre Headquarters 
«r« at room », No. 320 Calilornla street, S. F.— Oeneral 
State Agent: I. Q. Oabdmbb, (Member of the Eiecu- 
tlTe Committee) . State Secretary: W. H. Bazteb. 



Patrons yibo are subscribers to the Rua/iL Pbsss 
ilwQld piy tbelr subscriptions promptly in order to pe- 
onre club rates. 



Grange Rulings. 

Worthy Master Hamilton has forwarded to 
ua the follov^ing recent rulings in addition to 
those already published. It should be borne 
in mind by all members of the Order, that only 
'hose rnlingB which have been made by the 
Master of the State Grange of California 
should be recognized as binding upon the Or- 
der in this Slate. Upon this poiut Worthy 
Ma<iter Hamilton has instructed as follows : 
" ThejState Grange of California has elected a 
Master whose rulings on points of Grange law 
in this State are the only official ones that can 
be recognized as binding on us, and must re- 
main as law until overruled by the Worthy 
Master of National Grange, or by the National 
Grange itself. The rulings of Masters of other 
States, while they are useful as precedents 
from which to form opinions or on which to 
base'decisions, have no official force whatever 
here, and can never be used to override our 
own authority. To the rulings of our Worthy 
Master Adams, Masters and members in all the 
States must render a cheerful obedience, until 
an appeal may be sustained by tbe National 
Grange." 

Rulings. 

A married woman derives her eligibility to 
become a member of a Grange from the eligi- 
bility of her husband, and if he is not eligible 
and worthy of being admitted to the Grange, 
the wife should not be admitted alone. 

It is not safe or good policy to admit married 
womfti to tbe Grange whose husbands are op- 
posed to our Order, or who being eligible, have 
no disposition to join it. 

Unless tbe by-laws of a subordinate Grange 
fix a time which must elapse before a new ap- 
plication can be made for a rejected candidate, 
there is nothing in the National constitution to 
prohibit the application being renewed at any 
subsequent meeting. 

If the Master of a Grange has good reason 
to believe that some of the members have cast 
black balls by mistake, he should, before de- 
claring the result of the ballot, make such 
statement and recommend another ballot. If, 
however, he declares the ballot, and the mem- 
bers themselves are satisfied a mistake has 
been made, it will be in order for some one to 
move for a reconsideration. And if a majority 
of the members vote to reconsider, the ballot 
may be taken over again and the result must be 
final. 

A ballot can only be reconsidered at the same 
meeting the vote is declared. 

A Gbange Chbomo. — We have received from 
the American Oleograph Co., Milwaukee, Wis., 
an oil chromo, published by them, 19 by 24 
inches in size, giving a very correct illustration 
of the inner appearance of a Grange when at 
work. The center of the picture represents 
the Grange in session, officers in their places, 
etc. On each side of this picture are emblem- 
atic devices representing the first four degrees 
of the Order — on the right the female, and on 
tbe left the male — all of which will be readily 
understood by the initiated; but which to the 
outsider represent only pleasant and interest- 
ing farm and domestic scenes. The price, 
finished in oil colors, is 50 cents. When 12 
or more are ordered by a club, they will be sent 
post free. 

The Gbanobbs are doing more to project and 
establish substantial enterprises in connection 
with their organizations than all the efforts of 
legislation and capital have done heretofore. 
At Red Oak, Iowa, they propose the organiza- 
tion of a stock company for establishing a lin- 
seed oil mill, to consume the large amount of 
flax seed raised in that vicinity. We hear 
many instances of this kind every day, and 
hope that the good work may go on with re- 
doubled energy. — Omaha Union. 

A Patbon says of the results of the organi- 
lation in his neighborhood : " The discussion 
of questions of practical interest to Patrons, 
which form a feature of our Grange, is having 
a tendency to develop not only a better man- 
ner of expressing ourselves, but a greater 
willingness to make the effort. Great improve- 
ment has already been observed in ev.n the 
little practice we have thus far had." 

Appeal to Patkons.— The Governor of Min- 
nesota, recognizing that the Patrons are ever 
ready to relieve the sufferfng and oppressed, 
has issued an appeal to the Patrons of Minne- 
sota to forward relief to the farmers of the 
southwestern counties of that Slate, who have 
lost their crops by the grasshopper plagae. 

An Obeoon Patbon tells the public that he 
took the fourth degree at a certain time and 
place, and adds: "1 have felt better ever since; 
my clothes hang belter, and look like there was 
some one In them. 1 would like to have four- 
teen mere fourth degrees." 



The West Side of the San Joaquin. 

Editoks Pbess: — "Have we failed in our ob- 
ject?" was a question asked me the other day, 
and since then I have given it considerable 
thought, and have concluded that we have at 
least partially failed — particularly we of the 
west side of the San Joaquin. We orginized 
in accordance with the laws of the Order, and 
have taken every step necessary to promote 
interest and enthusiasm, thereby enlisting 
nearly all that are engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits on this side of the river. Our meetings 
have been promptly attended, and a general 
good feeling has prevailed throughout. There 
are those among us that are ready and willing 
to make almost any sacrifice for the good of 
the Order. But yet, notwithstanding all our 
endeavors, our strict adheranoe to the laws and 
regulations of the Order, and our willingness 
to act, we find that we are almost as much at 
the mercy of Friedlander & Co. as we were two 
years ago. 

While we feel thankful that we have been 
able to procure our machinery and sacks at very 
fair terms, we find that freights are still high, 
and we have but one market for our grain, and 
that is Mr. Friedlander's [agent at Hill's Ferry. 
Not that we wish to cast any reflection on Mr. 
Friedlander or his agent (for, from general ap- 
pearances, it it were not lor them we would be 
at the mercy of the north winds — without a 
market); but that we would like to persuade 
others to come forward, that we may have a 
little firmer market. 

There are at present writing one or two hun- 
dred tons of grain going to Hill's Ferry daily, 
and we may safely say that three-quarters of 
that grain must be sold on arrival. Yoa may 
wonder why it is that we do not ship or store 
and hold our grain; the reason is simply this: 
I may safely say four-fifths of us are in debt to 
the merchants of Hill's Ferry and elsewhere, 
and the very moment our grain is in the sack, 
the storekeeper mxisl have his money. Conse- 
quently we are compelled to sell our grain no 
matter what the price may be. We have been 
visited with a few attachments already, and I 
know of others who scarcely know what to do, 
for they hardly have enough grain to save 
them if properly handled; but let the merchants 
get it in their charge and all hopes of salvation 
are dispelled, for by the time they ship it via 
Stockton, and make several transfers, the ac- 
count they render is naught. Now, notwith- 
standing we may be compelled to sell, we are 
yet allowed (according to custom, I believe) 
the remote privilege of saying to whom our 
grain may be sold. If there is any speculation 
in onr grain, we would by far prefer giving the 
benefit of that speculation to those whom we 
believe to be onr real friends, rather than to 
those we know to be our friends for our money 
only. 

Some of your readers may wonder why it is 
that we are thus so situated. The reason is 
plain enough to those that have been here 
four, five and six years. The first year or two 
we had good crops without farming, but since, 
(with but one exception) we have had no 
crops, but like most gamblers, we were win- 
ners in the beginning; and now that we are 
losers and behind the game we feel like play- 
ing forever. Tbe majority of us commenced 
with but little, and that little is so fastened 
that it is impossible to leave without losing 
all. Besides, we have been assisted by that 
little word "Hope," and we have labored and 
toiled from January Ist to December 31st al- 
most incessantly, with the fervent belief that 
that little word would be fulfilled; but alas! 
our expectations have almost proved futile. 
You may talk about "the patience of Job," 
bat his patience is a very remote comparison 
to the patience of some of the San Joaqniners; 
for alihongh they may not have been bodily af- 
flicted as was the old Patriarch, yet they feel 
their strength, both physical and spiritual, 
very nearly exhausted. I am not aware of any 
other place in the State that is conditioned 
just as we are. True, we are compelled to ac- 
knowledge, our light crops are in a great meas- 
ure owing to our poor farming; but then we 
always expect to do better next year, hoping 
that we may be able to induce some of onr 
fiieuds to come and make a slight opposition 
in our Hill's Ferry market. 

I remain fraternally, 

J. J. Doyle. 

Cottonwood, Jane 30tb, 1874. 



Rising Stab Gbange, Fbesno Co. — Secretary 
J. W. Craycroft writes: "Onr Grange is pros- 
perous and the members ready for every good 
work. Our hay crop is measurably good, and 
hay is selling for $20 per ton — the market 
being at New Idria and San Benito." Through 
some oversight this Grange, which was organ- 
ized April 18th, has not found its way into onr 
directory. Calvin Valpey is Master, and J. 
W. Craycroft, Secretary. 

El Monte Gbanoe has appointed a commit- 
tee of three, to be present at the meeting of the 
Los Angeles Board of Equalization, and there 
to represent the value of land within their 
Grange district. 

The frame of the new hall for the Danville 
Grange of (he Patrons of Husbandry, 30 by GO 
feet upon the ground, is already up. 

A " Gbange packet " is plying on the Miss- 
issippi between Galena and St. Louis. 



The Fourth at Walnut Creek Grange. 

Our wotthy brethren and sisters of the Wal- 
nut Creek Grange, having invited the head of 
the household to address them on the 4th, 
when they made their harvest feast the occas- 
sion for a social and patriotic gathering, we 
took the opportunity to see a little of the 
country Ij ing between Oakland and Mt. Di- 
ablo—under the weight of the still ungathered 
harvest. Surely that is a goodly laud which 
after almost twenty years' continuous cropping 
of wheat, displays such groaning abundance, 
and we can think of no more enviable lot than 
the possession of a moderate estate well stocked 
and fenced, where fine scenery, an almost 
perfect climate, and proximity to the bay and 
city of San Francisco, enable one to combine 
all that is best in city and country life. The 
farmers, as they gatheredl with their plethoric 
baskets on the morning of the Fourth, seemed 
to realize that they had " about as good a 
thing as there is going.' There were guests 
from Danville and Point of Timber Granges, 
and a general disposition was manifested to 
make the most of the only holiday they can 
get for many weeks. It will be no light labor 
to gather in this year's harvest, now just com- 
mencing. 

The Granges have outgrown their hall, and 
now need a more commodious place of meeting. 
A class of some eight or ten were initiated in 
the fourth degree, when a procession was 
formed and marched to the grain warehouse, 
where the public exercises were held. Worthy 
Master Jones acting as President of the day. 
After the reading of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, singing of Grange and patriotic 
songs, the address was given, and then the real 
business of the occasion was transacted, in the 
attack of two or three hundred hungry patriots 
upon tables which resisted all attempts to clear 
them until late in the afternoon. Space was 
made at last for a few quadrilles ; but we elder- 
ly people preferred the cool shades of Locust 
farm, and left the scenes of festivity to finish the 
day with the Locust farmer, his wife and numer- 
ous guests. 

This farm is one of many charming hiding 
places in the hills, where one may escape for a 
few days or weeks from all the drudgery of 
business, and cares of honsekeeping, and lux- 
uriate in old clothes, easy shoes, early sleeping 
and late rising to their heart's content. There 
is a clean brook for children to paddle in; a 
wild caiion path leads to a fine cold sulphur 
spring where you may drink or bathe; there is 
no amusement or excitement except eating the 
freshest fruits, vegetables, cream, the fattest 
mutton, chickens and turkeys, and riding or 
walking half a mile to the post-office. There 
are no neighbors, and the newest news sounds 
old in the quiet of nature's exceeding peace. 

Some 15 or 20 San Francisco and Oakland 
people are boarding with Mr. and Mrs. Jones, 
at this pleasant nook; if the house were larger, 
my tale would be longer. 

It is the handiest and most comfortable place 
to be lost in, and forget the dust and heat with 
the little folks, that we have found in many a 
day. 

We found many genial and wide-awake 
Grangers, who take and read the papers, and 
have their minds made up on the deep things 
in finance and political economy. It is need- 
less to wish our Walnut creek friends prosper- 
ity—they have the keys of the great safe securely 
in their hands. Jeanne C. Cabb. 

Oakland, July 6th, 1874. 



Hollisteb Gbanoe, Monterey County.— J. 
D. Fowler, the efficient local agent of this 
Grange, writes the Granger that the harvest 
feast, on the 27th ult., was not as well attended 
as usual, on account of the farmers being at 
this time so busy with their harvest. The 
Grange has resolved to meet only twice a 
month, and to have initiations only on the 
fourth Saturday. Brother Fowler continues : 
" We are forming a joint stock company to 
bnild us a hall in Hollister, which we hope to 
get up soon, as we need a larger hall than "there 
is in town, for as we grow in nnmbers we also 
grow in interest, and can muster enough to fill 
two such halls as the one we now occupy. 
There will be a delegation of our folks to go to 
Watsonville to spend Fourth with Watsonville 
and Pajaro Granges. Our Worthy Master, 
Brother Pomeroy, met with an accident some 
time since — while harrowing in bis orchard, he 
had a harrow tooth run through his foot, which 
has caused him to go on crutches ever since ; 
but he has enough zeal in the Grange to miss 
but one meeting. 

" Our crops will yield about the same as last 
year. We have purchased ourselves an organ, 
which is quite an addition to our institution." 

El Dobado Gbanoe, El Dobado County. — C. 
G. Carpenter, Master of this Gtange, writes as 
follows: We had a very pleasant time at our 
harvest feast on the 4th inst., after conferring 
the Fourth Degree upon a class of four (it being 
onr first). All present seemed to enjoy not 
only the eatables which the ladies know how 
to get up so well, but the novelty and sociabil- 
ity of the whole proceedings. We are not pro- 
gressing as fast as I could wish, but we are 
moving, sure and certain. Oar numbers are 
small, but what we lack in numbers we try to 
make up in energy and zeal for the cause. 

Temaecal Gbange, Oakland, holds a harvest 
feast to-day, the anniversary of its organization. 



Schuyler Colfax and the Granges. 

Schuyler Colfax, late Vice-President, in a letter 
to the Secretary of the Wabash (Ind.) Grange 
expresses his opinions of the Granges and their 
mission as follows: Two things in your organi- 
zation have struck me as specially auspicious. 
First, the admission of your wives and daugh- 
ters to membership, enhancing doubtless the 
social interest of your meetings, and beckoning 
woman onward to wider spheres of usefulness 
in the community; and, secondly, the frank 
and outspoken declarations of so many of your 
Granges as to intemperance, the enemy of the 
workingman and the bane of society. I trust 
your organization will never speak with an un- 
certain voice on this great evil of the century. 
For all experience proves that where drinking 
shops decrease, crime and pauperism, with 
their consequent taxation, decrease, comfort 
and happiness in the abodes of the poor in- 
crease; and law and order, peace and quiet, 
industry and thrift more generally prevail. 
Your demands, too, for increased economy in 
public expenditures and greater watchfulness 
as to public moneys, cannot fail to do good. 
When you proceed from generalities to details 
you will find that, beside strict scrutinv as to 
national appropriations, you will need quite as 
watchful care as to home taxation. Governor 
Hayes, of Ohio, one of the best governors that 
State ever had, proved several years ago, in a 
message that attracted too little attention, that 
unrestrained local taxation was the heaviest 
burden, by far, the taxpayer had to shoulder. 
And that is so completely within your power 
locally, I have great hopes of beneficent results 
in that line from your organization. 

Not being a member of your Order I am not 
sure that I understand your exact position as 
to "middlemen." If yonr object is to econo- 
mize as far as possible, buying with cash from 
manufacturers or their agents, at their lowest 
prices, instead of on credit at higher rates, and 
thus saving the heavy percentage that the credit 
system absorbs from the honest poor, that is 
certainly laudable. But middlemen, as a class, 
are as necessary in the operations of trade and 
commerce and business as lawyers are in law, 
and doctors in medicine, and need a special 
education and adaptation to their work. If 
you could abolish all middlemen, with their 
experience, you would have to educate and 
train up middlemen of your own ranks to fill 
their places. And, as we cannot buy dress- 
patterns for our wives direct from Manchester 
mills, we must recognize that agents who con- 
tract at wholesale, and taking all the risks of 
shipments and sales, retail goods to ns, are to 
a large extent a necessity. Bat no one can 
object to the policy of buying and selling 
direct for cash iu hand, as far as it is feasible. 

[Mr. Colfax is right in hii understanding of 
the position of the Patrons towards the 
"middlemen." They "seek to economize, as 
far as possible, buying with cash from manu. 
factnrers or their agents at the lowest prices, 
instead of on credit at higher rates." They do 
not propose to do without "middlemen;" they 
only propose to do their business through a 
less number, and with men to their liking, and, 
so far as possible, with men more especially 
devoted to their interests than the generality of 
that class. — Eds. Pbess. ] 

Help him to 00 Home.— Ill health— and that 
worst of all diseases — homesickness, may 
sometimes seize one of our numbers, so that it 
seems that nothing but a return to the old 
scenes will raise bis spirits or perhaps save his 
life. Or mayhap it is that bad luck and ill 
health combine to make it impossible for him 
t» meet his obligations on his property, and he 
must find a purchaser or lose all he has. In 
snch a state of mind, a man loses his grip, and 
waits patiently in deep agony, for the sheriff to 
do his duty, or that grim monster whose sum- 
mons we all must obey, to call him where titles 
are of little use. Aid that man. Learn his 
history — his old home. Open up a correspond- 
ence with the Grangers where he came from, 
and get them to go to work to prepare tbe way 
for his return home. State to them all the 
facts concerning the property he has and what 
he wants, and when loving, earnest, brotherly 
hands shall strive to aid him, it will not be 
long until he is fixed juet as he wants to be. 
Use the Grange wherein it can be useful. Its 
power for good is immuse, and we will say in- 
exhaustable. Use it — ^"t. Pairon. 



Dixon Gnuvet, Solano County.- B. T. Kel- 
ley, Secretary, sends ns the following resolu- 
tion, passed by Diron Grange, at their meeting 
July 4th: 

Saolved, That th>< Orange withdraw tbelr patronage 
from all business houses keeping open on Sunday. 



The attempt- of some sorehead politicians to 
involve tIie,?atron8 of Indiana in the move- 
ment that -6 to be placed in shape at the mass- 
meeting •( •^""6 lOtb, is generally denounced 
by mena^M of the Order. 

V/xfCtmnsTEB Gbange, Los Anoclks Co.— 
Henr* Stephens, late Secretary of this Grange, 
has psigned. W. F. Poor has been chosen to 
fill lis place. 

joNK Cedab Gbange, No. 231, Minnesota, 
dnounces as an insult tbe sending of a political 
^rcular to its Master and Secretary with a re> 
inest that it be read in tb« Grange. 



July II, 1874.] 



^J^QWt^ 



21 



An Abiding Principle of the Grange. 

Ooe of the most beantifal features in the 
(Grange ia the fellowship and brotherly feeling 
that it develops among :ts members. 

It strengthens the bond of friendship, and 
brings neighbors and farmers generally into 
olose bonds of nuion, which results in mutual 
profit and improvement. Anything that tends 
to foster charity and sympathetic kindness, and 
brighten the mystic chains that bind heart to 
heart, is a blessing. 

Prominent among the objects of the Patrons 
of Husbandry is the development and cultiva- 
tion of fraternal harmony. Its platform incul- 
cates the doctrine of Charity, in these words: 
It shall be an abiding principle with us to re- 
lieve any of our oppressed and suffering broth- 
bood, by any means at our command. 

The Grange, while cultivating the virtues, 
dispensing charity, and strengthening the 
bonds of good fellowship among its members, 
wages no warfare against any other interest 
whatever; but, on the contrary, as declared at 
St. Louis, all its acts and its efforts, as far as 
business is concerned, are not only for the ben- 
efit of producers and consumers, but, "also for 
other interests that tend to bring these parties 
into speedy and economical contact." 

Let the Patrons of Husbandry abide by all 
the great principles enunciated at St. Louis and 
the Order will continue to grow until it spreads 
over the whole country and takes in every far- 
mer. Bat let it once go into politics as an or- 
ganization, and it will die like a tree poisoned 
at its roots. No secret association can control 
the political destinies of the Kepublic. The 
attempt to do it will shipwreck any secret or- 
der. Recognizing this great truth, the St. 
Louis platform says: "We emphatically and 
sincerely assert the oft-repeated truth taught in 
our organic law, that the Grange, National, 
State or Subordinate, is not a political or party 
organization;" farther, it declares that "no 
Grange, it true to its obligation, can discuss 
political questions, nor call political conven- 
tions, nor nominate candidates, nor even dis- 
cuss their merits in its meetings." — N. C.Ob- 
jserver. 



The Order in Pennsylvania. 

The State Grange of Pennsylvania recently 
held its session at Mechanicsburg, at wbioti 
more than three-quarters of all the counties in 
the State were represented. It was predicted 
by the Lecturer of the National Grange, who 
was present, that there would be over 1,000 
Granges in the State by January next — one 
county already numbering 40 Granges with a 
membership of 4,000. The same county had 
but a single Grange only four months previous- 
ly. Indeed, the Order bat barely had an ex- 
istence in that State six months previous. 

The resolutions passed by the State Grange 
appealed to agriculturists everywhere in the 
State to learn the objects of the movement from 
trustworthy sources without delay, and if favor- 
able, to show the principles practically at an 
early day. The amendments to the constitu- 
tion of the National Grange were, in the main, 
ratified. The Master's closing address congrat- 
ulated the Patrons present upon the marvelous 
growth of the Order in Pennsylvania, as well 
as in other States. He admonished the mem- 
bers to show their principle, a part of true man- 
hood, invariably, and to guard well their rights, 
at the same time remembering that all others 
have rights as well as themselves. 



An Iowa Patron thinks " there is too much 
lawyer in our politics," and that as a nation we 
have gradually given up to the lawyer nearly 
every position of honor and trust. 



The Granges of Williamson county, Tenn., 
at a recent meeting at Franklin, resolved to 
subscribe $200 each to purchase and hold the 
County Fair Grounds in perpetuity. 

In Northwestern Missouri manufacturers are 
offering farm implements and machinery below 
cost to break down the Grange agencies. — 
Can't do it. 



Caeb of Gold Fish.— Seth Green, who 
knows as much about fish as anybody, writes 
as follows to the Eocbister Democrat: In an- 
swer to your inquiry hov to keep gold fish, I 
answer that I am asked the, question so many 
times it will save me many litters through the 
press if you will insert the following: Use any 
well, creek or river that is not impregnated with 
mineral. Change the water when fSup fish come 
to the top and stay there, and breathe part 
water and part air. Take ont nearly all the 
water, leaving enough for the fish to swim in, 
and fill the vessel with fresh water. Never take 
the fish in your hand. If the aq^^rium needs 
cleaning make a net ol mosquito »etting and 
take the fish out in it. There are \any gold 
fish killed by handling. Keep your , J^qarinm 
clean so that the water looks as clear a3>jygtai. 
Watch the fish a little, and you will flQ out 



when they are all right. Feed them allv^ey 
will eat, and anything they will eat, wort»g_ 
meat, fish water or fish spawn. Take ©esi 
care that you take all they do not eat out of he 
aquarium. Any decayed meat or vegetaSe 
matter in water has the same smell to fish th\t 
it does to you in air. If your gold fish die it i\ 
attributable, as a rule, to one of three causes—* 
handling, starvation or bad water. 



Hydrophobia. 

This dreadful disease is just now attracting 
a great deal of attention at the East; instances 
of bites from rabid dogs, and reported cases 
of death from hydrophobia being so numerous 
as to excite general alarm. The most eminent 
physicians of New York have been holding 
meetings and discussing the subject from scien- 
tific as well as common sense standpoints, and 
some of the opinions held by men who ought 
to know most about this disease and its cause 
are rather alarming, to say the least. Some 
of them are of the opinion that the bite of an 
animal entirely free from the disease himself 
may produce it ; or that a dog may suffer from 
a mild form of it, and inoculate the deadly 
virus by snaps or even by means of fondling, 
and recover without a suspicion of his having 
suffered from so horrible a complaint. 

Indeed, in view of some startling cases which 
have been lately observed, it is a matter of 
grave question whether all the members of the 
order carnivora do not habitually and naturally 
secrete with their saliva a poison, or ferment 
of some mysterious nature, which only requires 
favorable conditions to produce hydrophobia 
when inoculated in the fiesh by means of their 
fangs. Certain it is that dogs, cats and wolves 
have all been known to communicate rabies; 
and of late the genus mephitis, or the skunk 
family, have been accused on very good gi'ounds 
of invariably producing this malady by their 
bite. Numerous cases have been placed upon 
record where wounds from these vicious little 
animals have been followed by a disease differ- 
ing from rabies only in being, if possible, more 
horrible, and which will justly cause an enmity 
to be engendered against this family, which 
will tend to their ultimate extermination. 

But how is it with those household animals — ■ 
cats and dogs — so universally made the pets and 
companions of mankind ? Are they about to 
be banished forever from the face of the earth ? 
We hardly think so. Doubtless the excitement 
now being caused by the exceeding prevalence 
of the malady has led scientific men to take too 
extreme a view of the subject; but the alarm 
they have sounded will have a beneficial effect 
in controling the morbid appetite which Amer- 
icans have for surrounding themselves with 
hordes of mongrel curs. We can easily spare 
four-fifths of all the dogs in the country, and 
especially ought all those to be exterminated 
with any vicious habits of snapping and biting. 
Here in California we have almost, if not en- 
tirely, escaped this affliction, so we have no 
great cause for alarm; still an ounce of preven- 
tion is worth a pound of cure, and the hints of 
the New York doctors to keep dog? confined 
and not muzzled; and carefully watch and guard 
against any symptoms of disease which may 
show themselves, etc., are not altogether out 
of place here. 

It is to be hoped that the renewed interest in 
this subject — evidently somewhat sensational — 
will not react and lead to a still greater degree 
of carelessness in regard to this question. 

Shall We Eveb Plow Proi'itably by 
Steam ? — E. N. Marengo, of Illinoi?, asks this 
question. When the expense of horse power 
is considered, it is no wonder that farmers are 
looking forward to the use of a power which 
shall be fully adequate to the work and cost 
nothing when not in use. There seems really 
no practical difficulty in solving the problem of 
steam cultivation on all soils reasonably level 
and free from stone. The greatest obstacle 
has been in the weight of machinery necessary 
to obtain the power of twelve to fifteen horses, 
as five or six tons cannot well be carried over a 
yielding soil; and the English have solved the 
problem by using stationary engines on each 
side of the field, and drawing the plows back 
and forth by means of a steel cable, but this 
will not answer on our immense prairie fields. 
We must have a tractile engine which can pass 
over the land and draw a gang of plows, work- 
ing a strip ten feet wide, and perhaps cultivat- 
ing and sowing the grain at the same time. 
There have been a number of inventions, which 
seemed on the point of accomplishing the 
desired end, and had there been the same 
inducements offered for such an invention as 
for improvement in railroad machinery, we 
believe American ingenuity would have pro- 
duced a traotile engine, capable of plowing and 
cultivating, at half the expense of horse power. 
Farmers are the most conservative of all classes, 
and are not ready to take any risks. The ma- 
chine must be complete, and its success, under 
all difficulties, certain before they will give it 
a helping hand. We believe steam power en- 
tirely practicable for soil culture, for hauling 
loads, and travel on common roads. We be- 
lieve the State Legislatures would make a good 
use of $100,000 by offering that prize for the 
best machine propelled by steam, which shall 
be successful in plowing ordinary soils, eight 
inches deep, for $1.50 per acre, the tests ex- 
tending through three years. The English use 
five horses on a plow, and find the Fowler 
steam plow, above mentioned, cheaper than 
horse power, but we must have something sim- 
pler and cheaper. 



The second crop of strawberries in Santa 
Clara county is coming on slowly, and it is be- 
lieved that the yield will be as light as the 
other was heavy. 



The Napa Plow Co. have commenced build- 
ing operations. 



The Walla Walla farmers have got up a cor- 
pr in hay, and will not sell at less than $14.50 
ton. 



Straw-Burning Engines. 

The London Times, of May 16th, describes 
at length the visit of the Czar of Bnssia, Grand 
Duke Alexis, the Duke and Datchess of Edin- 
burgh and others, to the Flemish farm, to wit- 
ness the operation of a straw -burning engine, 
which is soon to be introduced upon this coast. 
The engine referred to is the joint invention of 
Mr. John Head, of the firm of Bansome, Sims 
& Head, England, and the late Mr. Schemioth, 
a Bussian engineer. 

The Times says: "Although it is only now 
that the Czar has seen it in action, it has al- 
ready obtained the approval of the most com- 
petent agricultural authorities. We have al- 
ready made mention of it in letters we pub- 
lished on the Vienna Exhibition, where it was 
one of the great centers of attraction in the 
agricultural machinery hall, and we have no 
intention now of entering into technical details. 
We shall merely say the engine is fed by a self- 
acting apparatus driven by a strap attached to 
itself. The straw is passed in between a couple 
of rollers, which spread it out lightly with a 
lateral and fan-like motion, exposing it to the 
full force of the fire. One man only is required 
to supply it, and it reduces the average con- 
sumption of straw to something like four times 
the weight of coal. It is exceedingly simple; 
and indeed its general utility must depend 
almost entirely upon its simplicity in a country 
where the laborers have been only acustomed 
to the most primitive implements, and where 
the most skilled artisan to be found within 
reach is probably an ordinary village black- 
smith. The trial witnessed by the Czar went 
off most satisfactorily." 

By means of this straw-feeding apparatus, 
it is claimed that almost any kind of vegetable 
product can be utilized as a fuel, and thus per- 
mit of steam being used as a cheap motive 
power in countries which are devoid of ordi- 
nary fuel, but which are covered with vegetable 
products. The apparatus for feeding the fur- 
nace with straw is self-acting, being driven by 
a belt from the engine; but if desired, the belt 
can be disconnected and theapparatus operated 
by hand; or, when necessary, the entire appa- 
ratus can be readily disconnected and removed, 
and the ordinary furnace door substituted in its 
place. 

In getting up steam it is necessary to operate 
the apparatus by hand until the engine begins 
to work. One man can easily feed the straw 
to the machine, thus requiring no more men 
than an ordinary steam engine. It is claimed 
that the average consumption of straw or cotton 
stalks is about four times in weight to coal, 
and that about eight or ten sheaves of straw 
are required to thresh one hundred sheaves of 
grain. 

The apparatus can be adapted to fixed as well 
as portable engines. 

'This invention has been secured by American 
patents. For further particulars, address Ern- 
est L. Bansome, manufacturer of artificial 
stone, San Francisco, Oal. 

Sod as a Manure. — Every farmer has learned 
that the sod of his plowed land is the cream of 
the soil, but it is evident that all farmers do 
not fully appreciate the value of this substance. 
Something of an idea may be obtained from a 
statement made in a letter written by Prof. 
Kedzie, of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
to Geo. Geddes. In this letter the Prof, says 
that he took a square foot (of which there are 
43,500 in an acre) of June grass turf, and 
washed away all the soil in running water; and 
then weighed the grass roots and surface grass, 
or the amount of green manurial matter usu- 
ally contained in a heavy greensward, and 
found it to be five pounds to the square foot, 
or at the rate of more than 100 tons to the acre. 
In a letter to the N. Y. Tribune, Mr. Geddes 
adds: " One hundred tons to the acre of clean 
grass and roots from the turf of an old pasture 
or lawn, is a very valuable manuring, when we 
consider how evenly it is spread, and accu- 
rately it is applied. But the roots of June 
grass run but a little way into the ground com- 
pared with the roots of red clover, that pene- 
trate from two to four feet, and bring to the 
surface the fertility that lies deep in the soil. 
When a clover sod, that after being mown, has 
been allowed to stand a few weeks, and the new 
stalks are grown to be perhaps eight or ten 
inches high, there will be about all that can be 
plowed into a furrow." 



E VtflEYi^t^D. 



Parasitic Growths in Wine. 



The crops look uncommonly good between 
Cloverdale and Ukiah. An especially heavy 
hiy crop has been harvested, and the grain 
could not be better, from present indications. 
Sanel Valley, fifteen miles from Cloverdale, is 
not only the prettiest but also one of the most 
fertile sections of the State. It is a center of 
the lucrative and increasing business of hop 
culture. The promise of this crop is unusually 
good. Near Sanel are located the farms of Jno. 
Knight, J. A. Knox, L. F. Long and others 
who make hop culture a specialty. They all 
report promise of an abundant harvest. 

The Illinois legislature has passed a law 
providing that whoever adulterates milk with 
water, chalk or other substance, or sells such 
milk, shall be confined in the county jail not 
exceeding one year, or fined not exceeding 
$500. 



Some weeks ago, in Virginia City, a child 
about a year old 'sucked a small gold ring off 
its finger and swallowed it. The accident 
csused its death Thursday. After swallowing 
the ring, it had spasms almost constantly up to 
the hour of its death. 



When wine becomes acid, it has been invad- 
ed by the flower of vinegar, Mycoderma aeeti, 
the function of which seems to be to transform 
alcohol into acetic acid by a sort of incomplete 
combustion. This has been seen into by most 
housekeepers, when they give the name of 
mother to the membranes found in jars which 
have contained vinegar; and a rapid way of 
making vinegar has been based on this obser- 
vation. Another analogous mycoderm, the 
flower of wine, does not occasion any hurtful 
fermentations, but seems rather to favor the 
reaction due to what is called the "bouquet." 
A worse malady has for its cause a growth 
which presents itself under the appearance of 
filaments of extremely slender aspect, and 
forms those slight waves which may be remark- 
ed when wine is shaken. This mycoderm has 
a strong affinity with that which produces lac- 
tic acid. Wines that are described by the 
growers as fat and oily, are charged by a ferm- 
eniation which takes the form of globules join- 
ed together in a kind of entangled chaplets. 
What they call an old or bitter taste is a mala- 
dy which chiefly attacks the finest wines, and 
also has its ongin in a special fermentation, 
which reminds the palate of wine ttirned acid; 
under the microscope the floating particles are 
larger, and resemble the branches of dead 
trees. If the germs of these different mycod- 
erms are killed by heat, the vrine is safe from 
all change so long as it is kept in a closed ves- 
sel, but it is evident that these precautions are 
useless if new germs are brought with the air, 
or in unprepared wines which may ba mixed 
with that which has been heated. After many 
experiments which have been made by the 
wine-growers ot Burgundy, it is decided that 
it is well to beat the vintages to the amount of 
from sixty to eighty degrees, if only for a min- 
ute, and that instead of losing their aroma and 
flavor, they are in fact rather improved. For 
the same reason, a voyage to a hot climate has 
been recommended. 



TJSE OF SOLPHUE IN THE ViNEYABD. — M. B. 

Bateham, in the Horticulturist says of the re- 
ports made of recent experiments in the use 
of sulphur on Catawba vineyards on the Islands : 
It was stated by one of the grape-growers from 
there, that sulphuring the vines had been prac- 
ticed to some extent for several years past, and 
that when judiciously done, it was found a cer- 
lain preventive of mildew and rotting of the 
fruit, and also of the blighting of the foliage; 
and where this was practiced, in 1872, the vines 
ripened their wood so well as to suffer but little 
damage from the winter, and thus produced a 
half crop, while vineyards not sulphured bore 
no fruit at all. These facts will cause a very 
general use of sulphur hereafter, and much 
improvement is expected therefrom. The prac- 
tice is to mix the sulphur with an equal quan- 
tity of fine, air-slaked lime, and apply the pow- 
der with a bellows of which they manufacture 
a very cheap style for the purpose. The first 
application is made as soon as the blossoms 
are off in June, and repeat once a month or so 
during the summer. The labor and expense 
are quite small compared with the benefits; and 
the practice is recommended to grape growers 
generally, especially for varieties that are sub- 
ject to mildew or blighting of the foliage. Let 
us all give the experiment a trial and report 
the results next jear. 



In a paper before the Little Falls, 
Farmers' Club, Harris Lewis said: "I hi 



Manokl Wurzelvs. Sugab Beets for Stock. 

N. Y., 
have fin- 
ally concluded that the best varities of the 
French and German sugar beets are the most 
nutritions, the most acceptable to the cow, and 
produce the best flavored milk of all the roots 
I ever fed. But all these sugar beets go down 
to the crown in the soil, and cost three or four 
times as much labor per ton to harvest them as 
it does to harvest any one of the kinds ot beets 
known as the mangel wurzel. Again, the sugar 
beets seldom yield more than twenty tons per 
acre, while the mangel wurzel often yields over 
forty tons per acre. I would, therefore, recom- 
mend the large mangel wurzel, such as the 
Norbition giant, long mammoth, red, yellow 
ovoid, and yellow globe, for general cultiva- 
tion, as those kinds which will give the great- 
est yield per acre, and as cattle food, give en- 
tire satisfaction to all dairymen or cattle, feed- 
ers, who may grow and feed them in connec- 
tion with hay, or other dry fodder, during onr 
long winters. The more I feed beets to dairy 
stock, the greater value I place upon them, as 
good, nutritious, health-promoting cattle-food. 

G. W. Campbell, a well known horticulturist 
of Deleware, Ohio, describes a method by 
which he claims to be able to ascertain in ad- 
vance the qualities of seedling grapes. He says 
that in the taste or flavor of the green tendrils 
of the vine may be found a true index of the 
character of its prospective fruit. He further 
declares that the tendrils of each variety pos- 
sess a distinguished flavor, by which it may al- 
ways be detected from any other, and a seed- 
ling with this peculiarity of character may be at 
once set down as good, even in advance of its 
crop. His predictions have been verified in 
every instance, and frequently, too, when the 
appearance of the foliage would lead him to 
the opposite conclusion. 



■ 



22 




My Little Laborer. 



A tiny man; with fingers soft and tender, 
Asany Isdy'H fair; , , j 

Sweet eyes of blue, a form both frail and slender, 
And curlB of sunny hair; 

A household toy, a fragile thing of beauty- 
Yet with each risinfj sun 

Begins his round of toil— a solemn duty 
That must be daily done. 

To-day he's building castle, house and tower. 

With wondrous art and skill; 
Or labors with his hammer by the hour. 

With Blrong, determiued will. 
Anon, with little loaded cart he's plying 

A brisk and driving trade; 
Aeain, with thoughtful, earnest brow. Is trying 

Some book's dark lore to read. 

Now, laden like some little beast of burden, ^ 

He drags himself along; 
And now his lordly little voice is heard in 

Boister'.us shout and song; 
Another hour is spent in busy toiling, 

With hoop, and top, and ball. 
And with a patience that is never failing. 

He tries and conquers all. 

But sleep at last o'ertakes my little rover. 

And on his mothers breast. 
Toys thrown aside, the day's hard labor over, 

He sinks to quiet rest; 
And as I fold him to my bosom, sleeping, 

I think, 'mid gathering tears. 
Of what the future may in store be keeping. 

As work for manhood's years. 

Must he with toil his daily bread be earning, 

In the world's busy mart; 
Life's bitter lessons every day be learning. 

With patient, struggling heart ? 
Or shall my little architect be building 

Some monument of fame. 
On which, in letters bright with glory's gilding. 

The world may read his name? 

Perhaps some humble, lowly occupation. 

But shared with sweet content; 
Perhaps a life in loftier, prouder station. 

In selhsh pleasure spent. 
Perchance these little feet may cross the portal 

Of learning's lofty fane; 
His life-work be to scatter truths immortal 

Among the sons of men ! 

— £». 



The Wrong Room. 

Tom Bent was half distracted. He hated 
the cold, foggy city and the endless rows of 
staring brick blocks, and the whole race of 
landladies, his own landlady especially. 

Tom sighed dismally when he thought of 
the cosy little nest his friend Hampton was 
blessed with; and Hampton was only a clerk, 
too, with a very limited salary and the "nest" 
could only boast of three rooms. But they 
were delightfully homelike ; with the brightest 
of carpets and whitest of curtains; books on 
the tables and pictures on the soft tinted walls, 
and pots of fragrant flowers in the windows. 
One painting Tom remarked well, "Sunset on 
the Shore." The whole western sky was flam- 
ing with purple and gold; the white capped 
waves sparkled like diamonds in the glow. In 
the background was a fisherman's cottage; and 
framed in the low door was a girl with one 
dimpled hand shading her eyes from the blind- 
ingglow as she gazed over the dancing water. 
Way back in his boyhood, Tom had loved 
just such a girl; years ago, before he 
had left the mossy old farm house to seek fame 
and fortune in the city. Again he could feel 
the fresh breeze lift the damp hair from his 
forehead, just as it did years ago when he sat 
and listened to the drowsy minister in the little 
brown church and watched the wild rose face 
at his side. Then the walk home in the Sab- 
bath stillness, throngh lovely glens flaming 
with bitter-sweet and creamy curls of sweet- 
scented honey-suckle. But of all the "pictures 
on memory's wall," none could be clearer than 
that day of days when sweet Margery Dean 
promised to be his wife. The very hills seemed 
to rejoice, flaming in the fire-lit days of Octo- 
ber. Ah ! well, but that was long, long years 
ago. Now Tom was a comfortable old fellow, 
with no nonsense about him. Tom reached 
his boarding house at last and found the hall 
as dark as usual. He groped the way up stairs, 
and in a dtsperate hunt after the match-box, 
succeeded in upsetting the ink over his best 
coat, and the hair oil over himself. With a — 
well not exactly a blessing on the heads of 
landladies in general— he concluded to retire in 
the dark. Now it so happened that the land- 
lady wa3 blessed with a hopeful yonng son, who 
took particular delight in tormenting poor hu- 
manity. On that particular evening, of which 
we write, he had ctianced to pass Tom's room, 
and finding the door standing conveniently 
open, conceived the brilliant, and we hope or- 
iginal, idea, of placing some nice sharp briers 
under the sheets of the bed. In happy uncon- 
ciousness, Tom jumped into bed and jumped 
out again with a howl of rage and pain; ''Thun- 
der and Mars I what in the name of Satan can 
be in my bed this time ? Some infernal ma- 
chine to kill me, I haven't a particle of donbt. 
Shouldn't be surprised if I was a cripple for 
the rest of my life." And Tom jumped franti- 
cally about in quest of a chair and seated him- 
self' in the slop-pail, which the thoughtful boy 



had placed there conveniently. That was the 
last feather. 

The next morning Tom interviewed the land- 
lady. "Madam," said he, brandishing his lac- 
erated hands, "I can stand this no longer ! I 
have had dead rats, cats and pups put into my 
water pitcher, pins stuck into my chairs, and 
turpentine put in my hair oil. I said nothing. 
But if you think it's pleasant to go to rest on 
pins, needles, thorns, rusty uuils and saws of 
the very japgedeet description, you are a trifle 
mistaken." Tom, like most men, could exag- 
gerate a little when the occasion seemed to de- 
mand it. And it was a little exasperating to 
have the landlady look so smiling. (She had 
just taken a new boarder. ) "I cannot stand 
it madam— I cannot. You must make that 
hobgoblin of yours quit his pranks or I shall 
leave the house — understand, madam ?" — Yes, 
she comprehended matters perfectly, and 
would see to things. That evening, on Tom's 
return, ho limped (pleasant eftects of the 
thorns) up to his room, in the darkness, 
opened the door, — Lo, behold ! was that his 
room ? That with the pretty new carpet, round 
plump bed, shaded by dainty white curtains, 
Tom wedged himself in a low rocking-chair, 
and stared about in helpless astonishment. 
Books, magazines and evening papers ou the 
table, pictures on the walls, a pot of flowers on 
a tiny stand. Tom concluded to take the goods 
the gods provided and be thankful, so he read 
the news comfortably, and then retired behind 
the white curtains to sleep the sleep of the 
just. 

Tom awoke rather suddenly to find the room 
flooded with light. Pulling the curtains gently 
aside, he peered cautiously out. In the low 
rocking-chair sat a little plump figure, brush- 
ing out long waves of dusky hair. Tom gath- 
ered a blanket hastily about him and jumped 
out on the floor. 

"If you please. Madam, I've — I've made a 
mistake," Tom gasped. 

Madam stared in blushing astonishment. 

"What do you mean sir ?" she demanded. 

"I — I don't mean anything. — Deuce of a 
mistake — beg pardon," and he commenced to 
gather his clothes up feverishly. 

"Seems to me you look a little like Thomas 
Bent," stammered the little lady. 

"Heavens, yon can't be Margery Dean ?" 

"Oh, yes, I am," dimpling and blushing. 

"Thunder and Mars ! I never was so de- 
lighted in my life. — Thought of you for five 
years; I was a terrible fool in the old days, 
Margery." 

"Yon — you are hardly properly attired for 
conversation with a lady," blushingly hinted 
the little woman. 

Tom glanced at his blanket, and rushing for 
the door, gasping something about "to-mor- 
row morning — interview." 

Well, there was an interview in the morning 
and a quiet, delightful wedding in the fall. 
Tom declares that the most fortunate thing 
that ever happened to him in his life was bis 
mortifying blunder of getting into "the wrong 
room." 



An Anecdote of Mozabt and Haydn. — Mo- 
zart's nose was a very long one, a great con- 
trast to his friend Haydn's, who had almost a 
flat nose. Many jokes passed between them 
about noses. 

One day in a numerous and grave society, 
the subject of music was being discussed, and 
Mozart, in reply to the compliments made him, 
laid a wsger that no one, not even his friend 
Haydn, was capable of performing, at first 
sight, a piece which he bad composed that 
morning. 

Haydn accepted the wager. The piece of 
music was placed before him on the piano. 
Hajdn easily played through the first portion 
of it, then stopped short, lindicig it impossible 
to go any further. The two hands must be at 
the furthest extremeties of the instrument, and 
one note in the music imperiously demanded 
that one of them should be in the center. 
Haydn confessed himself conquered. 

As to Mozart, he took up the piece of music, 
and when ho arrived at the puzzling note, 
touched it with his nose. Everybody laughed 
heartily, and not the least he who lost his 
wager. 

Cause and Effect. — Noble county, Ohio, is 
said to have had no open dram-shop for several 
years past. The results are seen and felt. In 
a population of 20,000, only three persons have 
been seen drunk in a whole year. They were 
promptly arrested and fined. In two of the 
three terms of criminal court last year, there 
was no criminal case on the docket. There 
have only been six men in jail for the last 
three years, and there has been no one arrested 
or tried for a penitentiary offense for three 
full years. Tne criminal expenses before clos- 
ing the dram-shops were $2,000 a year. Since 
—including cost of grand jury three terms — only 
$500. Was there ever a clearer or moie con- 
vincing statement placed upon record? Can 
any one doubt the true relationship existing 
between "cause and effect?" Like causes will 
produce like results, and according to the seed 
sown will be the crop. So long as tne advooates 
of license laws expect to gather grapes of thorns, 
or figs of thistles, just so long will they gather 
the bitter fruits of their folly — viz; crime, pau- 
perism, taxation. 

He loves most whose service is most constant, 
most zealous, most true. The rule seldom if 
ever fails. Love to God means work for God, 
and unfailing devotion to his cause. There 
may be some service with little love, but the 
best service wsdts on love the truest and best. 



A Lesson for Women. 

When ojie bitter word stirs up two more bit- 
ter — when the dove-eyed fairies take wing, and 
the unholy imps rush in to wink and blii^ de- 
struction, it is at such a time as this the "soft 
answer" is to the troubled soul what oil is 
the troubled wave. Strike the harmonic chord 
of his nature —whether drunken or angry — 
"heap coals of fire on his head," after the 
manner of kindness, and if o/i« grain of true 
manliness is in him, it may take root and bear 
tenfold. 

One of the strangest things on record is that 
man, who is noble — how broad and fair, manner 
pleasing, hand betimes willing to scatter bless- 
ings at our feet — should so belittle himself 
as to wallow in his debauchery like pigs 
in the mire. And I suppose the woman who is 
specially interested in that man, whether she 
be mother, sister or wife, would quenah rather 
than waken strife; the better angels of his be- 
ing, wakening, might rally to beckon him back 
to the throne of his manhood. And the angry 
man — well, what of him? He is no doubt 
thoroughly in earnest, and if you can keep out 
of his way till his emotion cools ofi", you will 
feel as safe as if yon had not been in his reach. 

Of course we expect woman, in her weakness, 
to do many things which lack wisdom ; but 
man — majestic, strong-minded, powerful! — 
drink not so deep from your cup of dissipation 
as to tumble your power and your majesty in 
the ditch. If you hold the scepter of superiori- 
ty over the weaker vessel, then sway that scep- 
ter with dignity, and let not your mother, your 
sister, your wife or your daughter blush at the 
record of your manhood. It was a tradition of 
the early Indians that over the destiny of all 
earthly beings, by guardian angel suspended, 
in each hand a crown, one made of thorns and 
the other of roses -that when we did a noble, 
self-sacrificing act, from the crown of thorns 
a thorn was plucked, and in its stead a rose was 
placed ; and for each mean and petty act, from 
the crown of roses a rose was taken, and in its 
stead a thorn was placed. So the guardian an- 
gel kept their record. What are we doing? 
Are we filling our crown of roses with thorns, 
or otherwise? — Our Borne Journal. 



LrrxLE words are the sweetest to hear; littl* 
charities fly farthest and stay longest on the 
wing; little lakes are the stillest; little hearts 
are the fullest, and little farms the best tilled . 
Little books are the most read, and little songs 
the dearest loved. And when nature would 
make anything especially rare and beautiful, 
she makes it little — little pearls, little diamonds, 
little dews. Hagar's is a model prayer — but 
then it in a little one, and the burden of the 
petition is for but little. The sermon on the 
mount is little, but the last dedication discourse 
was an hour. Life is made up of littles— death 
is what remains of them all. Day is made up 
with little beams, and night is glorious with lit- 
tle stars. 



Learning the Wat. — An honest desire to 
know the way of life is the best qualification to 
learn of Him who spake as never man spoke. 
Become as a little child, conscious of weakness, 
and willing to be instructed, and you will easily 
learn from the Divine Teacher a higher wis- 
dom than was ever taught in the most renown- 
ed schools of human philosophy. Receive the 
word of Christ as a personal message to your 
own heart; appropriate to yourself the merits 
of His death as fully as if you were the only 
sinner in the world for whom He died, and 
you will easily learn how to be saved. 

OuB Bodies and Souls. — "Two things a 
masterlcommits to his servant's care," said one, 
"the child and the child's clothes." It will be 
a poor excuse for the servant to say at his mas- 
ter's return: — "Sir, here are all the child's 
clothes, neat, clean, but the child is lost !" 
Much so with the account that many will give 
to God of their souls and bodies at the great 
day: — "Lord, here is my body; and I am very 
grateful for it. I neglected nothing that be- 
longed to its content and welfare; but for my 
soul, that is lost and cast away forever. I took 
little care and thought about it." — Flavel. 

"Be content with little." There sre many 
good reasons for this rule. We deserve but lit- 
tle, and so better is little with the fear of God 
than great treasures and trouble therewith. 
Two men were determined to be rich, but they 
set about it in different ways; for the one strove 
to raise his means to his desires, while the other 
did his best to bring down his desires to his 
means. The result was, the one who coveted 
much was always repining, while he who de- 
sired but little was always contented. 



Le.ining a Little. — A negro once said in a 
prayer meeting, "Bredren, when I was a boy I 
took a hatchet and went into the woods. 
When I found a tree dat was straight and big 
and solid, I didn't touch dat tree ; but when I 
found one leaning a little and holler inside, 
I soon had him down. So when de debil goes 
after christians he don't touch dem dat stand 
straight and true, but dem dat lean a little and 
are holler inside." 



i874- 
The Good-bye Hospitality. 

The half of hospitality lies in the speeding 
of parting guests. Lavish welcomes are easily 
enough bestowed, but the hospitality thought 
must be very genuine, indeed, which dares to 
leave theguest as free and welcome to go as to 
come. We all suffer, now and then, from un- 
due urging to stop when we prefer to go, and 
nearly every one of us is himself a sinner in 
this regard, too. No sooner does the guest in- 
timate a wish to terminate his visit than we fly 
in the face of his desire, and urge him to stay 
longer. We sometimes do this, too (do we 
not ?), as a mere matter of duty, when in our 
hearts we care very little whether the guest 
goes or stays. We feel ourselves bound to show 
our appreciation of our friend's visit by asking 
that he prolong it. Now, true hospitality 
ought to learn its lesson better than this. Our 
effort should be, from first to last, to make our 
friend's visit thoroughly pleasant and agreea- 
able to him. We strive for this result in wel- 
coming him. It is the desire to do this which 
prompts us to offer him the most comfortable 
chair and to set out the best viands, if he break 
bread with us. It is that he may enjoy his 
stay that we take pains to talk only upon agree- 
able topics. In short, from the time he crosses 
our threshold until he rises to leave, we court- 
eously endeavor to make the moments slip by 
as pleasantly as possible. But the moment he 
asks tor his hat our courtesy fails us. Hith- 
erto we have studied to anticipate and gratify 
his every wish. Now that he wishes to gc, 
however, we endeavor to thwart hia pleasure. 
We selfishly try to turn him from his purpose 
to ours. We wish him to stay, while he wishes 
to go. Courtesy would prompt us to give his 
wish precedence to our own, bu^, as a rule, we 
ask him to sacrifice his own to our pleasure. — 
Hearth and Home. 



Life is made, not of great sacrifices or duties, 
but of little things, in which smiles and kind- 
ness and small obligations given habitually a^ 
what win and preserve the heart and presefve 
the heart and preserve comfort. — Sir H. Davy 

My conception of a perfect man is of one full 
of power and life, moral seutimeut and imagina 
tion, but with all these subordinate to God. >■ 
have never seen that man. — Beeclier. 



Genebal Maceknzie, when commander-in- 
chief of the Chatham (England) division of 
marines, was very rigid in his dHty, and among 
other regulations would suffer no officer to be 
saluted by the guard if out of his uniform. One 
day the general observed a lieutenant of ma- 
rines in plain dress, and though be knew the 
young officer intimately, he called to the senti- 
nel to turn him out. The officer appealed to 
the general, saying who he was. 

" I know you not," said the general; " turn 
him out !" 

A short time after that the general had been 
at a short distance from Chatham to pay a visit, 
and returning in the evening, in a blue coat, 
claimed entrance at the garden gate. The sen- 
tinel demanded the countersign, which the 
general not knowing, desired the officer of the 
guard to be sent for, who proved to be the lieu- 
teuant whom tne general had treated so cava- 
lierly. 

"Who are you ?" inquired the officer. 

" I am General Mackenzie," was the reply. 

" What ! without a uniform !" rejoined the 
lieutenant. " Turn him out ! turn him out ! 
The general would break his bones if he knew 
he assumed his name." 

The general made his retreat, but the next 
day, inviting the young officer to breakfast, he 
told him "he had done his duty with very 
commendable exactness." 



Cbables Lamb, riding home one evening 
(after dining with a friend) in a crowded Lon- 
don omnibus, had his attention attracted to 
the vociferous inquiry: 

"All full inside?" on the part of a gentleman 
at the door. Charles waited some time (being 
much afflicted with stammering) to see what 
notice his fellow-passengers woiild take of the 
unsuccessful applicant for a seat. None deign- 
ing to give the individual an answer, Charles 
replied, on a repetition of the inquiry: 

"I d-d-don't know how it is with the other 
gentlemen, but that last piece of oyster pie 
that I took did my business." 



The evidence of a witness in a life insurance 
case involved in the blowing up of a steam- 
boat on the Ohio, is droll, just because it is 
characteristic. The witness knew the missing 
man, and saw him on the deck of the steam- 
boat before the explosion. When asked by the 
lawyer, 

"What was the last time you saw him ?" 

He answered, 

" The very last time I ever set eyes on him 
was when the bilc-r burst, and I was going up, 
I met him and the jmoke-pipe coming down." 

Cbuelti to Asimals. — Brute beasts are de- 
fenseless, an«" to torture them is despicable; 
the assassin at least risks his life, but the tor- 
turer of animals risks nothing; and I do not 
hesitate to place him lower 8ti:l in the scale of 
humanity. TAere are men who have commit- 
ted great crines, and yet in whom the spark of 
humanity if certainly not extinct; but He who 
takes pleartire in the sufferings of a dumb ani- 
mal, andprolongs thenl regardless of its groans 
and of ^ supplicating looks, I pronounce — 
witho'' a heart; and when the heart is dead all 
is df*'!' — Comte de Uasparin, 

fHE faithful, patient performance of any 
niiy which is distasteful to us is a great 
affiievement, no matter how ignominious it 
nay appear; and it always brings a rith and 
tnexpected reward. 

A GENTLEMAN met a hulf-witted lad in the 
road, and placing in one of his hands a six- 
pence and a penny, asked him which of the two 
he would choose. The lad replied that he 
"wouldn't be greedy; he'd keep the littlest," 



July II, 1874.] 



23 



The Baby's Death. 

There came a morning at last when the ba- 
by's eyes did not open. The Doctor felt the 
heart throb faintly under his fingers, but he 
knew it was beating its last. He trembled for 
the mother, and dared not tell her. She anti- 
cipated him. 

"Doctor," said she — and her voice was so 
passionate that it might almost have belonged 
to a disembodied spirit — "I know that my 
darling is dying." 

He bowed his head mutely. Her calmness 
aweii Litn. 

"Is there anything you can do to ease him ?" 

"Nothing. I do not think he suflFers." 

"Then you will please to go away. He is 
mine — nobody's bat mine, in his life and in his 
death, and I want him quiet to myself at the 
last." 

Sorrowfully enongh, he left her. 

The mother held her child closely, but 
gently. She thought in that hour that she had 
never loved anything else — never in this world 
should love anything again. She wanted to 
cry, but her eyes were dry and burning, and 
not a tear fell on the little upturned face, 
changing so fast to marble. She bent over and 
whispered something in' the baby's ear — a 
wild, passionate prayer that would remember 
her and know her again in the infinite spaces. 
A look seemed to answer her — a radiant, lov- 
ing look, which she thought must be born of 
the near heaven. She pressed her lips in a 
" last despairing agony of love to the little face, 
'■^■from which already, as she kissed it, the soul 
had fled. Her white wonder had gone home. 
That which lay upon her hungry heart was 
stone. 



A 8TOET told by Dr. McCosh, of Princeton 
College, is seasonable. A negro in a religious 
gathering prayed earnestly that he and his col- 
ored brethren might be preserved from what he 
called their "upsettin' sins." "Brudder," said 
one of his friends, at the close of the meeting, 
"you ain't got the hang of dat word. It's 'be- 
settin',' not 'upsettin'.' " "Brudder," replied 
the other, "if dat's so, it's so. But I was 
prayin' do Lord to save us from de sin of in- 
toxication, an' if dat ain't an upsettin' sin, I 
dunno what am." 



The ways of women are past finding out. 
It is said that the ladies of Jacksonville, 'I'enn., 
have a fashion of tying up their taper fingers 
when young gentlemen are expected to call, 
and when they very naturally ask the cause, 
they blushingly remark, " I burned them broil- 
ing steak this morning." The result is that 
several young gentlemen have burned their 
fingers by believing the story. 

In speaking to his father's coachman of a 
neighboring family, a young man remarked 
that " they were happy until sorrow suddenly 
came and left her traces there." The coach- 
man looked puzzled, but finally responded, 
" Indeed, sir ! an' what did she do with the 
rest of the harness ?" 



Y^Jflq pOLKs' Cql 



Saturday Night. 



An Oswego paper describes a fire by saying 
that "the red flames danced in the heavens and 
flung their fiery arms about like a black fune- 
ral pall until Sam Jones got on the roof and 
doused them out with a pail of water. 



Impebtinbnt dandy (a stranger). — "May I 
have the honor to accompany you, miss?" 
Cool young lady. — "Certainly ;butkeep behind, 
in your proper place. I discharged my last 
footman for impertinence." 

A DOWN Easter believes there is nothing like 
advertising. He lost his pocket-book recently, 
advertised his loss in the local newspaper, and 
next morning went down into his own cellar 
and found it on the floor. 



The following advertisement appeared re- 
cently in an English paper: "St. James' 
Church— On Sunday next the afternoon service 
will commence at half-past three and continue 
until further notice." 

"Patience is always erowned with success. 
This rule is without an exception. It may not 
be a splendid success, but patience never takes 
anything in hand that it does not succeed with 
in some form." 



Placing the little hats all in a row, 
Ready for churcli on the morrow, you know; 
Washing wee facee and little black fiets, 
Qettlng them ready and fit to be kissed; 
Putting them into clean garments and white, 
That Is what mothers are doing to-night. 

Spying out holes in the little worn hose, 
Laying by shoes that are worn through the toes, 
Looking o'er garments so faded and thih — 
Who but a mother knows where to begin ? 
Changing a button to make it look right — 
That is what mothers are doing to-night. 

Calling the little ones all 'round her chair. 
Hearing them lisp forth their evening prayer, 
Telling them stories of Jesus of old, 
Who loves to gather the lambs to His fold; 
Watching them listen with childish delight- 
That is what mothers are doing to-night. 

Creeping so softly to take a last peep. 
After the little ones all are asleep; 
Anxious to know if the children are warm. 
Tucking the blankets round each little form. 
Kissing each little face, rosy and bright — 
That is what mothers are doing to-night. 

Kneeling down gently beside the white bed, 
Lowly and meekly she bows down her head. 
Praying as only mothers can pray, 
"God guide and keep them from going astray." 



QooD HEi^LTH- 



Milk as a 



Diet and its 
System. 



Effect 



e 



" He Gets Drunl<." 

A Sketch for Young People. 

" He's the smartest young man in our class." 

" Yes, but he gets drunk." 

" Oh, but he is so fine-looking, so noble and 
so talented withal ! His composition yesterday 
was the very best in our division. He writes 
splendidly ! They say he's writing for a maga- 
zine. Only think of it, writing for a magazine, 
no older than he is, and not out of school yet I 
— won't he be a great man, though, some day!" 

" No, I don't think he will." 

"Why not?" 

" He gets drunk." 

"Oh, that's nothing; a good many smart 
men get drunk. Every young man has his wild 
oats to sow ; and because a fellow gets a little 
boozy once in a while, I wouldn't condemn him 
forever; quite likely he'll outgrow it when he 
gets older and sees the folly of it." 

" More likely that will outgrow him, and, as 
to his getting a little boozy, I'm afraid he was a 
good deal so when the boys found him beside 
the walk the other night, and had to carry him 
to his room, dodging aroiind street corners and 
skulking through by-ways so that none of the 
professors would see him. I tell you a person 
that drinks at all isn't to be depended on. The 
only young men that I have any confidence in 
are those who let intoxicating liquors entirely 
alone." 

" Well, I don't care; he's good and smart, 
anyhow, and I like him." 

" I don't; he gets drunk !" 

So the conversation ran on between two 
schoolmates who were walking just ahead of 
me. Ah, how those words, " He gets drunk," 
kept ringing in my ears ! Possesspd of a noble 
manhood and a glorious intellect; blessed with 
the greatest and best of God's gifts; having the 
love and approbation of teachers; admired and 
looked up to by associates; the pride and hope 
of a fond father, intermined in the heart and 
life of a doting mother, united in close and 
tender bonds with brothers and sisters; holding 
in his hand the honor and good name of the in- 
stitution with which he is connected, of the so- 
ciety in which he mingles, and yet — "gets 
drunk!" 

As a natural consequence that young man 
who drinks will generally blight the manhood 
that is within him, change to curses the bless- 
ings that are upon him, bring to the dust what- 
ever highborn aspirations, whatever longings 
for greatness, glory and immortality may be 
his; blast the fondest hopes of parents, put out 
the brightness of their future in the darkness 
of disappointment, pain and sorrow; bring 
shame and reproach upon brothers and sisters; 
trample upon the love and confidence of his 
fellows; shut himself out from all goodness, 
purity, usefulness and happiness; blot out the 
image of God that is stamped upon him, and 
drag himself down lower than the brutes. Aye, 
so surely does he shut himself out from Hea- 
ven, as " he gets drunk .'" 



"Father, forgive tL^m for they know not 
what they do," was Dean Stanley's text when 
he preached to the newly-w<5d Duke and Duch- 
ess of Edinburgh, soon aher their arrival in 
London. 

The mayor of a Portugese city once enumer- 
ated, among the marks by which the body of a 
drowned man might be. identified, "A marked 
impediment in his speech." 

The following appeared in an "Xdinburgh pa- 
per: "We regret to find that tu annQmjgQ. 
ment of the death of Mr. W. is x malicious 
fabrication." 

An exchange tells of a little child wht^atch- 
ed the snow flakes in the late storm, ana^fjgj 
a moment of thoughtful silence said, "MVttijia, 
is it next winter?" ' , 

A Boston Dorcas Society fines gossipspne 
dollar for each off'ense. The proceeds therefprn 
will be used to pay the national debt. 

OcTB graces, like evergreens, grow most in ti 
low vale of affliction, even as the stars are moi 
iaminons agad lovely when nearest the horizon! 



Dogs' Language. — In Charlestown recently a 
large dog gave chase to a poor little " black and 
tan " whose hind leg had been injured, but, 
failing to overtake him, turned about and trotted 
slowly back. In a short time the small dog re- 
turned, followed by a large Newfoundland, who 
upon reaching the corner, " seemed to be look- 
ing for something, " when the little dog gave 
two or three sharp barks, as much as to say, 
" That's the big dog who chased me, " at the 
same time indicating by his actions the large 
black dog, who was then at some distance. 
Whereupon the little dog's ally immediately 
attacked and severely punished ths aggressor, 
who was gladjenough to trust to the swiftness of 
his feet for safety. After this little affair the 
small dog and his friend returned down the 
street apparently much pleased with their part 
of the late transaction. How did the small dog 
impart tlie idea to the large one ? 

''He has left a void that can not be easily fill- 
ed," as the bank director touchingly remarked 
of the absconding cashier. 

Vboktable philosophy— Sage advice. 



The Human Frame. 

INo. 5— The Lungs. 

The lungs are two extremely vascular, po- 
rous organs, situated in each of the lateral cav- 
ities of the chest, and separated from each oth- 
er by the heart. In shape, each lung is con- 
ical, with the apex towards the upper portion 
of the thoracic cavity, which is the cavity form- 
ed by the bony frame-work of the ribs and dor- 
sal vertebrre. They weigh ordinarily about 
three and one-half pounds troy; but so ex- 
tremely spongy is their structure that, with 
only this comparatively light weight, they fill 
almost the entire cavity of the thorax. Exter- 
nally, they are enveloped in a serous sack, the 
pleura, which is the seat of that common in- 
flammation, pleurisy. Internally, they are 
lined with a very thin, delicate mucous mem- 
brane, through which the oxygen of the air 
and the carbonic acid of the blood pass during 
respiration. They are connected with the ex- 
ternal air by means of the larynx and tracheas; 
the former of which, a box-like organ situated 
at the base of the tongue, will be the subject of 
a future paper; the latter is a cartilageno-mem- 
branous tube, about four and one-half inches 
long, separating into two smaller tubes called 
bronchi, which go to the two lungs. These 
tubes again divide and sub-divide; their caliber 
constantly decreasing as their number increases, 
until they reach a diameter of about one twen- 
ty-fifth of an inch, when they terminate in lit- 
tle, curious shaped cells, which are again divi- 
ded iDy partitions into tiny compartments of 
about one seventy-fifth of an inch in diameter. 
Into these little tubes and cells the air is 
drawn with each inspiration, where the thin- 
ness of the lining membrane allows the blood 
circulating through this net-work of cells to be 
literally bathed in the air which furnishes the 
life-sustaining oxygen; while at each expiration 
that deadly product of our decaying tissues, 
carbonic acid, is expelled from the system. 

It must not be supposed, however, that the 
entire amount of air in the lungs is changed 
with each respiratory movement; on the contra- 
ry, only some ten or twelve per cent, of the 
whole is renewed, which is called "tidal air;" 
the rest, or "residual air," remaining con- 
stantly in the lungs; so that it requires some 
ten or twelve inspirations to completely renew 
the air in these organs. A curiosity in respi- 
ration consists in minute hair-like bodies called 
ciliaj, which grow perpendicularly to the walls 
of the air passages, and which keep up a con- 
stant, waving motion always in the direction of 
the trachese, and thus, by the tiny currents 
they cause, assist materially in completely 
changing the impure for pure air. 

The diseases of the lungs are numerous and 
formidable, and by the masses little understood. 
The hacking cough of incipient consumption 
is but too often mistaken for an ordinary cold; 
while, on the other hand, a chronic bronchitis, 
which is perfectly harmless compared with con- 
sumption, is mistaken for that malady, and the 
sufferer's life rendered miserable by ground- 
less fears and nauseous nostrums. In the 
space allowed us here, it is impossible to even 
touch on this portion of our subject, so we will 
close with a few general hints on the care of 
these organs, which are as follows : 

Close the mouth tightly, and breathe entirely 
through the nostrils whenever passing from a 
warm, moist air into that which is colder; as 
from a crowded assemblage into the open air, 
etc. This will warm the air thus breathed, re- 
ducing it nearer to the temperature of the 
lungs. 

Avoid rooms too highly heated; especially 
where it is the result of crowding and packing. 
The warm, rarified air relaxes the lung tissue, 
and renders it doubly susceptible to injury. 
Avoid draughts, cold limbs, prolonged wetting, 
etc.; as anything which reduces the tempera- 
ture and amount of blood at the surface of the 
body necessarily increases the amount sent to 
internal organs; thus rendering them liable to 
inflammation. The lungs usually suffer in 
these cases in four out of five instances; and a 
large majority of colds have their origin in 
this manner. Treat a common cold by hot foot 
baths, warm body baths, warm flannels, avoid- 
ance of exposure for a few days, comfortable 
clothing, and no drugs, unless there is consti- 
pation, when a simple cathartic may be given. 
Beyond a simple cold, consult a reliable physi- 
cian; never tampering with quacks or patent 
nostrums. 



KiCE Water. — Take of rice two ounces; let 
it be well washed, and add to it water, two 
quarts. Boil it for an hour and a half, and 
then add sugar and nutmeg as much as may be 
required. "To be taken ad libitum. Eice, when 
boiled for a considerable time, assumes a gela- 
tinous form, and, mixed with milk, is a very 
excellent diet for children. It possesses, in 
some measure, a constipating property which 
may be increased by boiling the milk. — The 
Druggist. 

Aiu AND Bathing. — Children naturally weak 
should be compelled to play in the open air, 
and business men should leave work for a cer- 
tain period each day and devote the same to 
exercise or other relaxation. Bathing is recom- 
mended in moderation as a check to consump- 
tive tendencies. Surf bilhing, however, should 
be cautiously indulged in by all predisposed to 
pulmonary difficulties. 



There is considerable difference of opinion 
on the subject of a milk diet. It is surrounded 
with a mass of whims, of prejudices, and of 
mistaken ideas, which are based more on in- 
dividual fancies than upon certain facts. To 
one a glass of milk imbibed is believed to be a 
sure provocation of a bilious attack; to another, 
a disordered stomach; to a third, drowsiness, 
and so on, through such a category of simple 
though disagreeable ailments that we look 
aghast at the farmer who drains cup after cup 
of the fresh pure liquid, time and again during 
the day, and wonder at the resisting powers 
which his organization must possess. The 
truth is, however, that milk is not unwhole- 
some. On the contrary, it contains good sub- 
stantial bone, muscle, flesh and brain-producing 
substances, which, assimilating, quickly act 
rapidly in building up the body. Naturally, 
we assert, it is nourishing; that it does bring 
on certain troubles is nevertheless true, but the 
cause is in the individual stomach, not in the 
milk, provided, of course, the latter be fresh 
and sweet.^ — Scientific American. 

Milk diluted with one-third lime water, it 
is said, will not cause any one biliousness or 
headache, and, if taken regularly, will so 
strengthen the stomach as to banish these dis- 
orders. It may be taken with acid of some 
kind when it does not easily digest. The idea 
that milk must not be eaten with pickles is not 
an intelligent one, as milk curdles in the 
stomach nearly as soon as it is swallowed. 
When milk is constipating, as it is frequently 
found to be by persons who drink freely of it 
in the country in summer time, a little salt 
sprinkled in each glassful will prevent the diffi- 
culty. When it has an opposite effect, a few 
drops of brandy in each goblet of milk will 
obviate its purgative effect. As milk is so 
essential to the health of our bodies, it is well 
to consider when to take it, and how. It is a 
mistake to drink milk between meals, or with 
food at the table. In the former case it will 
destroy the appetite, and in the latter it is never 
proper to drink anything. After finishing each 
meal a goblet of pure milk should be drank ; 
and if any one wishes to grow fleshy, a pint 
taken before retiring at night will soon cover 
the scrawniest bones. In cases of fever and 
summer complaint, milk is now given with 
excellent results. "The idea that milk is "fever- 
ish" has exploded, and it is now the physician's 
great reliance in bringing through typhoid 
patients, or those in too low a state to be nour- 
ished by solid food. — N. T. Commercial Adver- 
tiser. 

Statistics of Intemperance. 

The testimony of competent judges is decided 
in the opinion that the use of ardent spirits is 
hurtful to health and long life, and the old- 
fashioned calculations of Neison, in his Vital 
Statistics, are confirmed by the researches of 
the General Life Office. According to these 
estimates, the probability of death among 
drinkers between 21 and 40 years is ten times 
as much as among the whole population; be- 
tween 41 and 60 years, four times as much; 
and among habitual tipplers over 60 years of age, 
twice as much as among the people at large. 
In England, 1850-59, more than 8,000 cases 
were reported of men who literally drank 
themselves to death. Neison has given us his 
investigations of G,lll tipplers, that out of 
1,000, 58.4 die annually, while out of 1,000 ii>- 
habitants of the same age only three die. Tht.s 
the mortality among drinkers is three times as 
great as in the community at large. He has 
carried out his calculations in all ages, and 
shown how this chronic self-murder marvelously 
diminishes the expectation of life. The high- 
est point as to numbers is found in the years 
1851-60, which report 192 men and 41 women 
intemperate out of 10,000 in England and 
Wales, and which reckon the diminution in the 
rate of expectation of life accordingly. This 
last statement is startling, and shows a falling 
off in the probable term of life for each 10 
years, from 20 to 60, and upward, of respect- 
ively 28, 22, 17, 10 and five years, with frac- 
tions, and amounting to the fearful percentage, 
respectively, of 35, 38, 40, 51 and 63 per cent, 
of probable life, as compared with the popula- 
tion. Surely strong drink is slow fii-e, and in- 
temperance is voluntary madness and chronic 
suicide. — Harper's Monthly. 

In considering the best chances of a person 
having a tendency to consumption arriving at 
a good old age after a life of health, Dr. Bow- 
ditch discusses a few general topics and lays 
down a number of plain rules for sanitary guid- 
ance, which are mainly generally applicable to 
every one. Under the snbdivision of residence, 
the first point urged is that the cellar should 
be always dry. No possibility should exist of 
drinking water becoming contaminated by re- 
fuse; and hence for the latter, closely cemented 
stone, brick or vitrified tile drains should be 
used, while the supply for drinking should be 
brought to the house from some distant spring 
or pond. The dwelling is best located on an 
elevated knoll, open to the south and west 
winds, but somewhat shielded from the north 
and east. There should be means of allowing 
sunlight to enter every room. As regards tem- 
perature, about 70° as a medium is the best, 
and this heat should be derived from open fire 
places connected with well constructed chim- 
neys in every room. 

Silence in the sick room is a splendid 
nurse. 



24 



w^&twm mwmAS ^m®si 



f» 



[July II, 1874- 




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Typographical Errors. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July ii, 1874. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GENERAL EDITOKIALS.— " Who is this that 
Oometh from the North?" A Noble Animal, I7. 
Typoaraphical Errors; Wood Chopping inCaliforuia; 
TheHirvesfs Progress, 24. Hints on HopGrow- 
Ing— No. 6; The Lawns of San Francisco; Combins- 
tion Washer and Boiler; The Day we Celebrate, 26. 
Patents and Inventions; Cheese Boxes, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— "Governor Booth," the Cele- 
br.ited Short-horn Bull, 17- A Combination Washer 
and Boiler, 25- , , „ ., 

CORRESPONDENCE. — Important Questions; 
Sherman Island. 18. 

HORTICULTURE.— Cherry Culture; Transplant- 
ing;; A Splendid Sight; New Fruits; Cracking in 
Pears; The Pineapple; The Best Variety of Straw- 
berry; A New Pe.ich Enemy; Efifects of Gas on Plants, 

18. 

Cattle breeders. — Letter from Jesse D. 
Osrr; Form of the Ayrshire; Jersey and Alderney, 

19. 

THE DAIRY-— How the Best Quality of Cheese is 
Made; Yield of Milk per Cow; Salt for Milch Cows; 
The Ideal Milch Cow, 19. 

THE SWINE YARD.- Treatment of Breeding 
Sows; Kidney Worms in Swine; Buttermilk and 
Scurvy: Sows Eating Pigs, 19. 

THE APIARY— Observation in Bee Culture; Rich 
Soils best for Honey-Producing Plants; Fertile Work- 
ers; Granulated Honey, 1 9- 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Progress of the 
Patrons in California; New Granges; Meetings; Etc., 
20. 

HOME CIRCLE.— My Little Laborer (Poetry) ; The 
Wrong Boom; An Anecdote of Mozart and Haydn; 
Cante and Effect; A Lesson for Women; Learning the 
Way; Oar Bodies and Souls; Leaning a Little; 1 he 
Oood-bve Hispitality; Cruelty to Animals, 22. The 
Baby's Death, 23. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. - Saturday Night 
(Poetry); "He Gets Drunk;" Dogs' Language, 23. 

GOOD HE ALTH— The Human Frame; Rice Water; 
Air and bathing- Milk as a Diet aud its Effect on the 
System; Statistics of Intemperance, 23. 

AQRICU i.TU K.AL NOTES from various coun- 
ties in California, 28. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— The Sex of E;gs; Poultry 
Raising; Traveling on the Farm, 19. Etching Iron; 
Preserving Irjn; Preserving Wood with 'Tannin; 
Mating Match-Sticks; Lacquer; Sound; Facts and 
Fancies about Heat; The Moon and Vegetation; 
Naphthaline; Flame; Tellurium; Spurious Coins; 
Orone; Fixing Pencil Drawings; Linseed Oil; Sharp- 
ening Razors; Spontaneous Combuntion of Hay; 
Wtter-Proof Cement, 26. 



July 13tb, 1871, the business office of this Journal 
will be removed Just one block east of our present lo- 
cation, to No. iH Sansome Street, southeast comer of 
Oalifomia, over the Bank of British Columbia, where 
we have secured large and elegant quarters. This re- 
moval is made in consequence ot the sale of the build- 
ing in which we are now located, to parties who will 
proceed immediately to demolish the present structure, 
and erect a new and magnificent block in its place. 



The San Fbancisco Pboduce Exchange. — 
The oommitteo appointed by a namber of the 
laembers of the Produce Exchange, to nomi- 
tiate a ticket of officer.s to be voted for, have 
reported as follows: For President, Horace 
D.ivis; Vioe-Presid«nt, E. G. Mathews; Treas- 
urer. E. Rmsotn; Directors, D. Ballard, Win. 
McCauly, Jiicob Palraer, Thomas Newell, J. P. 
Halme and George Morrow. 



Bb. Stockton, living about sixteen miles 
from Bakersfteld, Kern county, informs the 
Tulare Times that he last year raised twelve 
hundred pounds of the finest sweet potatoes on 
the sixth of an acre of ground, and that this 
year he is cultivating four acres of this vege- 
table, and confidently expects a yield of four 
tons to the acre. 

The Trustees of the Farmers' Storage and 
Commission Company met last Saturday at 
Colusa, and elected Waller Calmes, President; 
Terrence Masterton, Secretary; J. W. Goad, 
Treasurer, and Richard Jones, General Su- 
perintendent. A large force of men are now 
at work on the warehouse. 



The proof-reader has the floor. It is so sel- 
dom that this much abused individual has an 
opportunity to speak for himself, that he may 
perhaps be forgiven if for once he becomes 
garrulous, and even a little spiteful. Any one 
who is acquainted with newspaper work under- 
stands the peculiar and not over comfortable 
position occupied by the proof-reader, but for 
the benefit of the uninitiated the situation is 
briefly reviewed. To describe it geometrically, 
a square may be imagined, in the center of 
which stands the proof-reader; at each comer 
are bis natural enemies, the writers, the print- 
ers, the great reading public, and last and worst 
of all— himself. A crossfire is usually consid- 
ered a very bad thing to get into; but when the 
cross is doubled, bo to speak, it becomes more 
than human nature can well bear. The writ- 
ers agonize if a word or a comma of their 
precious manuscript be altered; the composi- 
tors also row if "copy" is changed; the great 
public wonder bow that stupid wretch of a 
proof-reader got things so mixed ; and his own 
conscience troubles him because he has not 
been more relentless, even at the risk of ofifend- 
ing the first two classes of critics. He stands 
alone, in that center of never ceasing fire. 
Truly it needs a martyr's courage, or a stoic's 
indifference, to maintain a calm front. But 
then, if he is thus assailed, be also has jnst 
grounds of complaint against at least two or- 
ders of foes. The writers perversely say •what 
tbey evidently don't mean, or say what they do 
mean in a language that might as well be Syriac, 
or do their worst in covering errors of sense 
and of grammar under illegible chirography. 
And the printers are not much better. Time 
is money to them, if to any; and the first in- 
terpretation to the ofttimes cabalistic hiero- 
glyphics they are called upon to "set" is 
accepted and acted on, regardless of the frenzy 
of the horror-stricken author, or the bewilder- 
ment of the long-suffering reader. 

But as the contributors are generally the 
least merciful, our proof-reader proceeds to ac- 
cuse them first. The most direct mode of con- 
viclion is to give a few instances of the manner 
in which they perplex and overwhelm both 
printer and proof-reader by carelessness in 
construction of sentences, etc., which have 
required only a moment's time, perhaps, to 
put upon paper ; but which call for careful 
study or lucky guess-work, occupying much 
time, before they become intelligible to the 
reader. Such slips are most frequently owing 
merely to a want of care, but sometimes, and 
not seldom, are due to a perverse contempt for 
the simplest rules of speech. To begin at 
home : 

An attach^ of this office, whose manuscript 
unfortunately came to our proof-reader's no- 
tice, in a single article was guilty of the follow- 
ing: "Hats are manufactured in a dozen es- 
tablishments, not more than three, however, 

being of any size Two powder factories, 

or rather, we should say, explosive factories." 
Pretty rough on the hats and the powder fac- 
tories, that. It is hardly necessary to specify 
which particular section of the ould countbry 
this editor hails from. 

Another gentleman who writes for the Pees^ 
is sometimes a little careless about his spelling. 
This don't matter much in ordinary cases, but 
when it comes to "fct»t;eerer, " for staggerer, 
and almost illegible at that, it becomes a mat- 
ter for five minutes' prayerful consideration, 
not always rewarded by success. In this con- 
nection it must be remembered that Andrew 
Jackson was accused of bad spelling, btit John 
Rindolph defended him by declaring that "a 
man must be a fool who could not spell words 
more ways than one." 

In the Press office all of the editors would 
not be absolutely certain of carrying off 'prizes 
for penmanship; but so long as there is English 
at the bottom of the obscure pothooks and 
hangers, there is always a fair chance of getting 
at it, and nobody complains. 

Occasionally, however, there is a muss; as 
when, for instance, a correspondent, in writing 
of the wonderful restoration of Chicago since 
the fire, grows classical and speaks of ''JVep<un« 
rising from the ashes;" or when a reporting 
committee-man deliberately says: "Visiting 
members were invited to take seats on thefloor!" 
On the whole, it isn't a bad idea, after all, 
to write moderately plainly. This conclusion 
is reached on recalling a sentence of one of our 
Grange friends, which should have read: " We 
are not taking the rag-tag and bob-tails of crea- 
tion into our Order," and which was so pen- 
ned that the compositor was really justified in 
calling a ^ a to, and sending in a proof-sheet 
with: " We are now taking the rag-tag and 
bob-tails of creation into our Order !" a piece 
of news which would certainly have astonished 
the Grangers at large, as well as the particular 
correspondent. 

We noticed in Moore's Rural New-Yorker an 
account of the noble condnct of a Newfound- 
land dog, which bravely plunged, to rescue a 
drowning person, "from a bluff fully fifUen 
feet out of the water." It would be hard to 
say whether the compositor was to blame for 
his evident conservatism in the matter of 
figures, for probably the " copy" was here only 
a conundrum. 

Punctuation is a matter for which the com- 
positor and proof-reader are responsible; yet. 
in some cases, the fault, if there be one, should 
be attributed to the writer. The importance of 
correct pnncluation was strongly illustrated, 
recently, at a meeting of the Ways and Means 



Committee, when it was shown that a comma 
in one place wa^ worth $2,000,000. In the tar- 
iff bill which went into effect Aug. 1, 1872, the 
free list was extended by the addition of several 
hundred articles. Among the number added 
were "fruit plants, tropical and semi-tropical," 
for the purpose of propagation and cultivation. 
In engrossing the bill, or in the process of copy- 
ing it for official printing, a comma was in- 
serted after "fruit," and all fruit was thereby 
placed upon the free list. The custom officers, 
however, not noticing the change, continued to 
collect duties on fruit until the error was dis- 
covered. The Ways and Means Committee 
reported a bill to remove the comma, in accord- 
ance with the intent of the law of 1872 The 
amount of tax illegally collected is not far from 
$2,000,000. 

The copoma, like the tongue, is a little thing, 
and like it will make good sense or nonsense, 
just according as it is used. Take, for in- 
stance, the old nursery rhyme. With the com- 
mas misplaced, it is so nonsensical that it needs 
a commentary to explain it: 
Every lady In the land 
Has twenty nails on each hand. 
Five and twenty on hands and feet; 
This is true without deceit. 
Alter the position of the commas and the 
meaning is clear : 

Every lady in the land 
Has twenty nails, on each hand| 
Five, and twenty on bands and feet; 
This is true without deceit. 

The omission of a comma has frequently 
given a very awkward turn to a sentence. We 
remember an epitaph which suffered severely 
from such an oversight. It ran pretty much 
as follows: "Erected to the memory of John 
Phillips, accidentally shot as a mark of affec- 
tion by his brother." 

A printer meddling with the verdict of a 
Coroner's jury, struck out a comma after the 
word "apoplexy," making it read thus: "De- 
ceased came to his death by excessive drinking, 
producing apoplexy in the minds of the jury." 

A correspondent introduces a piece of poetry 
to the editor of an American newspaper in these 
words: "The following lines were written 
fifty years ago by one who has for many years 
slept in his grave merely for his amusement. 
A comma at " grave " would have rendered 
the sentence, at all events, comprehensible, 
though nothing would efface its absurd diction. 



Wood Chopping in California. 

A few years since, the writer, while on an 
Indiana railroad train, overheard some fellow- 
passengers conversing on the subject of East- 
ern and Western corn growing. They were 
evidently Western people, and of course oould 
fee nothing good coming from the East, and their 
comparisons of the two modes of corn culture 
were extremely disparaging to their Eastern 
fellows. They were particularly severe on the 
fussiness of the New York style of corn grow- 
ing, enumerating the stages of labor, and giv- 
ing and ex'ipgerating the amount of work 
bestowed by them on an eight-acre field of corn, 
supposing, in their Eastern simplicity, that this 
wiis really quite a large field. Then the Western 
side of the picture was given also; slightly ex- 
aggerated, of course. Ttie eight-acre field in 
New York was placed beside one of eighty 
acres in Indiana, this being in the estimation 
of the Western eulogists a vast space to be de- 
voted to a field of grain. But the eighty-acre 
fields of grain, of which those enthusiastic 
champions of Western farming boasted so 
much, are as nothing compared with those of 
California, which are estimated by thousands 
of acres, some of them being over twenty thou- 
sand acres in extent. 

This, howtver, has nothing to do with wood- 
chopping; we only allude to grain-growing in 
California in order to show how it coincides 
with our scale of chopping; and the ocular 
proof of the magnitude of our wood-cutting 
operations which the remains of the mighty trees 
now fallen, and the monsters yet standing, will 
induce our Eastern friends to dispense with all 
allowances for Western "blowing." They can 
come and see for themselves, and note down 
these proofs among the interesting points in 
their tour; but there is little romance in a 
20,000-acre grain field, and a proposed inspec- 
tion of it would be anything but inviting. But 
sylvan romance seems to increase with the 
magnitude of the trees and the extent of the 
forests. Those of us who are at all acquainted 
with life in the woods, as it is passed in those 
of the middle or northern portion of the Atlan- 
tic States, will, we venture to Fay, look upon 
the time thus spent as among the happiest 
periods of their lives, and that they will also 
declare that the wintry seasons pussed there, 
cold, bleak and barren as they are, bring with 
their memories associations even pleasanter 
than those of voluptuous June or "September 
brown." 

The summer woods have been so over-dressed 
by the written and painted fancies of artists, 
that the forest is, in reality, considered as most 
adorned wlien unadorned. A large percentage 
of the pleasure which a summer visit to the 
woods should afford is dis^ipated in the fear, 
on the part of the visitor, of being mistaken 
for a poet— an extremely damaging suspicioa- 
But in winter, a man goes into the woods with 
a purpose; and whether this be labor or pleas- 
ure, it is followed with physical energy, and 



prowess in cutting down trees that were three 
feet through at the butt — and when a man re- 
moves the greatest obstacles that stand in his 
way, be may justly take some credit to himself 
— but when we go into the ordinary woods of 
California, and commence a campaign against 
trees that measure eight feet through the trunk, 
our former feats with the ax seem to us as 
mere child's play. 

In order to convey an adequate conception 
of the magnitude of these cnopping under- 
takings to our Eastern readers— and the Bukai. 
Press has a good many readers in the Atlantic 
States — we extract from the Oakland Rt:al Es- 
tate Reporter a few paragraphs from an interest- 
ing article, entitled "Logging in the Bedwoods 
of California." 

The choppers, especially, must be men of in- 
telligence and experience. A great deal more 
than mere strength to swing the ax for eleven 
hours a day is required to make a good chop- 
per. After the tree is selected the ground 
needs careful looking after, as a stump or fallen 
tree, or any inequality of the earth, would, as a 
gentleman of the profession remarked, "Knock 
the biggest on 'em into smithereens." It is a 
peculiarity of redwood to split into long and 
profitless thin strips upon small provocation, 
and the inexperienced eye, glancing over the 
ground that bristles with all sorts of obstacles, 
sees little hope of any tree escaping destruction. 
And it is only the extreme skill of the choppers 
that makes the disaster uncommon. They can 
drive a stake with the biggest tree in the forest 
when the ground is clear. WTien there is not 
sufficient opening in a direct line, a common 
expedient is to fell the tree so that it will strike 
in its descent the trunk of another. Calcul- 
ating the bounce well, marks an accomplished 
chopper. 

Felling a seven or eight-foot tree is half a 
day's work for three men. The choppers stand 
some six or eight feet from the ground, each on 
a narrow bit of board, one end of which is 
thrust into a notch in the bark, and this un- 
steady footing is all they heve, while they hack 
away with their long axes hour after hour. 
When a ten or fifteen-footer is encountered, a 
platform ot bark, with the standing boards for 
support, is built, and an extra chopper put on. 
Two cuts are made in the tree; that on the side 
on which the monster is to fall being much 
larger and somewhat lower than the one on the 
other side. Thus the weight of the tree is made 
to serve for its own overthrow. It is tremen- 
dously hard work, and wears the strongest man 
out in from three to four years. 

When the tree begins to "complain," as the 
shrill, vibrating, cracking noise is aptly called, 
the choppers give a long warning wail that 
sends all the workmen in the neighborhood 
scampering to a safe distance. A second cry 
tells that the tree is wavering, and the choppers 
themselves leap from their perches and run 
for it. The giant yields slowly and with a 
mighty grumbling. Then, in spite of himself, 
he leans over painfully, and with a frigbtsome 
booming and crackling sweeps to the trembling 
earth, the foliage whistling and screaming like 
th»rigcingof a f hip in a hurricane. The shock 
is terrific, and resembles nothing so much as an 
earthquake. Clouds of dust, minglea with 
flying fragments, are thrown into the air. 
Every Iranf-h is snapped off, and broken to 
splinters. The thud is heard and felt miles 
awav. 



The Harvest's Progress. 

In our agricultural notes, and numerous 
other items which we have gathered for our 
columns, the readers of the Pbebs will be able 
to form a fair estimate of the present condition 
of the harvest of 1874. It will be of interest 
to them, no doubt, to observe the progress of 
the grand army of mowers and reapers now 
marching through the rural districts. Still, the 
observations suggested by the figure of 
an army in progress are hardly in keep- 
ing with the feelings aroused by observing 
the career of the harvester. Plenty and 
not famine follows their course, and 
schools, universities, and churches are erected 
and embellished, instead of being torn down or 
desecrated. The harvest-field is a scene that 
the world gazes upon with an interest which 
nothing else can arouse:' but, with the fear 
before our eyes of poa^ibly being accused of 
" blowing," we assert 'iat the harvests of Cal- 
ifornia are objects w«rthy of even more interest 
and admiration tb»n those of any other coun- 
try ; not altogetker on account of their ex- 
ceeding abundtnoe, but partly by their long- 
continued and varying course, the fields of 
different di^cts changing from green to 
golden, arraying themselves timely and taste- 
fully for the appointed call of the welcome 
harvester. 

Alfalfa fi vDisiNFECTAirr.— We have been 
assured tb'' *e introdacfion of alfalfa on our 
low landfis Jestined to prove the great disin- 
fectant ' •** malaria so much dreaded in our 
valley Alfa'fa will grow anywhere on Kern 
Islar^' '*<^ i' smothers out all wild vegetation. 
Oa-slpBghs are to be dried up and the waters 
tljO"* '°'o channels which will carry it all off 
,ud>eave no more green frog-ponds. Old 
sloigt-beds are to be seeded in alfalfa. This 
is'he programme adopted for the future.— 
fiiUhem Califomian. 

Most of the sheep raisers in Oregon have 



with a vigor of spirits, that insure hearty en- sheared their last sheep. The wool clip is bet- 
joyment, and make it pleasant to remember. | ter than ever before, both as to quality and 
We thought we were performing feats r I amount. 



July II, 1874.1 



26 



Hints on Hop Growing— No. 6. 

On Picking. 

In those localities where the a:a3on is most 
advanced, picking has abeady commenced. It 
is to be hoped that it has, if the hops are 
ready, for as we have stated in preceding arti- 
cles, the sooner hops are picked after tbey are 
ready, the better for them. The grower should 
avail himself of every means that will expedite 
the harvesting of this crop, and |whoever does 
the picking should be paid by the amount and 
not by time. In order to form a jast estimate 
of the earnings of the pickers, and also of the 
yield of the progressing harvest, 

The Hop Box 
Will be found the most convenient. It 
shoald be made of rather light stuflF— three- 
quarter inch is sufl5oiently heavy — and as they 
are to be the standard of measure, the boxes of 
hop-growing districts should be of uniform 
size. Seven feet in length, three and one-half 
feet high, and the same in width is the size 
used at the East. Dividing this in the center 
by a thin partition makes two boxes three and 
one-half feet square. Each picker is to have 
one of these square boxes. In constructing 
them a narrow strip should be attached to each 
of the long sides, jutting out and formiDg han- 
dles at the ends, by which the box can be read- 
ily shifted and carried about the yard. 

The hop-grower can not afford to pay pickers 
by time. They might seem to be doing, and 
really think that they were doiog their very 
best, and at the same time be making slow pro- 
gress. But let them pick by the box and the 
anxiety about making wages, with the rivalry 
that must inevitably spring up in the busy 
yard,<will develop a haudiness and speed that 
will be alike advantageous to picker and grow- 
er. The picker is compelled to work rapidly, 
especially in filling the last half of the box; for 
the weight of the hops as the box gets nearly 
full will cause settling; and nothing but rapid 
picking can gain on it with any rapidity. 

But while the grower or his overseer is en- 
deavoring to secure speed, care should be taken 
to prevent dirty picking; otherwise clusters 
containing leaves and bita of vine will find their 
way into the box, thereby greatly injuring the 
quality of the hops. This, however, can be 
readily detected when the box is emptied in the 
sacks in which they are conveyed to the dry- 
house. These sacks should he freehand clean; 
' ' run together' ' for the season ; and the cloth cut 
to a size that will work to advantage in baling, 
when the picking season is over. If they are 
made abont three times the size of the Oalifor- 
nia potato sack they can be handled, even when 
full, very comfortably. 

In handling the hops, from the pulling of the 
poles to the baling process, care should be taken 
to prevent the crushing of the blossom, as it be- 
comes damaged in appearance, and loses a por- 
tion of its strength by being bruised and torn, 
as the pnllen containing the oil of the plant is 
partial^ lost'by breakage and sifting. 

A Gooil Pole-puller 
Is an important aid in successful hop-picking. 
A poor one will break a good many poles; will 
shake and mangle the vines in loosening the 
poles; will keep the pickers poorly supplied 
with material to work on ; and when placing 
the poles on their boxes will jar them unnecesa- 
rily, thereby settling the hops to the dissatis- 
faction of the picKers; while an expert will 
avoid all this, will see that the vines are prop- 
erly stripped of their blossoms, and that no- 
thing but blossoms goes into the box. A good 
deal of physical strength as well as responsi- 
bility ib required at the hands of the pole- 
puller, as the number of poles to be lifted 
during the day is very large, each one requir- 
ing a fair amount of strength to raise it, while 
many demand all the muscular power tnat he 
can bestow upon them, and this, too, when the 
impatient cry :" Hops !" will not admit of 
more than the allotted time being given to each 
pole. And when it is considered that in most 
cases a large portioh of these clamorous pickers 
are women and girls, it will be realized that the 
poor pole-puller needs strength of nerve as 
well as of muscle to carry him through. 
'.t^We propose to give in our next issue some 
hints on hop-drying. 

Death or Another CBiiEBRATED Shoet- 
HoBN. — The two-year old heifer Duchess of 
Oneida died on June 17th, on the Alexandria 
farm, Woodford county, Kentucky. It will be 
remembered that W. J. Alexander purchased 
this valuable heifer for $19,000 at the famous 
cattle pale at Senator C^mpbeirs farm in New 
York Mills last year. TUe disease of which 
she died was pneumonia. Probably if she 
could have had proper exercise and exposure 
during her life, she would been less vulnerable 
to diseases of this class. We htar of no cases 
of pneumonia among the scrub stock of the 
country. We would take this occasion to again 
urge upon the owners of choice stock ♦he neces- 
sity of avoiding such treatment of theii valua- 
ble animaU as will tend to debilitate an! sap 
the vigor of their constitution. The loss oithe 
Duchess of Oneida is greatly to be regrettrl, 
as she was a very promising and beautiful an- 
imal. 

It is expected that the steamer "Ventura," 
formerly the U. 8. steamer "Resaca," will take 
the place of the "Prince Alfred." 



The Lawns of San Francisco. 

People generally are ready to acknowledge 
that the soil of California can produce as fine 
a crop of grass here as can be grown on any 
portion of American soil ; but the greatest ad- 
mirers of this country will hardly claim that 
the meadows here are so lasting, or that we 
can show as good a sod as in some of the mid- 
dle States. This being admitted by Califor- 
nians, and San Franciscans, especially, being 
aware that this locality is particularly unfavor- 
able to grass, they have set themselves at work 
to overcome these natural disadvantages, the 
result being such as may often be found under 
similar circumstances. For it often happens 
that the labor and perseverance which the 
presence of difficulties calls forth secures a 
degree of success never reached by those who 
know nothing about difficulties. 

San Francisco would have her lawns, but she 
could only obtain them by a liberal outlay 
of money and labor, and can only keep them 
by continuing a large portion of this outlay. 
It only needs a hasty glance while passing 
along our streets to see that the lawns of San 
Francisco are such as can not be excelled ; but 
it needs a more extended observation to form a 
just estimate of the means by which they are 
brought up and kept up to their present condi- 
tion. In the first place, they have a liberal 
seeding on soil that is in the best possible con- 
dition to receive it; and as soon as there is 



Combination Waslier and Boiler. 

The accompanying illustration represents a 
washer and boiler combined, which is the in- 
vention of Mrs. Mary A. Barnes, of Olympia, 
Washington Territory. 

The boiler proper is akin in shape to that 
usually employed, and is supplied with clamps, 
A, so that it may be firmly secured to the edge 
of the top of the stove or range by means of set 
screws. Inside the main receptacle is a vessel, 
jB, the sides of which are verticle and support 
a circnlir corrugated bottom, as shown at C. 
In the lower part are a number of perforations 
to allow of the free passage of the water. D is 
a shaft, one end of which is secured in a socket 
on the main receptacle, and the other passes 
through a vertical slot made in the edge of the 
latter, carrying at its extremity a crank. The 
shaft is provided with radial arms, E, which 
project from its lower part, so as nearly to 
touch the corrugated bottom of the vessel, B. 
The water and soap being placed in the boiler, 
the clothes are laid in the inner receptacle, and 
the crank being rocked, are caused by the arms, 

E, to sweep the corrugations and are quickly 
cleansed. 

It is necessary to remark that the extension, 

F, does not constitute a part of the washer 
proper, but is used in rinsing to prevent the 
spattering of water, and the spout, Q, is at- 
tached to a cleat to receive a wringer, the water 
presed from the clothes being conducted by 
the spout back into the boiler. It is claimed 




A COMBINATION WASHER AND BOILER. 



sufficient growth to distinguish the weeds from 
the grass, the former are carefully plucked out. 
The grass is allowed to attain a pretty strong 
growth before the first cutting, but is afterward 
cut more frequently ; this frequent cutting 
stimulating a root growth, which finally produ- 
ces a compact sod. When this is secured the 
lawn mower is run over them every week — in 
many cases, oftener; and tliey are thus worked 
down to a clean, soft, velvety surface. Mean- 
while, the daily supply of ample irrigation pro- 
motes a vigorous growth of grass, and gives to 
it that rich, deep green, which is so refresting 
to the beholder. 

The reader will perhaps say, "Why, anybody 
could produce a fine lawn in that way." Very 
true; and it is just what anybody who owns a 
plot of ground near their residences ought to 
do. The owners of fine residences in San 
Francisco have surrounded them with lawns 
which cannot be surpassed; and there are also 
many of the smaller dwellings and cottages 
that have their tasteful little lawns, which cause 
the passer-by to slacken his pace and bestow 
upon them a "longing, lingering look." There 
should be many more of these pretty lawns. They 
would attach people to their homes — a most 
important point to be gained in social advance- 
ment — they would greatly add to the attractions 
and even the healthfulness of the city, and 
would materially enhance the value of real 
estate. 

A LATE telegram from Prestcott says the 
Hnalapai Indians, who were compelled by an 
Indian agent to leave their ancient home in the 
mountains and move to a reservation in the 
Colorado bottom, are not thriving. They are 
unable to cultivate the land, their horses are 
dying, and they are sickly and miserable. They 
protested earnestly against the transfer, and 
the military officers, who were familiar with 
their mode of hfe, predicted that the change 
would be disastrous. 

The tornado season has commenced in the 
East, and the destruction of life and property 
thus far reported is most appalling. Houses 
Sy the hundreds have been unroofed, crops 
dwtroyed, trees torn up by the roots, and 
people killed and maimed by scores. Truly 
these visitations are a hundred-fold worse than 
\ earth qt:.akes. 



that this is a labor and time saving machine, 
while its operation will not injure the slightest 
fabric. It is operated by merely vibrating a 
crank, and the garments may be washed, rinsed 
and wrung ready for the line almost without 
wetting the fingers. 

It is constructed entirely of metal so as to be 
durable, and as there is no shrinkage or warp- 
age which would cause a necessity for repairs, 
the Combination Washer and Boiler presents 
several features peculiar to itself, among which 
is the gripper motion over a corrugated surface, 
the nearest approach to the old process by 
hand. It supplies, in one article, the place of 
♦hree hitherto indispensable articles in every 
horisehold — the boiler, the tub and the wash- 
boai-i. Por further information in regard to 
price, rights, etc., address Mrs. Mary A. 
Barnes, Qlympia, W. T. 

The CiNcirAjixi Industrial Exposition. — 
We have receivtj a copy of the report of the 
Board of Commias-nners of the fourth Cincin- 
nati Industrial Exposition of 1873, also the pre- 
mium list for the eioosition of 1874, both of 
which are fine spt^imejia of workmanship. 
The Commissioners ,i)i please accept our 
thanks with our best wi.hes for the success of 
their approaching exposjjon, which will be 
open to the public on Weu^esday, September 
2d, and continue until Saturiny^ October 3d. 

Longevity of Trees.— From ^^ article by 
Elias Lewis, on the longevity >/ trees, pub- 
lished in the Popular Science Months, for' July 
1873, we learn the following facts of v,e great- 
est age of trees: 

"■EAUB. 

Palms 500 

White Pine 130 

Wadsworth Oak, Genneesee, N. Y •.,) 

Cowthorpo Oak, England 1,81) 

Oak at Sttiutea, France 2,C0O 

Chestnut, Tertworth, England 1,000 

Linden, Wurtemburg, Germany 1,000 

Evergreen Cypress, Spain 800 

Cedar of Lebanon 1,200 

Cypress of Montezuma, Mexico '2,000 

Cypress of Santa Maria del Tule 4,024? 

AnkerwyUe House Yew, England 1,100 

Brabene Churchyard Yew 2,BO0V 

Sequoias, California 2,000? 

Baobab, Africa 3,000 

According to this, 500 years may be reckoned 
the longest life of a trco in the United States 
east of the rocky mountains. 



The Day We Celebrated. 

San Francisco came out into the street on the 
Fourth accompanied by all her children, young, 
old and middle aged, and celebrated in an ex- 
tremely becoming manner the 98th anniver- 
sary of American Independence. In most 
parts of the country "weather permitting" is 
the great contingent upon which a successful 
celebration depends; but here in California no 
consideration is given to the weather. It 
is known beforehand that the day will be fine, 
and no postponement on account of the 
weather is ever necessitated here. Hence it is 
that the steryotyped phrase "the weather was 
all that could be desired," with which the ac- 
counts of public celebrations and out-door fes- 
tivities are generally introduced, is never used 
in California. The only evidence of anxiety 
on this point was a general hope expressed by 
our citizens, that the wind would not blow 
quite as hard on the Fourth as it had blown on 
many of the preceding days. 

These hopes were fulfilled; for the usually 
hoodlumish San Francisco wind conducted it- 
self in a very becoming manner throuahont 
the entire day, and people could open their ad- 
miring eves to look upon the passing proces- 
sion without having them filled with dust. 
And it was a display worthy the commendation 
which it universally received. Judgment and 
taste were manifested in arranging the pro- 
gramme, and it was carried out successfully. 
One of the points in the arrangement of the 
line of march of the procession was that each 
band of music should play the Star Spangled 
Banner as it passed by the Lick House, in 
honor of James Lick, for his munificent appro- 
priation for the erection of a statue to the 
memory of the author of this glorious national 
hymn. 

Considering the immense turn - out, the 
amount of powder burned, and the general 
character of the celebration, the day passed ofi' 
in a remarkably quiet manner; accompanied 
with but few accidents, and those of only a 
trifling character. No disturbance occurred in 
the streets, and the oases of drunkenness were 
remarkably few. 

The police did well, though there was, ap- 
parently, but little need of their presence; but 
this verv absence of occasion for their active 
service is proof of their efficiency. There was, 
however, one local annoyance particularly per- 
ceptible in the crowded streets on that day; an 
annoyance which no police force can do away 
with. We allude to the absence of all order 
among pedestrians while passing along the 
streets. In all other large cities the pedestri- 
ans, the steadily moving currents of passing 
crowds, confine themselves to distinct and 
never-conflicting courses; always bearing to the 
right; one curient on the inner edge of the 
sidewalk, the other bearing toward the curb- 
stone. But here all system is ignored; and a 
man in passing along the sidewalk of our prin- 
cipal streets is here, there and everywhere 
while walking— or rather capering — the distance 
of a block. Some of the jostling scenes en- 
acted here could not be excelled in their ludi- 
crousness by anything represented on the bur- 
lesque stage of the city. On every Saturday 
evening Kearny street, especially, is but a stage, 
and all the men and women and Chinamen 
there are merely players. Possibly the dread 
of being suspected of following after the cities 
of the East induces San Franrisco pedestrian- 
ism to continue in this primitive state, and to 
set its face against anything like street 
etiquette. 

From our exchanges and the press generally, 
reports come of the Fourth having been cele- 
brated with unusual enthusiasm in all parts of 
the country. 

Nash's Grain Separator. — A good and re- 
liable grain separator is one of the essentials 
to the complete outfit of a farm. By refer- 
ence to our advertising columns it will be 
seen that Nash, Miller & Co., of Sacramento, 
ofier one which has been thoroughly tested 
and proven on this coast ; and we believe that 
it was the only machine that took the first 
premium at the State Fairs at Sacramento, 
for 1870, '71, '72, and '73. It is claimed that 
since the introduction of these machines up- 
wards of 1,000 of them have been sold. It 
is said to work clean, well and with little 
trouble; which ends are gained not only by 
the principles involved in its construction, 
but also from the special care taken to put 
nothing into it but the best of well seasoned 
lumber. 



Several expeditions have been sent out to 
explore the Black Hills country, but they have 
all had more or less trouble with the Sioux In- 
dians, and been compelled to return without 
having accomplished that object. The force 
that has just started out, under General Custar, 
from Minnesota, will cross the alkali plains of 
Dakota, and on reaching the Black Hills will 
'ake a thorough topographical survey of that 
'^'^derful region, which is said to abound in 
pret.,^g metals. 



says: 



i^joo Northern Enterprise of Saturday 
ys. ill harvest on the Reavis farm has be- 
gun m eai..,gt Nearly 4,000 acres of grain 
^ be cut, an 1, ^f jj jg „( ^ promise. Mr. 
Reayis gijes h. go„^, attention to the pros- 
ecution of the ^r^ employing from 60 to 75 
men, besides nun. j^^^ ^ 



26 



[July II, 1874- 



ISCELLi^NEOJs. 



Etching Iron. 

Prof. Kick, in Prague, has devoted much 
time and attention to studying the subject of 
etching iron with acids. This method is not a 
new one for arriving at a knowledge of the 
— quality of iron or Bteel, having been used with 
"rsome success for a long time. Some kinds of 
iron exhibit what is known as the passive state, 
and are unacted upon by acids until this state 
has been destroyed by heating; another disad- 
•11 vantage was that the surfaces thus prepared 
.; were inclined to rust very soon. After a series 
of experiments with nitric, sulphuric and hydro- 
chloric acids, and etching solutions of copper 
salts. Prof. Kick found that a mixture of equal 
parts of hydrochloric acid and water, to which 
was added a trace of chloride of antimony, was 
the best etching solution. The chloride of an- 
timony seems to render the iron less inclined 
to rust, so that, after washing thoroughly in 
warm water, and applying a coat of Damar var- 
nish, the etched surface may be preserved quite 
clean. The smooth surface that is to be etch- 
ed is snrrounded with a ridge of wax an inch 
high, as is done in etching copper plates, and 
the acid is poured into the disc thus formed. 
At a temperature of 55 to 65 degs. F. the ac- 
tion soon begins as shown by the gas evolved; 
,,oili winter the etching is poor. The time re- 
, quired is usually one to two hours, but the 
etching should go on until the texture is visible. 
Every half hour the acid can be poured oflf 
iiWithout removing the wax, the carbon rinsed 
/(...off and the surface examined. If too much 
shloride of antimony is added to the acid, a 
black precipitate will soon form, which can 
easily be distinguished from the carbon. One 
drop of chloride of antimony to the quart of 
acid is suflBcient. When theetching is finished, 
the wax rim is removed, the iron washed first 
in water containing a little alkali, then in clean 
water, brushed, dried and varnished. If in a 
few hours it begins to rust, the varnish should 
be removed with turpentine, which will also 
take off the rust, and then varnish again. The 
appearance of different kinds of iron when 
etched is essentially as follows: Soft or sinewy 
wrought iron of excellent quality is attacked so 
equally by the acid, and so little carbon is sep- 
arated, even after Sfveral hours' action, that 
the surface remains bright and smooth. Fine 
grained iron acts the same; the surface is still 
smoother, but a little darker. Coarse grained 
and cold short iron is attacked much more vio- 
lently by acid than the above. In 10 minutes, 
especially with the latter, the surface is black. 
After thirty minutes a black slime can be 
washed off, and the surface will remain black 
in spite of repeated washings, and exhibits nu- 
merous little holes. Certain parts of the iron 
are usually eaten deeper, while others, although 
black and porous, offer more resistance. By 
allowing the acid to act for an hour or so, then 
f^washing, drying and polishing with a file, a dis- 
,,tinot picture is obtained. Malleable cast iron, 
we know, rusts more easily than wrought iron, 
and it is interesting to know that the action of 
, acids is also violent, the surface being attacked 
j;yery violently. In puddled steel the color, af- 
.^ ter etching and washing, is gray, with quite a 
uniform shade, and the lines are scarcely visi- 
ble. Cement steel h.is a very similar appear- 
ance, the lines being very weak. In Bessemer 
and cast steel the etched surfaces are of a per- 
fectly uniform gray color, with few, if any, un- 
even places. The softer the steel the lighter 
the color. On etching, the finest hair-like f rac- 
., tures are rendered prominent. A piece of steel, 
which looked perfect bffora etching, afterward 
exhibited a hair-like fracture throughout its 
whole length. Gray pig iron acts like steel ; 
the etched surfaces have quite a uniform gray 
color. When different kinds of iron are mixed 
the acid attacks that for which it has the great- 
er affinity, while the other is less acted upon 
than if it were alone. Etching also enables us 
to determine with considerable accuracy the 
method of preparing the iron, as in case of rails, 
M well as the kitads employed. — Iron Age. 



Preseeving Ibon. — Experiments on the pre- 
servation of iron surfaces show the advantages 
of coating such surfaces with heavy mineral 
oil. The action of the oil is said to be two- 
fold. It is detergent when freely and vigor- 
. ously brushed over an already msted surface, 
jl seemingly loosening the bulk of the rust, while 
it also darkens that which remains; and it like- 
wise acta as a varnish, if applied after the 
cleansing has been effected, or to new and 
bright work. Its superiority to vegetable or 
animal oils depends upon the fact that the bulk 
of the oil in the latter case evaporates, and 
leaves only a very fine film behind. If the oil 
is light, and fully refined, it evaporates so com- 
pletely as to do but little good; but if tinged, 
or "once-run" oil of sufficiently high gravity be 
used, the resinous or carbonaceous matter 
which gives the tinge to the oil remains behind, 
and forms a thin, protecting film of varnish. 
Ordinary varnish leaves far too thick and ob-, 
vious a film, while the film of the once-run o' 
does its work of protection without display'^ 
itself. As regards the density of the oi',''*' 
quired for this purpose , that which star-? "?" 
tween burning oil and good lubricatip"°'' ^^ 
found to be the best. — Tec/tTio/ogisi. 



Preservinh Wood with Tannii " 



»„„., '^ consid- 
eration of the viirious material, j'f*" "liapted 
for preserving wood, leads Hat'^.'*^ *° conclude 
that substances containing t-*"*'" *'« '""^ best 
preservatives. 



Making Match-Sticks. 

The process of cutting small, round sticks 
used for matches is an interesting one, and in 
writing this description we shall endeavor to 
make it clear to the reader in as simple lan- 
guage as possible. It must be borne in mind 
that making match-sticks is one branch of busi- 
ness—applying the composition another. After 
the pine logs are reduced to plank, the next 
operation is to cut them into blocks four and 
five inches in length, by means of small circu- 
lar saws. They are then assorted by boys, pre- 
paratory to being fastened to the great wheels, 
to be cut into match-sticks. Pine slabs, ob- 
tained from the sawmills, to manufacture 
blocks, are found to answer the purpose well, 
as the lumber in them is of the best quality. 
In thus utilizing the refuse lumber there is 
great saving. Few people have a correct idea 
how match-sticks are made. In the first place, 
there is an immense wheel, 20 feet in diameter, 
with two six-feet faces or breasts, much re- 
sembling an old-fashioned " overshot" water- 
wheel, on which these blocks are fastened in 
rows by means of clamps or screws. The ma- 
chinery is of such a powerful character that the 
frame-work on which this ponderous wheel is 
hung, is composed of heavy oak timbers, 
12 by 16 inches, resting on a solid stone foun- 
dation, 25 feet by 12, and 5Vt feet deep, laid in 
cement. The necessity for such a firm founda- 
tion will be readily seen, when the reader is 
informed that this wheel makes 21 revolutions 
in a minute, and must not vary a hair's breadth 
in its motion. The face of the wheel being 
"loaded" with blocks, the process of cutting 
the sticks is commenced. A rest, similar to an 
iron lathe, is placed in front of the breast of 
the wheel, which is moved right or left, on the 
lathe principle, by means of screws, etc., on 
which a number of small steel cutters, with 
holes like an eyelet, are fastened. These cut- 
ters are adjusted so as to face the blocks, and 
as the wheel revolves, each one cuts a splint 
out of the wood, and drops it below. There 
are 16 of these cutters, or punch-like chisels to 
each wheel, and the number may be increased 
to 32, if necessary. The principle upon which 
the match-stick is made iS'the same as that 
used in olden time for making rake-teeth 
round, which consisted in driving a piece of 
wood through a steel tool, having a hole in it 
with sharp edges. In this case the large re- 
volving wheel serves as the propelling power, 
and forces the faces of the blocks, that are 
securely fastened to its outer surface, through 
the small steel eyelet-like hole in the end 
of the tool, and a splint is cut out almost 
with the rapidity of lightning, and dropped 
below. The machine is so perfectly adjusted, 
and works with such exact minuteness, that it 
cuts 100 splints from every solid inch of tim- 
ber — no more, no less. This fact has been 
demonstrated. The delicate cutting tools are 
moved horizontally at right angles with the face 
of the wheel, by a screw which moves the row 
of cutters exactly the thickness of a match- 
stick, from left to right, at each revolution of 
the large wheel. Each pair of cutters has a 
section of blocks to pass through, six, eight to 
ten inches, as the case may be, which, when 
performed, the tender, by the turn of a small 
wheel, brings them back to the starting point, 
sets the cutters by the turn of another small 
wheel, and they start again across the breast of 
the large wheel. As the round splints are cut 
out of the face of the block, it assumes a corru- 
gated appearance, not unlike the face of an 
ordinary washboard, and when the machine 
starts on the next cut, the projections, forming 
one-half of the splint, are cut out, thus alter- 
nating the corrugations. The two machines 
thus in operation will cut 24 gross of sticks 
(7,200 to the gross), per minute, with 16 cutters 
to each, or, in the aggregate, 172,800 per min- 
ute, 10,368,000 per hour, or 103,680,000 perdar 
of 10 hours. 

[To be continued.] 

Lacqueb. — It has been generally supposed 
that the beauty of Japan lacquer v<jrk was due 
to ingredients derived from un^io'^'^ plants, 
and that the secret was confi^^" t° ^n® Ori- 
ental workmen. Keeentl" however, in Hol- 
land, objects of art havp been produced, lac- 
quered and covered with mother-of-pearl, in 
pieces fac simiks of tho8«- made in .Japan. The 
lacquer used is prepO'sd from the hardest 
varieties of gum cw®'. principally that of 
Zanzibar, which is -olored black with India 
ink. The articles "f^ covered with several lay- 
ers of this substpice, upon which, while still 
wet, or rather pasty, the mother-of-pearl is 
inlaid. Dryi)^ ^^ * furnace follows, another 
coat of laco-*"^ ^? applied, then more drying 
and 8moot'"'8 ^^^ pounce. These operations 
are reper**^ until the surfaces are perfectly 
united. '''^.*™''°'^' ■"lien » Aoal polish is given 
with 'ipoli- — The Engineer. 



Facts and Fancies about Heat. 



Sound. — In a paper on the duration of the 
(Sensation of sound. Prof. Mayer said that ex- 
periment proved that the residual sensation 
only occupied one five-hundredth of a second 
in the case of 40,000 vibrations per second; but 
in the case of forty vibrations to a second, the 
residual vibration was one-eleventh of a second. 
He concludes that the whole ear vibrates as 
one mass, and the durations of these oscilla- 
tions of the whole ear are far too short to re- 
main one-thirtieth of a second. He thinks that 
this explains our inability to distinguish the 
actual pitch of sound when that pitch exceeds 
certain well known limits. 



Our scientific contemporaries, upon whose 
knowledge we hang as lovingly as the infatuated 
and blind Cupid hangs upon the neck of Venus, 
will persist in belittling onr stupendous globe 
by instituting comparisons of an odious char- 
acter. Professor Proctor made us feel much 
smaller than a Liliputian gnat ; and now Pro- 
fessor Langley, of the Alleghany Observatory, 
cites us as the representative of coal and iron, 
before his glowing and calorific majesty. King 
Sol. The Professor says, in answer to the 
question, "How hot is the sun?" that Sir 
John Herschell and Father Secchi place it at at 
least 10,000,000 degrees of Fahrenheit, while 
Sir William Thompson thinks it is something 
near thirty or forty times as hot as one of our 
blasting furnaces, which vaporizes a small por- 
tion of the iron it renders, while the aggregate 
amount of iron which annually passes out of 
the Pittsburg chimneys in the vaporized state, 
may be estimated at 5,000 tons. This would 
appear to bo a great waste, but when we come 
to compare it with that of the great furnace of 
the sun, whose fire-grato area is reckoned not 
in yards, but in square miles, of which its sur- 
face includes 2,300,000,000,000, is a very small 
affair. The learned gentleman then proceeds 
to show that, as a calculation of the exact 
amount of heat given out from a furnace of 
known size can easily be made; so, likewise, 
can we calculate accurately how long a given 
amount of coal will last. Comparing the sun 
to such a furnace, we ascertain the area; and 
adopting a probable value for the rate of emis- 
sion, it becomes a simple problem in practical 
engineering to determine how long a given 
quantity of coal would last if burned at 
its surface at the rate of combustion which 
would just maintain this known heat. A care- 
ful computation based upon the above 
hypothesis shows that the entire coal fields of 
Pennsylvania would keep up the actual solar 
heat not an entire second. The amount of fuel 
required to keep up the everlasting combustion 
that gives off the heat that even our little globe 
enjoys is inconceivable. — Coal and Iron Record. 



The Moon and Vegetation. — A correspon- 
dent writes: " It is a popular belief among the 
mass of farmers that the influence of the moon 
has an important bearing upon various young 
plants as they happen to come forth either in 
her light, as full moon, etc., or in her wane. 
This idea is ridiculed and entirely disbelieved 
by what are called the most intelligent and 
scientific farmers. Is it not a fact that the light 
of the full moon on a young plant just come 
forth would have some effect on it, different 
from the darkness which prevails in the moon's 
absence, and do not these tender plants require 
extra sleep, as an infant does ? And in the 
absence of it, does it not essentially change 
their character and production?" When the 
moon is shining, the clouds are wholly or in a 
great part absent, and the effect of the absence 
of clouds becomes very evident when a ther- 
mometer is placed in the focus of a silvered 
mirror and turned towards the unclouded sky. 
The thermometer falls with great rapidity, its 
heat being radiated out into the abysses of 
space, which are estimated to have a tempera- 
ture vastly below the zero of our thermometric 
scale. When a cloud passes between the 
mirror and the sky, the thermometer rises 
rapidly, the loss of heat being interrupted. 
The clouds act like a woolen blanket, prevent- 
ing the escape of heat. Now what the ther- 
mometer is in this experiment, so in nature is 
the plant. On a moonlight (cloudless or partly 
clouded) night, it may radiate so much heat 
that injury may arise to its tender organization. 
The Earl of Kosse's great telescope has detected 
the best radiated by the moon, out it is an in- 
credibly minute quantity, and can have no 
effect on vegetation. — Scientific American. 



Naphthaline.— A recent English patent re- 
lates to the application of naphthaline. 1. As 
a substitute for sulphur, wax, resin or other 
inflammable materials used for dipping or im- 
pregnating matches and firelighters. 2. As an 
addition to the phosphorus paste in which the 
ends of wax and other matches are dipped. 3. 
To increase the inflammability of candles, 
tapers, links and torches. 4. For burning in 
lamps in the form of a hollow candle, provided 
with an independent wick and double air cur- 
rent, the flame serving to melt the solid naphth- 
aline to feed the wick. Naphthaline is a white 
crystallizable substance evolved by the distilla- 
tion of bituminous coal. When crystallized it 
is a very delicate film, yielding to the gentlest 
touch, yet, under favorable circumstances, it 
compacts and is capable of considerable resist- 
ance. It has a peculiar, faintly aromatic odor, 
not unlike narcissus; is heavier than water, and 
is readily dissolved by naphtha. 



Spcbious Coins. — It seems that science is 
impartial in conferring her favors. Counter- 
feiters and philanthropists make equal pro- 
gress. Lately a new imitation has appeared in 
England, as we learn from the Ironmonger. 
That paper says: We regret to find it necessary 
to caution our readers against taking spurious 
gold coin, as it appears ihat the usual tests of 
musical ring, milled edge, or even weight, are 
no longer reliable tests. That "all is not gold 
that glitters" is now clearly demonstrated, for 
scientific roguery has now so far advanced that 
tokens of platinum alloy are being produced so 
exactly resembling the precious metal as to 
deceive the most careful and experienced busi- 
ness men. So close, indeed, is the imitation, 
that a specimen taken recently by a London 
tradesman was only suspected on clipping the 
edge, and specimens, being shown to the offi- 
cials at the Bank of England, were put through 
the ordinary tests and admitted to be perfect 
in form and weight. The discovery is anything 
but pleasant, and the natural question arises — 
How are we to guard against such scientific 
smashing? 



Ozone. — That ozone is not oxygen is proved 
by the contrast in some of their properties. 
Oxygen has no taste, ozone tastes, as one writer 
expresses it, like lobster, and might make the 
fortune of some enterprising caterer who should 
provide it cheaply as an adjunct of salad. Oxy- 
gen has no smell; ozone smells like — , well," 
we will leave that to the imagination of the 
reader — not like heliotrope or rose. Oxygen 
has no action on gases, ammonia, phosphorett- 
ed hydrogen or muriatic acid, in its free state in 
the atmosphere; ozone acts strongly upon all 
these. Ozone colors litmus paper, rums In- 
dia rubber, tarnishes silver, bleaches; which 
are not powers of simple oxygen as it is found 
in the atmosphere. Dr. Andrews, who has 
inade a study of it, says it is more than three 
times as heavy as oxygen, a difficult fact to 
prove. It colors metals with great force and 
rapidity, changes black to white in a compound 
of lead, yellow to red in a compound of potas- 
sium. It polarizes gold and platinum. In- 
deed, new experiments are revealing more 
properties of this energetic influence, and the 
scientific societies have in each meeting more 
wonderful things to say of \i.—Petienkoffer. 

FrsiNO Pencil Drawings.— It is sometimes 
very desirable to fix delicate pencil or crayon 
drawings, and various methods have been sug- 
geste-i for the purpose of effecting this. Besin- 
ous varnishes are favorites with some people; 
the editor of the XeTVs advises the use of collo- 
dion, but these, although scientific and elegant, 
are troublesome and not always readily pro- 
cured. One writer recommends the use of 
saliva, but this is filthy and disagreeable. A 
quarter of a century ago we were taught by our 
old drawing-master to fix pencil drawings by 
means of skim-milk, and this simple and easily- 
procured article leaves nothing to be desired. 
The milk must be thoroughly skimmed and 
freed from cream, or oily spots will make their 
appearance on the paper. The best mode of 
applying it is by means of a camel-hair brush, 
but a soft sponge or rag may be used where 
such a brush is not at hand. — /ndusfriai 
Monthly. ■ . 

Linseed Oil. — Linseed oil is obtained from 
flaxseed, by grinding the same under heavy 
stones, set on edge and made to revolve on 
beds of stone. Attached to the edge stone are 
scrapers, which throw the seed into the circu- 
lar track of the roller. The ground seed is 
placed in strong, woven woolen bags, which 
bags are covered with mats made of horse hair 
and sole leather, of a proper and sufficient 
width to protect the bags in the operation of 
pressing. These mats with their contents are 
subjected to an immense hydraulic pressure, 
and the expressed oil flows off into large iron 
tanks, where it is allowed to settle. What re- 
mains in the bags after the pressure, is known 
as oil cake. About 8,000,000 gallons of linseed 
oil are used annually in the United States. 



Flame. — W. Stein has published a criticism 
of Frankland's statements concerning the illum- 
inating power of flames. Frankland, abandon- 
ing the old theory of incandescent carbon 
particles, suggests that the illuminating power 
of flames is owing to very condensed vapors of 
hydrocarbons. The author of this article brings 
forward a number of known facts in support of 
the old hypothesis. 

Tblujbium. — On the side of a piece of arsen- 
ical pyrites, Harmay observed a metallic sub- 
stance between which and the pyrites were a 
few scales resembling specular iron, but of a 
brownish color. The metallic-looking suHtance 
proved to be tellurium, and the intermediate 
mineral a tellnrium sulpharseuate. 



Sharpening Eazobs.— The following item is 
from onr valued exchange, the Newark Manu- 
facturer, on whose authority we reproduce it : 
It is said that the simplest method of sharpen- 
ing a razor is to put it for half an hour in water 
to which one-twentieth of its weight of muriatic 
or sulphuric acid has been added, then lightly 
wipe it off, and after a few hours set it on a 
hone. The acid here supplies the place of a 
whetstone by corroding the whole surface 
uniformly, so that nothing further than a 
smooth polish is necessary. The process never 
injures good blades, while badly hardened ones 
ar« frequently improved b/ it. 

Spontaneous Combustion of Hat. — From 
the observations and experiments of Prof. 
Ranke, it appears that the charcoal resulting 
from partial combustion of hay is pyrophoric, 
but under what conditions the hay can so in- 
crease in temperature as to form this charcoal, 
has not been established. Fermentation doubt- 
loss produ<*s the heat, which cannot be dissi- 
pated, oving to the bad conducting power of 
the maferial. 

Water-Proof Cement. — Soak plaster of Paris 
ir a concentrated solution of alum, then dry it 
<tnd bake in an oven at such a heat as is used 
to change gypsum or alabaster into plaster of 
Paris; then grind to powder and use with water 
like plaster. It is white, but may of course be 
colored; sets very quick, becomes very hard, so 
as to take a high polish, and is nearly as cheap 
as plaster of Paris. — Manufacturer and Builder, 



July II, 1874.1 



27 




RANCHOS 
FOR SALE ON A LONG TIME. 



The "JTJEUPA EANOHO," situated on both sides of 
the Santa Ana River, between Anaheim (Los Angeles 
county) and the town of San Bernardino, containing 
35,717 acres, of which a large proportion is level and 
adapted to grain, general agriculture, grapes, semi- 
tropical fruits, etc. The famous "Riverside Colony," 
founded by Judge North, embraces a portion of the 
east end of this Rancho. 

Also, for sale, the Kancho "LA SIERRA SEPUL- 
VIDA," adjoining on the southeast, and containing 
17,769 acres. 

The Southern Overland Railroad will necessarily pass 
through or very near the Jarupa Rancho. Apply to 
AliFRED ROBINSON, Trustee. 
542 MARKET STREET, 

ap25-tf N. E. Cor. Montgomery. 



FARM FOR SALE. 

1 Q5 A. ores X mile from the town of Windsor ; 1 mile 
from depot; iH miles from the famous Russian river. 
The place is beautifully situated ; land all level, divided 
into three fields well improved. Good house of nme 
rooms and closets : good barn and outhouses ; good orchard 
of superior fruit; vineyard i2 years old. ad abundance 
of soft water; land well adapted to grain and vegetables; 
about 2,500 cords of black oak timber; and wood brings 
SA per cord at depot. Three and one-half hours ride from 
San Francisco, on line of N. P. R. R. Title, United States 
patent. For particulars apply to JOSKPH DIMMIOK 
P. 0. Box 22, Windsor, Sonoma Co., or to Dewey & Oo., 
San Francij»co, Oal. Pi ice, f iO per acre. apl8-tf 



FOR SALE. 



A splendid HOP RANCH, In one of the best valleys 
in the State; good dry-house and machinery; about 
thirty acres of hops in good condition. Will be sold 
at a bargain; terms to suit. 



apl8-tf 



P. H. SUMNER, 
329 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



FOR SALE. 
100 Acres of Grood l^and, 

ONE-FOURTH MILE FROM ST. HELENA. 

A portion of the land suitable for Hops; the remainder 
good for grain or fruit. All fenced and in cultiva- 
tion . Cheap and on reasonable terms. 
14T7-tf P. H. StTMNER. 



DAIRY RANCH FOR SALE, 

Near San Luis Obispo, well stocked and fenced, with 
fine improvements. Plenty of wood and water. 

Apply to T. H. HATCH & CO., 

320 Front street, San Francisco. 

Or, R. M. PRESTON, Old Creek, San Luis Obispo. 
20v7-3m 



Buy Real Estate while at Low Rates. 

NINE WATER-FRONT LOTS, CHEAP, 
On Gift Map 4, 
Forming about half of a block fronting on the broad 
ship channel of Islais Creek; will be sold so low as to 
make it an inducement to the buyer. Inquire for the 
owner. Room 18, No. 338 Montgomery St., 8. F. bptf 



LEA. «fe I»EK,I«.I1VS» 



-CELEBRATED — 



FARMING LAND, 

TO IjEA.se OIV 8HA.R.ES. 

1,000 ACRES, 

Or any part of same, being levied and of similar char- 
acter to that of SHERMAN ISLAND. Apply to 
W. T. S. RYER, 
No. 330 Pine street San Francisco, Cal. 



POISON ! 

WAKELEES 



POISON ! 
PATENTED 



Worcestershire Sauce 



316 California Street, 



- SAN FRANCISCO. 



Granulated Squirrel Exterminator. 

A NEW AND MOST DESTRUCTIVE POISON FOR 
THE WORST PEST OF CALIFORNIA. 

For years the farmers of the Pacific Coast have been 
spending money in experimenting to find a safe, cheap 
and efiBcient way of ridding their grain-fields of their 
worst enemy, |THE squirrels, which destroy Millions of 
Dollars' worth of grain every year; and unless a strong 
and combined efi'ort is made to kill them off, they will 
become more numerous every year. 

Wakelee's Granulated Squirrel Exterminator 

Is just the thing the farmers of California have been 
looking for. It is sure death. One or two grains of 
it will kill a Squirrel so quick that if it is five feet 
from his hole It dies before it gets there. The Poison 
is put up DET and in granular form, and easily han- 
dled; in one pound tins, at $1 per pound. It goes a 
great way, as 10 to 16 grains of it are sufficient to 
place at each hole. Also successfully used for killing 
Gophers and Rats. It has been thoroughly tested in 
different parts of the country, and gave universal satis- 
faction. It is kept and sold by druggists and dealers 
generally through the cotintry. The following are 
some of my testimonials, viz. : 

Santa Clara, April 20th, 1874. 
H. P. Wakelee, EB(i ;— Your Squirrel Exterminator was 
used according to your directions, on my Quito Farm with 
excellent success, and in my estimation is just the thing 
the farmers want to kill their Squirrels. 

J. R. Arguello. 

San Leandro, Cal., April 3d. IS74. 
H. P. Wakelee, EaQ.-/Mir s/r.- I nave given your 
Squirrel Exterminator a fair wial and tind it to be an 
eoonomlcal and very destructivt preparation, and I can 
safely recommend it to our farmers. Yours, 

J. M. ESTODILLO. 

Dougherty Station. Alameda Co., Oal. 
Mb. H. p. Wakelee, San Francisco; I have used your 
Squirrel Poison and found it to be just w^»at you claim for 
it. It Is sure death. Yours, O. M, Dodoherty. 





Declared by Connois- 
seurs to be the only good 
SADOE. 

Caution Against Fraud. 

The success of this most 

delicious and unrivalled 

Condiment having caused certain dealers to 

^ __ . apply the name of "Worcestershire Sauce" 

&^£5| to their own inferior compounds, the pub- 

" lie is hereby informed that the only way 

to secure the gentiino is to ask for LEA & 
PERRINS' SAUCE, and see that their names 
are upon the wrapper, labels, stopper and 
bottle. 

Some of the foreign markets having been 
supplied with a spurious Worcestershire 
Sauce, upon the wrapper and labels of which the names 
of Lea & Perrins have been forged, L. & P. give notice 
that they have furnished their correspondents with 
power of attorney to take instant proceedings against 
manufacturers and vendors of such, or any other imi- 
tations by which their right may be infringed. 

Ask for LEA h PERRINS' Sauce, and see name on 
wrapper, label, bottle and stopper. 

Wholesale and for export by the Proprietors, Worces- 
ter; Crosse h Blackwell, London, &c., &c., and by 
Grocers and Oilmen universally. 
Iv8.1y 



The S<«-wingj' Mla^chine 

— FOB THE — 

GRANGERS. 

^0 COMBINATION! NO MONOPOLY! 



^Thfl Hew Inproved rLOIlENCE.x 

Qide Feed and Back Feed. 

'^Agency established on the Pacific 
Coast in 186.3. Tbe Ughtcot ran- 
II In;;, most simple, and most easily 
operated Sewing Machine in the 
Klarket. Always in order and ready 
for work. If there is a Florence 
Sewing machine within one thou- 
sand miles of San Francisco not 
working well I will fix it without 
any Expense to the owner. Samuel 
Hill, Agent, 19 New Montgomery 
Street, (irand Hotel Building. 
San Francisco. 



W- 



ling,^'^ 



Bir. I. G. Gardner, State Agent for the California 
Granges, is authorized to make liberal terms to all 
Grangers who 'purchase the FLORENCE. No combina- 
tion against favoring the Grangers has ever been joined 
by Florence Agents. 

SAMUEL HUjL, General Agent. 
18v7-3m 



ARE YOU GOING 
TO PAINT ? 

THEN USE THE BEST. 



THE AVERILL CHEMICAL PAINT 

WILLLAST THREE TIMES AS LONG as the best lead 
and oil, without CHALKING; is of any desired color. 
It is prepared for immediate application, requiring no 
Oil, Thinner or Drier, and does not spoil by standing 
any length of time. It is equally as gooi' for inside as 
outside work; over old work as well as new; in fact, 
where any paint can be used the AVERILL CHEMICAL 
PAINT will be found superior to any other. Any one 
oan apply it who can use a brush, which truly makes it 
the FARMER'S FRIEND. 

IT IS JUST THE PAINT FOR THE AGE. 
IT IS SOIiD BY THE GALLON ONLY. 

One gallon covers 20 square yards 2 coats. 

For further information send for sample card and 
price list. 

BLANUPACTUltED BY 

The Oalifornia Ohemical Paint Company. 

TYLER BEACH, Pres't. M. C. JEWELL, Sec'y. 

OIBce— Comer Fourth and Townsend streew, San 
Francisco. 16v7-eow-bp-3m 






H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINIL. 

Is unsurpassed for its efficacy in curing all for which 
it is recommended. All Lameness, Spavins, Oalloc^ 
Lumps and Blemishes of all kinds are speedily removed 
by it. WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop'rs. 

8y7-3in Stockton, Cal. 



Self-Fastening ' fcr::^ Double-Spiral 

Bed-Spring. Bed-Spring. 

We manufacture all sizes of BED and FURNITURE 
SPRINGS, from No. 7 to the smallest Pillow Spring; 
also, the Double Spiral Spring, which is the most dura- 
ble Bed Spring in use. It is adapted to upholstered or 
skeleton beds. We have the sole right in this State to 
make the celebrated Obermann Self-FasteniuR Bed 
Spring. Any man can make his own spring bed with 
them. They are particularly'adapted to Farmers' and 
Miners' use. Send for Circulars and Price List to 
WARNER & SILSBY, 

14v28-eow-bD-3m 147 New Montgomery St., S. F 



DAIRY PRODUCE 

OF THK 

CALIFORNIA STATE GRANGE, 

414 & 416 Sansome St., Gor. Commercial, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 

J. H. HEGLER, Manager. 



We are now prepared to handle and dispose of all 
Dairy Produce, Eggs and Poultry. 

This house is under the immediate control of the 
California State Grange; the Business Manager a thor- 
oughly practical farmer and dairyman. Master of Bodega 
Grange and General Deputy for California for the orga- 
nization of Granges in any part of California. Special 
rates to members of the Order; though any one may 
sell through our house and avail himself of our 
mode of doing business. 

In shipments give plainly the name and P. O. address. 
Any persons wishing legitimate information concerning 
our business should write to the house, and are cau- 
tioned against accepting for facts many rumors now 
current. All sales guaranteed. ja31-tf 



Shipping — Yessels L^ 



f^^^^BRYANT& STRATTON TT5l 

BUSINESS COLLEGE 

'.9&N^^FRANCISCn^ 

It educates practically. Its graduates are qualified 
lor business and enabled to fill lucrative situations at 
once. Its course of instruction Is adapted to all classes 
and all professions— to the farmer, mechanic, lawyer 
and physician, as well as to the man of business. It 
is just the school for young men or ladies, who wish 
to learn how to earn theu- own living and succeed in 
life. Pupils can enter at any time, as each receives 
separate Instruction. Sessions day and evening through- 
out the year For full partlcula,is call at the College, 
24 Post street, or address for circulars 

E. P. HEALD, 

2v6-tf President Business College, San Francisco . 



Napa Ladies' Seminary. 

The leit term will commence on TUESDAY, AUGUST 
4th, 1874. and continue for twenty-two weeks. This insti- 
tution offers thorough instruction in a qulot, iiealthfui 
location, easj' of access from any part of the State. 

Instructions in Piano forte, Guitar and Vocal music by a 
superior teacher. French tautjht by a oompeient teacher. 

It is very desirable that pupils should be present at the 
opening of School, althout^h tUev can enter at any time, 
and be charged from the time of entrance. For particu- 
lars of school apply to 

MISS. S. F. McDonald, Principal, 

Napa City, Cal. 

REFERENCES . 

Rev. R. Wylie, Napa; Hon. C!. Hartson, Nana; R. T. 
Montgomery, Esq., Napa; G. E. Goodman, Esq., Napa; D. 
Moolure, Esq., Napa; Rev. Dr. Goodbridgo, San Francisco; 
Rev. P. V. Veeder, Yokohama, Japan; Geo. K. Gluyas, 
Esq., San Francisco; James A. ''row, Esq., Stockton; R. 
O. Baldwin, Esq.. San Ramon ; J. R. McDonald, E^q., Gray- 
son ; .J. B. Urow, Esq., Hills Ferry; Rev. O. M. Blake, San 
Francisco; Major Snyder, Sonoma; S. Alstrom, Esq., 
White Sulphur Springs; Geo. L. Kenny, Esq., San Fran- 
o«co ; Hon. R. 0. Clark, baoramento. Iv8-3ra 



SAN JOSE INSTITUTE 

— AND — 

Buf^iness Collegre. 

The Twenty-Fifth Session commences July 
20th, 1874. 

A day and Boarding School for both sexes; the only 
Institute on the Pacific Coast where a thorough Aca- 
demic and business education can be obtained. 

The Business Colleg'e Department 

Is under the supervision of James Vinsonhaller, who 
for many years was at the head of Business Colleges of 
San Francisco. 

For circulars address 

26v7.3m JAMES VINSONHALLER. 



TIPTOIV &> BXJItTT'S 

MEDICINAL 

SHEEP PREPARATION, 

WARRANTED FREE FROM ALL POISON. 

A sure and positive cure for Scab, Ticks and Lioe> 
and a sure promotive of the growth of the wool. It has 
been used in Tehama County for the past two years, 
with most gratifying results, and we have the pleasure 
of referring to the following gentlemen as to its merits, 
viz.: H. A. Rawson, Jas. Gooch & Bro., J. W. Mont- 
gomery, J. Eby, Curtiss & Brown, H. Bosauka, Jos. 
Cone, J. W. Gate & Sons. 

It is a liquid and put up ready for use in 2^ gallon 
tins, four tins In a case. 

WHITTIER, FULLER & CO., Sole Agt's, 

21 Front street SAN FRANCISCO. 

28 K street SACRAMENTO . 

26T7-tf 



H, K. OUniMinQS. 

1868. 



B. H. BALSTON. 
1878. 



H^NRY K. CUMMiNGS & CO., 

Wholesale 2ruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

EEfTABLISHED 1868. 

No. 424 Battery stre», southeast corner of Washing 
ton, tan Francisco. 

Onr business being excusively Commission, we have 

o interests Uiat will confllO; with those of the producer. 

4v2biy 



FARMERS' LINE. 

FOR L O N D 0"n DIRECT 

THE MAGNIFICENT A 1 CLIPPER SHIP, 
IMCON JET A., 

621 Tons, 
W. SINCLAIR Master . 

FOR LIVERPOOL DIRECT. 

The magnificent A 1 Clipper Ship, 

SEA. •WITCH, 

1288 Tons, 

BAKER Master • 

These fine vessels have nearly full cargoes engaged 
and will have very quick dispatch. Freights taken in 
lots to suit shippers. 

Will be followed by the splendid A 1 Iron Ship 

gi^e;ivoa.r,iiy, 

1769 Tons, 
Due here In May; or by other first-class vessels. 

Liberal advances made on shipments of produce con- 
sfgned to our Liverpool house, Messrs. Robert Rodgers 
& Co. RODGERS, MEYER h 00. 
19Y7-3m 

IMPORTANT TO FARMERS! 



X Line to Liverpool. 

DIRECT. 
The New A 1 Clipper Ship 

FBIEDLANDER 1,638 tons register 

Is intended to sail with dispatch. 
Freight taken in lots to suit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 

THE A-LOEN 

Fruit Preserving Company 

OF C A I.I F O K sr I A , 

Is now prepared to sell rights and furnish the necessary 
machinery for using the "ALDEN PROCESS," ac- 
knowledged to be the best method known for 
preserving Fruits, Vegetables, Meats, etc. 

For full particulars call at^the company's 

Office— Room 5, 402 Montgomery St., S. F. 

G. W. DEITZLER, President. 
W. M. WHERRY, Vice-President. 
FRANK PYLE, Sec'y and Sup't. 
BANK OF OALIFORNIA, Treasurer. 
Ilv7-6ni 



FEED-CUTTER ROLLllRs 

Covered and made new in the best mani^j. •» ngQoi 
rates, at H. ROYER'S Belt Factory, 437 Bra, nan St. 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBARA, OAL. 

A Boarding School for Boys and Girls, offering all the 

advantages of a thorough modern education. French, 

German, .*^panlsh, Latin. Greek, Drawing, the Natural 

Sciences, Gymnastics and Dancing taught without extra 

charge Vocal and Instrumental Music receive particular 

attention. Pupils furnish only a pair of heavy blankets. 

Next term opens January 6th. 1874. 

Write for Catalogue to ELWOOD OOOPER, 

22t6-1t President Board of Directors. 



NOTICE. 



To Farmers and Grangers. 



LAIRD'S PATENT SEAMLESS BAG. 

~WM.. 1L.A.IIII> * CO., IVtanufaotTirers. 

ELLIS READ, Agent. 
10v7-3m S04 California Strmt. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OF EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HITNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYE 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, MESQUIT, SWEET VERNAL 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER* 
RED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA QIGAN- 
TEA, PINIS INSIGNIS, Etc. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 

(Successor to E. E. Moore) . 
425 Washington St., San Francisco. 2av7.1y 

San Francisco Employment Office, 

NO. 606 CLAY STREET, 
Orosett «!to Co., Proprietors. 

(Successors to Wm. Vail Sc Co.) 

COUNTRY ORDERS FOR MEN almost InvarlablT 
filled with FIRST-CLASS HELP. 

Farmers can always procure men In any number de- 
sirable by giving a little timely notice. Hotels can 
always get the BEST OF MALE OB FEMALE HELP, 
on short notice. We have the BEST OF FACILITIES 
FOR PROCURING HELP. Have an Agent on the im- 
migrant trains distributing circulars, upon the arrival 
of every train. Give us your orders and we will en- 
deavor to give you the fullest satisfaction. spl8-t< 

CHINESE EMPLOYMENT COMPANY. 

We are prepared to furnish at short notice. Domestic 
Servants, Hotel Uook.i, Laundrymen. Waiters, Common 
hborcrs, Farnn Hands, Hardeners, Mechanics, Foctory 
P-)ds. Wood Ohopiisrs, etc. .Special attention given to 
*"*<^8hlng Domestic Servants, 
, ,^ PIERCE & CO.. 627 Sacramento St., 

m bet. MontKomeryand Kearny St«.. 8. F, 

Brittat. Holbrook & Co., Importers^! 

m'lnduiJ'.li"'''' .''''''"'"' C"0'K Tot Is and Machines, 
Cisco and 17iy'^"''"»' L' ""' '» °»^ i^sti\e, San Fr«n- 



28 



[July II, 1874- 



/^qi^icJLTvlR^L flojES. 



ALAMEDA. 

Fine Gbai.n.— Livermore Enterprise, July 4: 
Ou Tuesday Mr. McCnlly brought to our 
office some fine bearded wheat. There were 
upwards of 50 stalks from two kernela of this 
remarkable wheat. Some of the heads meas- 
ured over seven inches in length, and were very 
full. It is no use talking, we do not think there 
is a wheat growing section in the world that 
can beat Livermore. Everywhere the grain is 
turning out better than the farmers had any 
Idea it would. 
AU&DOB. 

Abdndant.— Amador Ledger, July 4: If per- 
sons unacquainted with the productive capacity 
of the foothills, or who doubt the value of these 
lands, will put themselves to the trouble of 
visiting the orchards, vineyards and vegetable 
gardens in this vicinity, they will have all 
doubts dispelled, for at every orchard they 
would find the branches of fruit bearing trees 
literally loaded down with thrifty young fruit, 
and which will necessitate props, when the 
fruit becomes more matured. And the same 
may be said of the vineyards; every vine the 
present season is loaded with berries, and the 
grape yield of the coming vintage will be with- 
out precedent. Every variety of fruit, apples, 
peaches, pears, apricots, nectarines, quinces, 
plums, figs, pomegranates and every description 
of berry will be very abundant, showing the 
wonderful adaptability of fouthill lauds to the 
successful cultivation of all kinds of fruit, 
peculiar to northern and semi-tropical coun- 
tries. 
BTTTTB. 

Incendiaby.— Butte Record, July 4: Some 
wretch set fire to George Hoag's grain field, 
a few days ago, but fortunately the fire was 
discovered before it did much damage. Farm- 
ers should give a stout rope and short shrift to 
an incendiary. 

Bbiogs' Obchabd. — Marysville Appeal, July 
4: We found that the reported damage to this 
great orchard had been somewhat exaggerated. 
That part of the orchard lying next to the 
Feather river, and comprising about two-thirds 
of the immense forest, was not overflowed, and 
Buffered no damage. There are several thou- 
sand trees next the slough which are dead, and 
will prove a severe loss to the proprietor. But 
the land will be leveed next'year and the or- 
chard replanted with the choicest variety of 
fruit-trees. But there is orchard enough left 
to keep Mr. Briggs very busy for the season, 
as the present bearing trees cover about 50 acres. 
The proprietor has 75 hands employed at the 
present time. Fourteen thousand boxes have 
already been received at the orchard, and many 
thousand more will be needed. There are 
three box-makers regularly employed on the 
ground, and from three to five teams engaged 
in hauling the boxed fruit to the railroad depot. 
The crop of May peaches will be all picked this 
week, and will aggregate about 6,000 boxes. 
The apricot yield will be about 5,000 boxes, 
and these will be followed by about 6,000 boxes 
of peaches of the Hale's Early variety, several 
thousand boxes of plums, June plums, etc. 
The gathering of this immense lot of fruit of 
every variet/ is carried on in a systematized 
order, and everything goes along as quiety as 
an orchard of a few hundred frees. The daily 
income of the orchard is immense, but the ex- 
pense is also considerable, as may be under- 
stood by the number of men employed. The 
entire force board and lodge near the orchard. 
The buildings about the premises make quite a 
respectable sized country settlement. 

CALAVEBAS. 

Tall Wheat.— Calaveras ChronicU, July 4: 
We have been shown some stalks of wheat, 
from a field now being reaped by Mr. John 
Donnallon, Bay State ranch, that measuied 
upwards of six feet in length. Crops are gen- 
erally good throughout the county this year, 
for the reason that the season has been wholly 
a favorable one, but it is a peculiarity of Mr. 
Dounallon's that he invariably harvests good 
crops, whether other people do or not. And 
the secret of the whole matter is he cultivates 
his land — the model farmer of Calaveras. 

LAKE. 

The Hay Crop. — Lake County Bee, July 2: 
Hay is probably the largest crop raised in Lake 
county this year. The yield has been good 
almost everywhere, averaging about a ton and 
three-quarters to the acre. In1 the field it is 
worth $7 a ton; stacked, $1, and baled, $12. 

BLEBCED. 

The Cbops. — Merced TrVmm, July 4 : The 
grain crop of this county, generally, is not 
coming up to the expectations of the farmers. 
Fields that two months ago gave promise of 
from 25 to 30 bushels per acre, on threshing 
yield but half that amount. Mr. A. McCloud, 
who is harvesting 640 acre< of summer fallow, 
which in the spring appeared good for 40 bush- 
els per acre, informs us that it will not average 
15. Mr. N. S. Rogers informs us that the 
same is the case as regards his crop. The grain 
crop of Merced county the present season will 
not nearly eqmd the yield of the year 1872. 

The Cotton Fields. — San Joaquin Val*y 
Art/us, July 4: We paid a visit to Major Stri^"'8 
cotton fields on Mariposa creek, on Ti'''''i''y 
last, and found the crop of 480 acres-O good 
condition, the plants making rapid R^owth, 
with apparently sufficient moisture near tbe 
surface to mature them. Owing '° '^® "ool 
weather which prevailed throug'Sit May and 



the greater portion of June, the plants have 
not attained the size that might have been ex- 
pected, yet much of it is above knee high, 
branching well, and as full of squares as could 
be expected, and in a few days more there will 
be an abundance of blooms. The Major is 
confident of gathering the largest crop this sea- 
son that has ever been harvested any season 
since cotton was cultivated in this State, and 
his success ought to satisfy all that this valley 
ia peculiarly adapted to the growth of this val- 
uable staple. 

The harvest progresses finely throughout 
the valley, there being no complaint of a scarc- 
ity of men, machinery or teams, and the pros- 
pect is that the large crop will be all harvested 
and housed by the last of September. Prepar- 
ations are being made for storing at all the sta- 
tions along the line of the railroad the large 
crop of wheat, and for this purpose large ware- 
houses are being erected by the Grangers and 
others, which will enable farmers to store and 
wait for a favorable turn in the market before 
shipping. At this place the Grange Warehouse 
company are building an immense structure 
400 feet long and 60 feet wide, which, in addi- 
tion to the large warehouse of Hufi'man, will 
afi'ord room for perhaps all that it will be nec- 
essary to store this season. We are in- 
formed that the Grange Warehouse company 
have also contracted for the building of a large 
warehouse at Plainsburg Switch, and that work- 
men are now on the ground employed in its 
erection. 
NAPA. 

Napa Plow Company. — Napa Reporter, July 
4: This company has commenced the erection 
of works that will before fall most probably 
extend all over that vacant piece of ground be- 
tween the Star warehouse, which they now oc- 
cupy, and the gas company's works. Castings 
that heretofore have been done East will be done 
in Napa, as it is found that it can bo done as 
cheaply and at a saving of tbe freight, and 
also, that it can be loaded here at a cost a trifle 
less than at the whfirf in San Francisco. The 
company has already one order to fill of five 
hundred plows, of the D. A. Manuel patent, 
which appear to have taken a firm stand in the 
agricultural implement market. 

Rattlesnake Gbass. — Napa Register, July 4: 
Napa county has an odd specimen of grass, 
known by the above name, which has a head 
much like a club wheat head, and bearing a 
striking resemblance to the rattles of a snake. 
It abounds near Mr. Hudeman's, and a boquet 
of it we saw on the street this morning, inter- 
spersed with flowers, bad an nniqae and pleas- 
ing effect. 
PLACEB. 

Hay. — Placer Argus, July 4: The hay crop 
has been saved in fine condition. It brings 
$19 a ton, which is thought a moderate price 
here. 
SACBAJUENTO. 

Backwabd. — Folsom Telegraph, June 4: The 
early varieties of the peach, as the Early Hale 
and Early Parsons, which usually ripen in this 
locality about the 1st of July, will not ripen 
this season before the middle of the month. 
Most other kinds of early fruits are equally 
backward. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Beoinnino Habvest. — Stockton Leader, July 
4: We received a call this forenoon from Mr. 
Amos W. Gove, who is ranching, about ten 
miles from this city, on the Upper Sacramento 
road, and who reports harvesting already com- 
menced in that vicinity. The prospects for an 
abundani yield grain, he says, were never 
better. He informs us that one of his neigh- 
bors, Mr. A. D. Goodwin, has about 1,000 acres 
of wheat, some of which will yield at least 70 
bushels to the acre, and more than 500 acres 
will yield from 45 to 50 bushels to the acre. Mr. 
Gove says that by next week harvesting will 
bave begun universally in that section of farm- 
country. 
SAN litnS OBISPO. 

A Good Showing. — San Luis Obispo Tribwx:, 
July 4: We were shown this week a speciaien 
of wheat grown by J. Jatta, on the oW Mauk 
place, Arroyo Grande. It was take^ from a 
ten-acre field, which, we are informed by a dis- 
interested and very competent jui^e, will turn 
out all of 80 bushels to the p^t^o. Mr. Jatta 
also cut off an 8fi acre lot adjoining, 40 tons 
of superior barley hay this season. We merely 
mention this to show wtat can be grown 
anywhere on the Arroyo orande with proper 
cultivation. Mr. Leff, I'^ing one mile south 
of this place, reports 49 acres of barley as 
averaging 50% bushelf per acre; also upwards 
of 100 acres of wl>*at which he expects will 
turn out 70 bushebto the acre. Messrs. Flint 
& Foreman, on 'he Laguna rancho, have 
several hundred acres of barley which will run 
up into the eW^'i^s to the acre all through. 
This is aglorous showing for San Luis Obispo; 
but nothint ^"'^ would be expected almost any 
year, if o'f farmers would prepare their ground 
properl'^'^d plant in seasan. 

Xhk Cbops in the Guadaloupb Vailet. — 
j^r. itiller, of the Oso Fiaco, brings very flat- 
tei-ug reports from that section of country in 
js^ird to the crops. He asserts thftt there 
.ever has been such a yield of grain in the 
valleys as the present year. He says that cer- 
tain tracts were blasted in the early part of the 
season; but taking the whole valley on an aver- 
age it will yield 40 bushels to the acre through- 
out. He speaks especially favorably of the 
wheat sown in the upper part of the valley; 
that never since its first settlement has one- 
third of the amount of grain been raised to the 
acre that has this year. The great and only 
present trouble with them appears to be that 



they fear the projected railroad will not reach 
them in time to haul away the immense crop 
that they are about gathering, without which it 
will be almost impossible to transport it to the 
different ports. 

SISKIYOU. 

Poob Gbain. — Yreka Union, Jxxly 4: We are 
informed by farmers from Scott valley that 
crops will not turn out anywhere near so well 
on the average, as it was supposed they would 
some weeks ago. In places they have been in- 
jured very seriously by the frosts. But while 
there are many fields from which the yield will 
be light, there are others which promise unu- 
sual crops. Four or six weeks ago the pros- 
pects for heavy crops were better than bad 
ever been seen before, but the cold weather 
since has caused a great change in this respect. 

SONOUA. 

ToMALES Items. — Petalnma Argus, July 4: 
The hay crop is about harvested, is of excellent 
quality, and the yield per acre above the aver- 
age. The grain and potato fields are looking 
remarkably well, and everything now indicates 
a liberal harvest. The grass, also, is abundant, 
and as a consequence, dairymen, like S Aim- 
ley's boarders, are happy and content, as, in 
fact, are all those whose lines have fallen to 
them in that favored region. 

SUTTEB. 

Plenty oi- Good Fbcit. — Sutter Banner, 
July 4: Reports from all our large orchards are 
very favorable. The fruit is much better than 
last year, and far more abundant. All the or- 
chards along the Sacramento river are yielding 
more fruit than ever before. The little or- 
chards, here and there to be seen on the plains, 
are doing splendidly, and not a few of them 
are already furnishing fruits for our markets. 
Our vineyards are also in uncommon good 
condition, and promise a heavy crop. 

TEHAMA. 

Habvest. — Tehama Independent, June 17: 
The encouraging reports we have made from 
time to time of the prospects of an abund- 
ant harvest are fully borne out, and as head- 
ing and threshing progres.s, the farmers find 
the yield to equal, if not exceed, our most 
sanguine anticipations. With the good season 
and the large amount of new land seeded this 
year, the yield will mount up to at least 25 per 
cent, more than usual. In all sections the 
crops are uniformly heavy and splendid. Such 
grain as is still standing looks clean and regu- 
lar, not spoiled here and there with thin 
patches. Much of the Scatterville wheat is 
already cut and threshed. The yield is as large 
as was expected, although some of it shelled 
out during the late north winds. The red land 
crops will reach 25 bushels to the acre all 
round. Barley has yielded well this season 
throughout the county. 

TULABE. 

Destruction of SQinasELS. — Visalia Delta, 
July 2: Asa Anderson put out a batch of strych- 
nine a few days since, prepared in the following 
manner: To a couple gallons of wet wheat, he 
added a small can of thoroughly pulveriz'^d 
strychnine, sweetened with fine sugar, and dis- 
tributed in the morning near the burrows. 
On returning he found nine dead aud dying 
squirrels. Later in the day he found 65 that 
had been slain. It is presumed that two-thirds 
of the poisoned animals died in their holes. 
Scarcely a squirrel has been seen on the prem- 
ises since. Many of our farmers suffer a large 
percentage of loss on their grain crop by the 
ravages of squirrels, and this evil is evidently 
getting worse. We hear of some men's des- 
troying them most effectunlly for one season by 
the use of strycuuino or phosphorus. There are 
others less spirited who suffer a loss eqnal to 
the profit of the crop, nearly every year, and 
do nothing to prevent it. 

VoiiUNTEER. — Tulare Times: Mr. G. H. 
Webb, of this immediate vicinity, has a piece 
of ground near his residence, containiug eight 
or ten acres, which has not been plowed, 
sowed or harrowed this year, yet it has pro- 
duced a crop of volunteer wheat that will make 
foity or fifty bushels to the acre. How is that 
for large returns from small investments? 

YOLO. 

Grain Cbop. — Yolo Mail, July 4: Wheat is 
being marketed daily, aud the farmers are be- 
ginning to realize something for their labors. 
We understand that the grain is well-filled— 
even the lat« sown — which it was feared 
would be shriveled on account of the north 
winds of three weeks ago, but {he moisture in 
the ground seems to have protected it, and fed 
the stock, keeping it greeu and active. The 
amount produced in Yolo county this year will 
bo greater than ever before, aud tbe quality 
just as good as ever was known in this or any 
other country. 



A "Vford of Advice to our Friends in the 
Country. 

Zeebandelaar & Co. are now supplying a demand 
that has been heretofore sadly felt in the rural districts, 
and which has been quite a drawback, not only to the 
agri('uUure aud miniug, but also to all other industrial 
interests of the Ktate. 

The six years' connection of Mr. Zeehandelaar as 
Secretary of the California Labor Exchange, and the 
general knowledge of the wanttt of employers and em- 
ployees, have established the great reputation of the 
firm for reliability aud honesty of purpose. 

Send an v^rder to their office for male or female: a 
book-keeper or an engineer, a farmer or a miner, a cook 
or a servant — male ur female, of any nationality, in any 
branch of labor, skilled or unskilled — and you will be 
supplied at the shortest notice, and in a satislactory 
way. They endeavor to fill all orders to fleahe empi^qi- 
ICB8. Address or call at 715 Montgomery street, coi«ier 
Montgomery Avenue and Washington street, San ^rau- 
oiBCO, California. It 



Cheese Boxes. 

One of the most prominent wants that have 
thus far been felt in the California dairy is a 
good cheese box. In the dairies of the East 
every cheese is sent to market in a box; though 
the nearness to home market there, and the 
transportation facilities poEsessed by them, 
render the boxing of cheese less essential with 
them than with us. Here, where the markets 
are more distant and more difficult to reach, 
oar cheese is sent in bandage only, ■ ften be- 
coming greatly damaged by breaking, and 
always more or 'less injured from want of 

Erotection and isolation. Every cheese should 
e kept by itself, as it is extremely liable to 
lose its delicate flavor and its fine consistency 
by even partial exposure. 

\ good ch( ese box affords a cheap protection 
during transportation, and is used to almost 
equal advantage while in storage. This has 
been a desideratum among our dairymen and 
dealers, and we were awdre that Swan & Co., 
proprietors of the Union Box Factory, of San 
Francisco, have been for some time perfecting 
a cheese box; and being informed dnrin!{ the 
past week that it is now completed, we made a 
special visit to the establishment for the pur- 
pose of inspecting this new production. We 
have examined tbe boxes made by various mau- 
nfaclories at the East, and do not hesitate to 
pronounce that of the Union Box Factory the 
best article that we have seen. Some of the 
patents possessed by this firm are particularly 
applicable to this purpose. The process to 
which the wood is subjected before slicing, 
removes all woody odor from the material, 
leaving it as inoffensive to the smell as wood 
can possibly be; and also leaves it in so tough 
a condition that the box is less liable to break 
or split than those made in the ordinary way. 
The slicing machine leaves the sides of the box 
in as smooth a condition as though they were 
planed, giving it a neat and attractive appear- 
ance. The machinery by which the parts are 
prepared is so exact that the box when put to- 
gether is so tight that no light can be seen 
thtoagh its joints. These boxes are made of 
any size desired, varying in diameter from six 
to 20 inches, and from 11 to 12 inches in hight. 
Dairymen from the East, as well as those 
of California, have examined this box and pro- 
nounced it a very superior article, while the 
prices at which they can be bought are as low 
as those charged for the ordinary cheese box. 

S. Labbxson, of Cloverdale, hauled about 
two thousand white oak :itaves from Lake 
county within the past week, worth about $275 
per thousand. Larrison Ls a cooper, and uses 
those staves in making wine pipes, of one hun- 
dred and fifty gallons capacity. He buys and 
cuts the oak trees in Scott's valley, splits them 
into staves, and lets them remain on the 
ground to season until the following year, 
when he hauls them to Cloverdale. 

The farmers around Calis'.oga are getting 
pretty well through with haying. The yield, 
as anticipated, is very large. The crop is com- 
manding about $12 per ton for loose haj in the 
field. 

The Los Angeles Herald hears that it is the 
purpose of the Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany to complete tbe road from Bakersfield to 
Tehachepi Pass as soon ns possible. 

FioHTiNo is going on near Estella, fjpain, 
where Gen. Concha was killed, thus far without 
result. It is thought that the Carlists will 
be forced to abandon that place. 



i^ATENTS & 



r-^ 



NVEN1I0NS 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

[Fkom Official Rbports fob the Uinino ams Bcikn- 
TiFio PuEss, DEWEY A CO.. PcBLiSHKBa Ann 

U. S. ASD FOBBIOM PaTEKT A0KNT8.) 

By Special Dispatch. Dated Washington, 
D. C. July 7th. 1874. 
Fob Week Ending June 23d. 1874. " 
Hydbadxic Hoist. — Martin L. Bassett, S. F 

Csl. 
Device fob Releasing Houses— Opbbatbd bt 

Ala BMs.— Robert Brag?, S. F., Cal. 
FiBEB Sepabatino Machink. — Wm. M. Hughes, 

8. F.. Cal. 
Dbill Tooth. — Henry H. Linnell and Leonidas 

Parker, Oakland, Cal. 
Table KOB Vessels.— E;lward P. S. Andrews, 

Havilah, Cal. 
TB.iN.spLANTEB. — Timothy Carroll, Anaheim, 

Cal. 
Atuosphebic Po*ek Hammrb. — Wm. Manson, 

S. F., Cal. 
Atmosphebic Hammeb. — Wm. Manson, S. F , 

Cal. 

Re-issde. 

Pbocksp or Sepabatino Silveb fbom Otheb 
Metals.— Conrad Wiegand, Virginia City, 
I^vvada. 

— 'The patents are not ready for delivery by the 

ratent Offlc« until some H days after the date of Issue. 
Note. — Copies of U. 8. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dkwky & Co., In the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with 
perfect security and in tbe shortest time possible. 



July II, 1074.] 



s. 



!^^J 



oi\T. 



At Wholesale when not Otherwise Indicated. 



Weekly Market Review. 

(fiy our own Reporter.) 

DOMESTIC PBODTJOE. 

San Fbakclbco. Wednesday, July 8th, 1874. 

The Produce marktt has Improved in activity since 
the new crops have l>egun to come in. As yet receipts 
are not very large, and the most of the great Wheat 
fleet U still on the way. However, there is already suf- 
ficient movement to make quite a different showing 
from that cf the last few months. Old crops are pretty 
much disposed of and business is mainly confined to 
the new. Besides the Cereals, the receipt of fresh 
Fruits and Vegetables have been very heavy and have 
made things lively. 

The general business of the city and State present 
some anomolous features. While trade is by no meaas 
dull, as a rule, money is more plenty than has ever, 
perhaps, been the case heretofore. Rates of interest are 
low, notwithstanding the call for money with which 
to carry on the trade and manufactures of the State and 
to move our present crops. This is said to be due, in 
great measure, to the comparative stagnation of busi- 
ness in the Eastern States, which has liberated a large 
amount of capital. It was expected that rates of inter- 
est would appreciate when it became necessary to use 
so much money in handling the crops; but thus far no 
such effect has been noticeable. As it is, the anticipa- 
tion of fair, if not large, profits from the crops has put 
life into all branches of trade, has increased the value 
of real estate, and has caused a general activity. 

, Barley. 

Barley is moderately active for new. Receipts are 
still light. 

Beans. 
Bayos and Finks have declined considerably; a falling 
off of ^c in the former, and He in the latter being no- 
ticed. 

Broom Corn. 
Prices nearly nominal. Stocks full, and manufacture 
going on steadily, but no transactions being made. 
Com. 



Wool. 

Wool is quiet. New York telegrams show a similar 
state of the market there. James Lynch, in his circular 
of the 1st, says that during the past month a good de- 
mand has existed for fine and middling grades of cloth- 
ing Wool, aomestic fleece and pulled. Good Spring 
clip California and fine Texas found ready buyers. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

WEDjrasDAT M., July 8, 1871. 



Beans, sm'l wh.tb ^H® ^H 

do, butter ^ @ 2 

do, large, do... 6 @ 7 

do, bayo 2%m 2'S 

Co, pink l^i# - 

do, pea SH® 5^ 

do, Lima 6 @ 7 

BKOOJU CORN. 

Pcrton S80 fiS'iOO 

DAJKY PKOI»CfcE 

Butter, Cal. choice 

B) 30 @ 32 

do, good '.fT @ 30 

dc, inferior 22)^® 

do, flrkin 25 (al 

do, pickled — 'SO 

Cheese, Oal. new 8 
do. Eastern ... 14 
EGtGS. 

Eggs, Cal. fresh 27 _ 

do, Oregon 22 (U) ;* 

do. Eastern.... 19 a 20 
do, DucLs' n>^@ 20 

Bran, per loj..... 16 00^17 00 

Middlings 26 00827 50 

Hay 9 JO'giSOO 

Straw 8 OOg) 

do* Dale 9.'i@ 1 00 

Oil cake meal... — (a32 .W 

Corn Meal 42 OoaiS » 

F1.0UK.— SuperAne <& 

JCxtru. 
Alviso Mills. bbl4 25 @5 75 

Oalilornia 4 25 @5 75 

City Mills 4 25 «5 75 

Oomme'l Mills. .4 25 @5 75 

GoldenGate 4 25 «5 75 

Oolden Age 4 25 ®5 7' 

National Mills.. .4 25 



§20 
18 
■alg 00 

@8 .50 
.^6 00 
@6 50 
@2 00 
'ai3 60 
fe> — 
lai — 



'S — 



(9-5 • 



|5 

15 

iS 

|5 75 

J5 75 

@5 75 



Corn is weaker, and has declined 6c. ^ cental. Corn 
Meal is also lower, both Feed and Table. 

Dairy Produce. 

There is very little Pickled Roll to be had. Califor- 
nia Cheese is still weaker, and skim-milk Cheese will 
In some cases go even below our bottom figure, 8c. It 
Is difficult to obtain 15c for the best. Eastern Cheese 
also moves slowly. There is but little in this market, 
and the Inducements to ship hither are small. 
Bsres. 

Fresh California Eggs are selling at 27@28c. A few 
Eastern are changing hands at 19(>3)20c. 
Feed. 

Hay now ranges in price from $9 to $15 TH ton. Good 
Straw is held at $1 ^ bale, but the price will fall when 
the new crop, now nearly due. arrives. Corn Meal is 
lower. 

Flotur. 

Market quiet. The Oregon steamer brought 1,648 
barrels. Tbe range for lowest Superfine to best Extra 
is $1.26 to$6.7S. 

Freah Heat. 

Meat! ue low, but are moving quite freely, tbe pack- 
ers taking up large quantities. 

Hops. 

Hops are slow of sale, and present rates are low. 
Prospects for high prices for the new crop, which will 
begin to arrive next month, are anything but encour- 
aging. Emmet Wells' last Circular says that brewers 
are generally supplied, and few of them will have to 
make any further purchases until the arrival of new 
Hops. Tbe crop everywhere is doing well, and the 
yield promises to be abundant. It is also said that at 
least one-eighth of tbe crop of 1873 in the Atlantic 
States is still in the hands of growers. Picking will 
commence next month, and the opening of the market 
or the new crop will be looked for with interest . 
Kuts. 

California Walnuts have declined Ic, and Chile l>^c 
tj) n. Peanuts are 2c ^ lb higher. Brazil and Pecan 
Nuts are each Ic '(^ lb lower. 

Onions. 

The price has dropped again . We quote the range 
at from tOc. to 90c. V cental. 

Potatoes. 

No new kinds have come in. Good Half Moon Bay 
will only bring tl 16 m cental. Old Potatoes are almost 
gtven away. 

Poultry. 
Turkeys are more called for and not very plenty; the 
price has been advanced 2c 9 Ih tor both Hens and 
Gobblers. Chickens have not changed. Ducks are a 
Utile lower. 

Provisions. 
California Bacon is firm at an advance. The market 
continues good for all kinds. 

Seeds. 
There Is not much being done in Seeds at present. 
Prices remain as before. 

Wheat. 
The Wheat market is not strong. New Wheat will 
hardly bring over $1.66 V cental, though sales have 
been made at $1.67 X. There Is nothing new in the 
English market. Liverpool rates yesterday were: 
Average, Us 2d (3 12s *d: Club, 12s 6d & 123 lOd. Wheat 
■ dnll la New York. 



SantaOlataMills 4 25 
Geneste Mills... 4 25 

Oregon 4 25 

Vallejo Star 4 25 

Venus. Oakland. .4 25 _ 
Stockton City... 4 25 ©5 75 
Lamtmrd. .sue. . .4 25 fflS 75 

FKE»H M£AX. 
Beef, Ir quality.. Bi 7 

00, second do.. 5 

do, third do 4 

Veal 4X( 

Mutton 4 

Lamb 5 

Pork, undressed. 6 

do, dressed.... 9 
eiLAXN, ET( 
Wh'tOal. o'8t.cl.I 70 

do new 1 62>i( 

do, shipping.. 1 TiH 

do, miirinK 176 

Barley, Feed 1 IVA'&l 50 

do new 92!-a@l 10 

do. Brewing...! 60 i<iil 65 
Oats, good to 

ch. ioe 1 SO @1 76 

do common .. 1 46 ^1 50 
Corn. While - (Si 95 

do. Yellow — (42 m 

Buckwheat — @3 00 



Rye 1 .50 

HOPS. 

CaliforDia,1873. 36 
Ea«t'rn.'73,ch'loe 37>i( 

m:i8Cri>i,anru1 

Beeswax. per lb., "i-^ © 
Honev. choice 22^;.i^ 

do Dark 8 

do Strained 8 (a 

Pulu 

Onions .50 (di 

NIJT««-JOB»INe. 
Oal. Walnuts .... 13 @ 14 
Peanuts per lb... 8^9 
Chile Walnuts.. 10 /^ 11 

Pecan nuts 13 fd> 15 

Brazil do 12'^'gi 14 



Ooc'annts.'a 100.. 9 00 ©lo- 

Alm'dsh'rd shell 10 S 12;, 

do, soft 18 @ 24 

Filbert.i 18 C<?) — 

POTATO KS. 

Sweet,per 100 lbs - & — 

CuffeeOove — @ — 

H. M. Bay..l 10 Si 15 

PiEeon Pu.. — @ — 

Humboldt.. — @ — 

Peialuma .. — ^ — 

Mission ....1 00 Wl 20 

.Salinas — @ — 

Bodeg)^ _ ^ _ 

Sac. River.. 60 S 90 

S'taBarbara. 95 @1 I16 

Old Potatoes... 50 (ft> 76 

pui;r.TRir <fe oaiuce. 

Live Turkeys, 

hens per tb 18 

do gobblers... 16 
Hens, per.dz... 7 0« 
Roosters, young. 

large 6 50 

Broilers 3 00 

Ducks, tame,doz4 50 
Geese, per pair.l 50 
Hare, per doz... 2 50 
Snipe, Eng., doz — 
Quail, per doz — — 
Mallard Ducks.. — 

do small - 

Wild Geese, gray — 

do white — _ 

Doves, per dozenl 00 (ajl 25 
Prairie Chickens — ft^ — 

Grouse — (g; — 

Rabbits 1 00 (Ml 50 

do tame 4 00 @5 00 

Venison, per lb.. — (q^ — 

PKOVISIONS. 

Oal.BacoD.Light 14 @ 15 

do Medium.. .. — @ 13 

do Heavy — ® 12 

Eastern do UH® 14 

Hams, Cal 13 @ 13 

do WhltUkers — @ 16 
do Duffleld, ch — @ IS 
do Plankton Sc 

Armour — la 14 

do Boyd's .... — & 14 

do Stewart's.. — @ 14 

iLastem Sboald's 9 (a lu 

do new hams — @ — 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 @ 11 

l.ard.Oal 13 @ 14 

do Eastern 13 @ 14 

8E£DS. 

Alfalfa 13 @ 16 

Canary 5 @ 6 

Flaxseed 6 @ 6 

Ky. Bine Grass.. 40 @ 50 

Millet 12 & 15 

Mustard, white. 2 ® 3 

do. Brown 3 @ 4 

lUllanRye 26 @ 30 

Perennial do 30 @ 35 

Timothy 13 @ 15 

Sweet V Grass.. 60 @ 7S 
Orchard do.... 30 (g) 35 
Red Top do... 30 @ 40 
Hungarian do 10 @ 13 

Lawn do SU @ 60 

OloverRed - @ 20 

do White 60 @ 75 

Alsike — m — 

Hlsparto Grass in 

Packets 

"WOOL,, 
Spring, short, ttf. 

do cnoioe Nort 24 m 
Medium grades.. 18 m 

Fall clip — @ 

Burry 14 la 

Hides, dry 16 "a 

■ do wet salted 8 

Tallow, Crude.. 6'2'ai 

do Refined... 7'ji% 



- I 00 

- ffll — 
ETC. 

22'^® 25 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

Wednesday m., July 8, 1874. 

California Oranges are about out of market. Gooseber- 
ries are very scarce in first hands, and hardly quotable. 
Raspberries are higher. Apncots are very plenty, and the 
market is supplied with large quantities of very fine qual- 
ity. Currants are so low that there can be little profit to 
the grower, and prices are almost nominal : it is even sta- 
ted that large lots have been sold below the cost of pick- 
ing and freight. Even with the steady /.onoamption for 
canning and drying it is expected that a great deal will be 
allowed to go lo waste. The range in quality of Plums is 
very wide, very choice samples commanding as much ^.s 15c 
wholesale. while common lots are sold as low as 2c. Peacnes 
are being forwarded more freely. Pears are not yet at au 
plenty. Watermelons are in market, selling at the rale of 
$.50 ^ 100, thouKh the dozen is still the measure. The first 
came in from Putah creek Monday, the consignment con- 
sisting of only a couple of hundreds. Figs are in market, 
but neither very plenty norattractive asyet. A few pounds 
of the little St. Peter Grape found their way here yesterday, 
but we only found them at one house, and the price (37,^ 
@.50o) is almost prohibitory. 

There have been no changes in the Dried Fruit Mar- 
ket. 

In Vegetables. Garlic has declined to 6@8o ; Peppers have 
fallen oft 25c., and Green Ok raSOo. Shell Beans are sell- 
ing at 5(a)6c., and Egg Plant at I2^@\bc. 




GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

Wednesday m., July 8, 1874. 
Bags and Bagging are firm at noted rates. A lot of 75,- 
000 second-hand English Wheat Bags changed hands, it is 
said, at 9@12>ie; sale on private terms. An improvement 
has been made in Eastern Cod. while Salmon and Mackerel 
are nowhere. Spices are dull, and nrices lower. The Sugar 
war seems to have ended, for a time at least ; and during the 
ces.sation or hostilities rates are !^c higher throughout the 
line. Syrups and Molasses are also firmer. 

BA08. 
Eng. Stand Wht..— 14M@UM 
Detrick's Machine 
Sewed, 2ii3fi E..- —®\3% 
do 22x36. do E W- -@14 
do20x40. do A....— — @14M 
Flour Sacks >48.. IIIH— Ml2'i> 
•■ fi». 6)4-19 7M 
Stand. Gunnies., 
double seam...— 15 — ®16 

single seam —13 — IglS 

" Wool Sacks. 65 —'.at— 
Bariey Bags 24x36 — — @15>i 
do 23x40 - — @l.5>^ 

do 24x40 — — @1R>4 

do 2'x3« - -an 

Oat Bags, 24x49.... 16 ms'ii 

do 28x36.... — ©17 

He.ssian iO-in.gds 9>4— oilO 

do 45 lOH— @ll 

do 60 — (ails 

CANNED eOODlS. 

Asst'dPie Fruits 

in 2hi lb cans. 2 75 @ 3 00 

do Table do... - a 2 75 
Jams <lb JeUies 3 76 @ 4 25 
Pickles )i gl.. — @ 3 60 
Sardines. qr boil 76 @ 

do hf boie3.3 00 @ 

COAI.,— Jobbing, 

Anstralian,1itonll 00 &■ 

Coos Bay @10 OH 

Belllngham Bay. S 8 60 

Seattle twM — 

Oumberl'd, cks. .22 00 ©23 00 
do bulk.. .18 00 @20 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 m 25 

Lehigh 20 UO (0,22 50 

Liverpool U 00 ®12— 

West Hartley.... 12 DO @14— 

Scotch 9 fit) @10 00 

Scranton !5 00 @17 60 

Vancouver's Isl.. 11 00 @ll .50 
Charcoal. ^sk... 76 (<S - 

Coke, «bbl — @ 60 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — @ 22 
CentralAmerio'n 22 @ 23 
Costa Kioa per lb 23>^» 24 

Guatemala 21 @ 22 

Java 28X9 30 

Manilla 22 @ — 

Ground in as — — ® 30 

Chicory 10 @ — 

FISH. 
Pac.Dry Ood.new 5^6 

cases 6 3 7 

do boneless.... II @ 12 

Eastern God 7 ^ 8 

Salmonin bbls..8 00 @ — 

do K;bblB4 60 @ 

do 2iiii cans — S3 00 

do 20) cans.. 2 65 (<ii2 75 

do IB) oans..l IS it — 
DoOol. B. Hb... - S - 
Pick. Cod, bhl8.22 00 @ — 
do ^ bblsU 00 @ - 
Bos . Sm'k'dHer'g40 @ 50 
Mack'l,No.l,^bls8 00 @8 .tO 
Extra.... - ®9 00 

" in kits.... 2 00 @2 50 
Ex mess. 3 00 ®i 50 
Ex mess.)4bs-@J2 00 
Sm'k Herr' 



rrg. bi. 50 



Assorted size, lb. i% 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Co. 

Neat F't No. 1. — 

Pure 1 25 

Castor Oil, No. I.. — 

do do N0.2.. — 

Oocoanut 46 

Olive Plagniol..5 00 

do Possel....4 (5 
Palm 9 

do Bagicalnpi. — 
Linseed, raw 

do boiled 

China nut in os.. 

do bulk 70 

Sperm, crude. . 

do bleached. 
Coast Whales.. 
Polar, refined.. . 

Sperm 

Lard 

Coal, refined Pet 37)4(5) 

Oleophine 

Devoe's Bril't. 
Long Island... 

Enreka 37*4S» 40 

Devoe's Petro'm 26 & 29 
Barrel Kerosene — (SJ 26 




Olive 4 00 

Downer Kerose'e — 
Gas Light Oil.... - (it 

PAINTS. 
Atlan. W. Lead. IH'Si 

Whiting — @ 

Putty VArS, 

Ohalk 

Paris White 

Ochre 

Venetian Red... 

Red Lead 

Litharge 

Eng. Vermillion 

KICE. 
China No. 1, V lb 6^(2 
do 2, do. 5^® 

Japan 5>6^ 

Slam Cleaned... 7 ^ 

Patna — 

Hawaiian 7 

Carolina ID 

SA.l.V. 

Oal. Bay.per ton 10 000.14 OD 

do Common . . s 00(31 7 On 

Carmen Island..! I 0U(a)13 00 

Liverpool fine.. .23 00ii25 OD 

io coarselS 00(^20 00 

SOAP. 

Castile ¥ )>> 10 @ 11 

Local brands 5^6 

SPICES. 
Allspice, per lb . . 15 @ 16 

Cloves 55 @ 60 

Osssia 22>4a 25 

Citron — @ 30 

Nutmeg. — @1 07.'^ 

Whole Pepper... UH^ 18 

Pimento — ^ 15)i 

Gr'nd Allspprdz — @1 00 
do Cassia do.. — @1 50 
do Clovesdo.. — Ml .W 
do Mustard do — ^l 25 
do Ginger do.. — @l 00 
do Pepper do.. — Ml 00 
io Mace do. . — (ffil 60 
SUOAR, ETC. 
Cal. Cube per lb.. lO.'i® — 
Partz' Pro. Cube 
bblor lOOIbbxs — @ 11 
do in 50 lb bxs.. — M 11^ 
doin25lbbxs. — Ui- 
Oircle A crushed — ® 10^ 

Powdered — @ iO% 

Granulated — @ 10 

Dry granolated 10 & 10> 

Hawaiian 8 M 9 

California Beet. — w 10' 

Oolden O — 'S 9> 

doRey'ggrarte — do 6'/ 
Oal. Syrup in Ola. — @ 27,' 
do in a bis. — @ 3u 
do in kegs.. — @ 32 
Hawaiian Molas- 
ses 20 @ 25 

TEA. 
Oolong.Canton.lb 19 @ 25 
do Amoy... 28 ^ .50 
do Formosa 40 toi 80 
Imperial, Canton 26 0t 40 
do Pingsuey 46 (d>, 8U 
do Moyune.. 60 (&l 00 
Gunpo'der.Oant. 30 @ 42' 
do Pingsuey 50 @ 90 
do Moyune. 65 WA 25 
Y-ngHy., Canton 28 fil 40 
do Pingsuey 40 Im 70 
do Moyune.. 66 g) B5 
Japan, H chests, 

bulk m (a 75 

Japan, lacquered 

bi3,l'4and5 1b3 46 (d) 67 

Japan do, 3 D) bis 45 (oi 90 

do prnbx,4>5lb '" '■ '" 




.55 



do %A1 D> paper _ 

TOBACCO— Jobbing. 

Brishl Navys ,50 @ HO 

Dark do .... 45 @ ,55 
Dwa.f Twist.... .57 U 62>i 

12 inch do .57 M 62^ 

Light Pressed... «.5 @ 75 
Hard do .. 6(j @ 70 
Conn. Wrap'r.... 40 & .50 
Penn. Wrapper.. 20 @ 30 
Ohio do 7 ® 15 

Virgi'aSmok'g.. 60 @ 95 
Fine ct che'g.i!r..8 .50 @9 25 
Fine cut chew- 
ing. buo'ta.lfUb. .75 @ 90 
Banner fine cat.. — @9 00 

Eureka Cala 8 76 @9 00 

TITKPENTINE. 
Ea.stern 70 @ 75 



LEATHER. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Tahati, Or. * M 35 00*40 DO 

Lorita, do @ 

Cal. do '?tr Zi 

Umes, !M M.... @15 00 

Oal.Lemons,* M §40 00 

Anstr.iliando .50 00:g 

do per box 7 OOCal 8 00 

Bananas, Ifl bncbS 60 (<j5 00 
Oocoanuts.lfl 100.9 00 @10 00 
Pineapples, ^dz 7 00 W9 00 

Apples 8 (9 ViH 

Cherries i m M 

do choice 10 m 18 

Blackberries.... 10 M 15 

do wild ' — — @ — 

Strawberries^lb 8 @ 12 

Gooseberries ~ % 7" 

Raspberries 10 (ffl 11 

Currants 1 9 3 

Apricots l>i!'?i 2 

Plums 2 ® 15 

Peaches, ^ lb. . IS (9 10 

Pears, Eating . . .1 00 g;2 60 

do t'Ooklng — — @ — 

do, Bartlett... — & — 

Crab Apples — @ — 

Nectarines .. — @ — 
Wat'rmel'B^lOO .50 09 ® - 
Cantclo'8|*100... - & — 
Pomegran'a,V dz — <• — 

Figs n'^9 15 

Grapee,Bl'k H'g — ® - 
do Muscat.. — Ii3> — 
do Malavo'e.. — tol — 
do Sweetw'r. — w — 
do Mission .... — cai — 
do Rose of Peru — (g) — 

do Tokay — iflj — 

do Morocco - w — 

do St. Ptter.. 37Ha 50 



SRIEB FRUIT. 

apples. » lb 6*4® Syi 

fears, H lb 10 ftBl2>6 

Peaches,* lb 11 @12>!, 

Apricots, 1* B) — (a— 

Plums, ^ lb 8 SlO 

Pitted, do f» lb 15 ^20 

do Extra. 1^ lb.. — @- 

Raisin.''. %* lb 5^iml2% 

Black Figs, ^ B).... 8 @10 

White, do 10 ®15 

Prunes 6 @ 8 

do German.... 12H(^ 16 

'itron aO (® 35 

Zante Currants. &!4@ 8^ 

Dates 12>i@ - 

VEOETAJBl^ES. 

Asparagus 8 @I0 

Beets — (<» 1 

Cabbage, * 100 lbs..- a^2 DO 

do new, doz 50 @60 

Carrots.^ 100 Bis.... 1 00@1 25 

Oaulitiower, doz .50 (g)«0 

Celery, doz 50 @65 

Garlic* Bi 6 40 8 

Green Peas 2^@ 3 

Green Corn 'P doz.. 18 ©22 

Suin'rSquaah, lb 4 @ 5 

Marro'iat 8q'8h,tn60 OOloi— 
Artichokes.'^ doz.. 15 @25 
Strlne Beans, TH lb ...— 

Lima Beans 

Parsnips 12] 

Shell Beans 5 

Peppers,!^ lb 15 

Okra^fii 25 

Okra, Green 18 

Uucumbers.doz 10 

Tomatoes I _ 

tCgg Plant ft B> KHmlS 

Rhubarb 2H& 3 

T^ttuoe ltW»« 



Wednesday m., July 8, 1874. 
Leather is only moderately active. Sales are mainly in 
small j<»bbing lots, as stock is required. California brands 
are slowof sjile. There is still somf inquiry for medium 
weight Jodots. 

UityTanned Leather, f( lb 2.'i@29 

Santa Ornz Leather, W fti.... 2.5(g(29 

Country Leather, » B) 24®28 

Stockton Leather, W- V> 2.5'a12<( 

Jodot.8 Kil., per doz »5D 00@ 51110 

Jodot, 11 tol9Kil.,perdoz H6 00® 90 DO 

JoCot, second choice. 11 to 16 Kil. ^ doz 55 00@ 72 UD 

OorniUian,12 to 16 Ko 57 00@ 67 00 

Corneii-an Females, 12 to 13 60 OOM 64 on 

Cornellia. Females, 14 to- 16 KU 66 uO® 74 I") 

BeaumcrviUe i.'i Kil 60 00® 

Simon, 18 Kil., a doz 61 00® 6.1 I'O 

Simon, 20 Kil. f I0Z 65 00® 67 00 

Simon. '24 Kil. I* Q.z 72 OO® 74 00 

RobertOalf, 7and 9Kil 35 U0(«) 40 OO 

French Kips, 1* Bi 100(3 115 

California Kip, W doz.... 40 00®) f ' K) 

French Sheep, all colors, ^ doz 8 00(g) 15 DC 

Eastern Calf for Backs, # lb 100(2 126 

Sheep Roans for Topping, 41 colors, |(doz.... 9 00® IS 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings, »loz 5 .500 10 .^1 

California Russett Sheep LiLings 176® 4.50 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, ^lair 5 OO9 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, •» p»ir 4 OOtaj 4 75 



French (jalf Boot Legs, ^ pair. 

Harness Leather, * lb 

Fair Bridle Leather, % doz. 

Skirting Leather, * lb 

Welt Leather, » doz 

Buff Leather, « foot 

Wax Side Leather. '9 foot.. 
Eastern Wax Leiitbar . . 



4 00® 

30(g) 37>t 

48 00® 72 DO 
3*2 J7H 

30 00<^ .50 00 
18^ 21 
17.(1, 19 
-ja- - 



LUMBER. 



METALS. 

Wednesday m., July 8, 1874. 
Quicksilver is still firm at $1.35 ^ Bi. There is nothing 
new to report of Iron and Steel. 

American Pig Iron, ^ ton @ 40 00 

Scotch Pig Iron,^ ton uu 40 00 

White Pig, ^ ton @ .50 00 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ¥ lb (o) — 3>i 

Refined Bar, good assortment, ^Ib m — 4 

Boiler, No. I to 4 ®— 6*!, 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 @— fi'i 

Sheet, No. 10 to 15 S— 5S 

Sheet. No. 14 to 20 M— 5'-j 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 —08 S — Oil 

Horse Shoes, per keg. 7 50 ® 8 00 

Nail Rod - SH® 

Norway Iron — 8 @— — 

Rolledlron .. — 6 Q — - 

Other Irons for BUoksmittu, Miners, etc. (S — 4 H 

OOPPKB.— 

Braziers' — 31 @ — 32 

CopperTln'd —44 m 

O.Niel'sPat —60 & 

Sheathing, ^ fii ©—24 

Sheathing, Yellow « — 26 

Sheathing, Old Yellow & ~ Wi- 

Oomposition Nails — 24 ® 

Composition Bolts — 24 @ 

Tin Plaxkb ^— 

Plates, Charcoal, IX * box — ® 16 00 

Plates, I C Charcoal 14 00 @ 14 .50 

Roofing Plates 12 50 @ 15 00 

BancaTio, Slabs, ^ lb — S3 (& -{ITi 

Seel.— English Cast. * lb —20 @ — 25 

Anderson & Woods* American Cast — 10 (§ — 17 

Drill — 18 la) - 22 

FlatBar -18 ® — 22 

Plough Points — 16 ® — 17 

Zinc @ — H 

Zinc, Sheet — « — UH 

Nails— Assorted sizes — l>H§i — 8 

Lead.— 

Pig,1*Bi - f>M@ - 6 

Bar - 6>i® — 7 

Sheet — — @— 9 

Pipe - -S— 8)i 

QoiCKSILVEB, per lb — —W 135 

RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 

Wednesday m., July 8, 1871. 
There have been uo changes to note in our list of Gro- 
ceries, 

32>i0an'dO^sters,dz.2 00 @2 iO 



Butter,Oal.ch'ioe 30 

do common.... 22 
Cheese. Oal., lb.. 15 
Lard. Oal.. Bi.... I2»ii 
Flour. ex.fani, bl 6 75 

Corn Meal, lb 2>i 

Sugar, wD.crsh'd — 

do ILbrown^lb 7 
ColTee.Sbarboro's 

family gr'nd, lb — 
Coffee, green, D).. 24 „ ._. 
Tea,fineblk,50,65,75 (Si 00 
'rea,flnstJap,55,75. 90 lol 00 
Candles,Admant'el7 m '25 
Soap, Oal., B.... ® 10 
-• Per lb tPer dozen. 



Syrno.S F.Gol'n. 36 (al 

Dried Apples 8 ® 10 

Dr'd Ger.Prunes 16 ® 17 

Dr'd Figs, Oal... 9 @ 10 

Dr'd Peaches 10 ® 12 

Oils, Kerosene . . 30 ® 36 

Wines, Old Port. 3 50 ^00 

do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 (a)l 25 

do Cal.,dz.bot 8 00 ®4 S) 

Whisky,O.B,gal.3 .50 (ai5 00 

Kr. Brandy 4 (id (HjlD Of 

Rice, lb 10 ® 12>^ 

Veast Powdera.dz.l 60ig)2 OU 

1 Per gallon 



S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 

Wednesday m., July 8, 1874. 
POUI.TRY. OAHE. FISH, MEATS. ET«\ 

Poultry and Eggs are unchanged. Game is confined to 
Hares, Rabbits, Doves and a few miscellaneous small birds. 
Meats are cheap. Fish are in good supply. 

Flounder,^ lb. 
Salmon. % lb... 



.50 @ 75 
75 ®1 00 

— ® 3i 

- ® 25 
- 3D 



25 



Spring Chickens 

Hens 

Eggs 

do Ducks' 

do Farralones. 
Turkeys, %* Bi.. 

Ducks, CanBk.pr — ® 

do Mallard, pr — @ 

Tame, do — @i 

Teal, ^ doz.... — @ 

Geese, wild, pair. — ® 

Tame, f, pair.. 3 .50 @i 

Snipe, |» doz — © 

Quail, per dozen — @ 

Prairie Ch'k's, ea — @ 

Pigeons, dom. d2 — fft* 

Wild, do — ®. 

Squabs — @' 

Hares, each ... 37'^® 

Rabbits, tame, pr 75 ®1 

Wild,do,*dz.2 00 @ 

Squirrels d 10 ® 

Beef, tend, %) Bi. - ® 

Corned, % B>.. 6 & 

Smoked.* Bl.. — @ 

PorterllouseSt'k — @ 

Sirloin do 12 (al 

Round do 8 ® 

Pork, rib, etc., lb — (^ 

Chops, do, ^ B) 15 ® 



- O 



Smoked 

Pickled. ■» lb.. 

do Spr'gp'kl'd 

Salmon bellies 
Rock Cod, *n>.. 
Cod Fish, dry, lb 

do fresh 

Perch, s water, lb 

Fresh water.lb 
Lake Big. Trout* 
Smelts. large %«Bi 

Small Smelts 

Herring, Sm'kd. 

do fresh 

S- 
- a 10 
Terrapin, %) doz.3 00 ®3 ,50- 
Mackerel, p'k,ea 12;^® — 

" ' ' - «o - 




Veal, %* lb 

Outlet, do 

Mutton-chops,* 
LegMutton, f) lb 

Lamb, '^ lb 

Venison 

Tongues, beef, . . 

do, do, smoked 
Tongues, pig, lb 
Bacon, Cal.,^ Bi 
Hams, Oal, ^ 81. 
Hams, Cross' s c 

Choice D'flield 

Whittaker's.. 



10 
12>5@ 
12 ® 

10 a 

10 ® 



75 « — 

- ®1 DO 
10 ® - 

- ® 18 
16 @ — 

- foi- 
ls ® - 
18 ® 20 



40 



Fresh, do lb ... — 

Sea Bass, %) B>... - 

Halibut 50 ,9 

Sturgeon, ft St.. — ® 

Oysters, % 100... 1 00 O 

Chesp. ^ doz.. 5iJ <% 

Clains iS 100 — ® 

Mussels do - ® 

Turbot - ^ 

Crabs 1« doz....l 00 ® 

do Soft Shell. .15 ^ 

Shrimps 

Sardines 

Anchovies 

Soles 

VouiigTrout.bay 
Voung Salmon.. 

Salmon Trout eal 00 g)l .50 

Skate, each 10 ® 30 

v\ liitebait, ■ji', lb.. — (^ 15 

Orawfi^h ^Ib... — (g) 10 

Green Tuitle... — S — 

do "#* lb — ® - 




FRUITS. VEQETABLES, ETC. 

Fruits and Vegetables grow more plenty and cheaper as 
the season advances, juni,...^, the appearance of the re- 
tail stands throughout the city is indeed a hue one ; and 
that advantage is taken by consumers to purchase largely 
at the present low rates is shown by the steady stream of 
buyers. Watermelons retail at ."10^750. Blackberries are 
lower. Cherries range Irom 10 to 30c I? B). There are Figs 
in market, but no Grapes as yet— except the small lot no- 
ticed under another head. 

Vegetables are much lower. Cucumbers have declined 
.5c., Tomatoes 60, Garlic Sc , Fresh Okra 35c., and Green 
Chilies 10c ^ Bl. Green Corn ranges from 20 to 30o $1 doz- 
en. Butter Beans are a shade higher. 
Lady Apples ^ lb- ® — lOauliflower.t .. 10 (« 15 

Apples, pr lb 10 ® 15 Cabbage, per lb.. 3 (§) 4 

Pears, per lb 6 ® 8 OysterPlaut.boh — 



Wednesday m., Jul; g, 187 
Tbe Lumber market is unchanged. Trade is actve. 
CARCM> PRICES OF PUGET SOUND VINE 
Iticnivoon -Retail Price 

UEUWUUlf. 'Rough, *M ;>0 DO 

Rough, ?» M $10 DOIKenclngandStepplng.M s m 

Rough refuse, ¥ M 12 00 Kencini;, 2.1 qualliy,!* M 30% 

Rough clear, fl M 32 .VIlKenciui.', f, lineal loot.. 1. 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 22 60 FloorinK and Stop, 1* M 30 00 

Rustic, i* M 3000 Flooring, narrow, ^R M.. 32.50 

Rustic, reluse, ft M 24 OOiFloorinu', 2d quality. M. .25 00 

Surfaced,* M. '26 OO; Laths,* M 3 '25 

Surfaced refuse,* M... 16 liO Furring, * lineal ft.... M 

Flooring, *M...., 30 00 RKUWOOIt-Retall. 

Floorinu. refuae.feM.. 20 OOiRough,* M ■ 2000 

Beaded flooring, * M... 32 ,50iRouKh reluse, * M 16 00 

Beaded floor, refuse, M. '22 .lOiRough Pickets, * M. . . . 18 00 

Half-inch Siding, M 22 ,50!Rough Pickets, p'd M.. 20 00 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 Fancy Pickets, * M 30 00 

Half -inch. Surfaced, M. 25 00 Siding, *M., 27 60 

Half-inch Surf, ref., .M . 18 00 Tongued and Grooved, 

Half-inch Battens, M... 2^2 ,50; surfaced, * M. .« 60 

Pickets, rough, *M.... 13 OolDo do refuse, * M...... ii 60 

Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 OOHalrinch aurlaocd,M.. 40 0) 
Piokeu, fancy, p'ntd.... 25 00 Rp,.ic, * .'rt.... ........ 36 00 

Shi-gles, *M 2 25 Battens, * lineal foot... % 

ShinslesWM 2 6k 



Apricots, lb. ._ _ 

Peaches, B> 8 ® 15 

Plums 12!^® 15 

PIneApples.each 75 (5)1 00 

Crab Apples — ® — 

Grapes — ® — 

Bananas,* doz.. .50 gl 00 

Canteleuos — ® — 

Watermelons... 15 @ 20 

Blackberries 15 & 20 

do wild — ® — 

Cal. Walnuts. Bl. - (g) 25 

Green Almonds. 15 ® '20 

Oranber'es, Or.,g .5il (a) 75 

do Eastern - ("il 0(1 

Huckleberries.. .50 (a: 60 

Strawberries, lb lO laJ 20 

Chili Stra'lierries 40 fa\ fill 

Raspberries, lb.. 12H » 15 
Gooseberries*... « (^ 8 

Currants 6 ft: 8 

,do Black — (a) - 

C.erries, * 1).., 10 'ai 30 

"e. Marines — ® — 

OrSLuos,* doz.. 50 ®1 00 

Qninu., .- (3 — 

Lemon, .-iO vjrl UD 

Limes, („r jo7.,. .j.i ,uj _ 

Figs.drlei (-al, < \2^.<,(S) '25 

Figs, fresh 20 ' ® 21 

Figs, Smyri„ n, -^^ (q) a5 

Asparagus, . • id (i 12,'i 

Artichokes, do. 25 ^ 35 

do .Jerusalem.. 6 ® 8 

Beets, * doz •jo la — 

Potatoes, * lb -< ® 3 

Potatoes, sweet,* — S — 
Brooooli, each.. 10 ^ u 



Carrots,* doz... 20 

Celery,* dz 76 ( 

Cucumbers, doz. 15 I 
Tomatoes, * lb.. 5 1 

(irecn Peas 3 ( 

String Beans..., 4 ' 
Ki;g Plant, lb,.,. 16 ( 
Cress, * doz bun '20 ( 

Onions 3 ( 

Turnips, * doz 

bunches 20 1 

Brussels Sprouts — { 

Eschalots 20 1 

Dried Herbs, doz 25 t 

Garlic W lb 8 ( 

Green Corn, doz, 20 : 
Lettuce, * doz., 20 ( 

Mint, 1« lb 8 

Mushrooms,* Bl 25 
Horse radish,* Bl 20 
Okra, dried,* Bi — 
do fresh, * Bi 20 
Pumpkins, * lb, 6 
Parsnips, doz.,, 15 

Parsley 15 

Pickles, l'rsh.*tti - 
Radishes, doz., 20 

Sage 25 

Summer Squash 6 

Marrowfat, do 6 

Hubbard, do 6 

Dry Lima, sb. - — 

Spinage, * bskt, 25 

Rhubarb 4 

Green Cbiliea., 15 

Dry do 25 

Butter Beans ... 10 
Italian Ohestnuts — 




TAQWIQ T^'&S^ :PII!ESB. 



[July II, 1874 



300 Head Pure Blooded French Merino 
Rams and Ewes, 

For Skie by MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, of OentreviUe, 
Alameda Oouuty, Oal., near Nlles Station, on the Weet- 
em and Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rambouillet. 

And are equal, if not superior, to any of this breed 
in size and quality of wool, and are proved to be the 
b eaviest ohearers in the world. 12TB-8m 




BREEDER OF 

Pure Blooded French Merino Sheep, 

Has for sale a choice lot of Rams and Ewes, on the 
Oristimba Ranch, six miles west of Hill's Ferry, Stanis- 
laus County, Cal. 22T7-3m 



B.W. Owens, San Francisco. | E. Moore, Stockton, Cal. 



1873. THE IMPROVED EAGLE HAY PRESS. 1873. 

THE ItllMBALL MiATVUFACTURIlVG^ C0M:I»A1VY, 

OWNERS OF THE PATENT AND SOLE MANtJFACTUBEBS ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 
COB. FOUKTH AND BRYANT STS.. - - SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Several years were devoted by the patentee to the 
perfection of this powerful press. 

Its unprecedented sale at the East induced the Elm- 
ball Manufacturing Company to introduce them in Cal- 
ifornia and the Pacitio States. 

During the past season a number of important im- 
provements have been made, in order to gain all the 
power desired in coDdensing the weight and size uf the 
bales. The wood and iron of the frame have been in- 
creased and strengthened, and it is now the most per- 
fect and powerful press in use . 

It Possesses Other Advantages: 
Being cheap, simple to manage, with no intricate ma- 
chinery to get out ol gear, thus losing time waiting for 
a new piece. 

All who have used these presses pronounce them 
superior to anything used heretofore. 

The power applied by means of two levers increases 
in ratio to the resistance; and as the levers approach a 
perpendicular position, the power can be scarcely esti- 
mated. 

Three men, with one horse, can^bale from ten to fifteen 
tons per day; each bale weighing from 300 to 350 lbs., 
using less rope than any other press. 

When a bale is pressed and fastened, the follower 
nine down of its own weight and the bales can be 
taken out on either side. 

On account of its great power, It is well adapted to 
pressing hides, rags, cotton or moss. 

The particular attention of wool growers is called to 
our improved Wool Press, constructed on the same 
principle, which was tested at the State Agricnlturul 
Hall, Sacramento, April 18th, 1871, and stood the test of a bale of wool weighing 5BU pounds. Reference, 
Major Robert Becli. 

These proBses are manufactured in San Francisco by the KimbaU Car and Carriage Manufacturing Co ., who 
have a stock constantly on hand. Prices $250.00 for Hay Presses; $350.00 for Wool Presses. Weight of Hay 
Press, 2,600 ttis.; Wool Press, 3,500 tbs. Con be shipped in pieces or set up. 13v7-2am-3m 




FOR THE HARVEST OF 1874. 

""■^ pRiGlNAL^^lKELI ABLE 




'^Gl^^CjiUlE^ 





OTVENSs* &^ JMOOK-E, 

COUUISSION MERCHANTS, 

DBAUmS IN 

WOOL, HIDES, PELTS AND GRAIN. 

Offloe-405 Front street, S. F. Uv7-3m 




L. XT. S.HIPPEE, Importer and Breeder of Thoroug-hbred Spanish. Merino Sheep and 
Short-Horned Durham Stock. Stockton, Cal. 

I wish to call your atteation to my fluck of Spanish Menno Sheep, both Ewes and Buck*', imported daring the 
laHt two years, and selected from the beKt Hocks in Vermont. LTneqaaled on the Pacific Coast for quality and size, 
many of them having taken first premiums both in Vermont and California. Should yoo or any of your friends re- 
quire sheep of this quality, you will do well to call and examine this Hack before purchasing elsewhere, as I Intend to 
sell them at greatly reduced prices from what they have formerly been sold . 

Hy Floek Consists of 1,500 Sheep, 1,200 Imported aod 300 of my own Breeding. 

P. S.— This flock is not only the linwst but the largest flock of imported Spanish Merino Sheep on the Pacific Coast. 

They have been selected from the Mucks of the best breeders in Vermont, such as Kockwell, .Saniord, Kich. Hammond, 

Saxton, Dean, Ellsworth, Remley, Stickney, and others who are acknowledged to be among the best breeder* of 

Spanish Merinos in America. 24v7-eow-4m 




N. ghlm:or,e. 

Importer and Breeder of 

.Angora or Cashmere 
GU ATS 

—or— 

PURE BLOOD 

— AUD — 

ALL OBADE8. 

For sale bi lota to suit porchaaers. Location, four 
mllea from Railroad Station, connecting with all parte 
of the State. For particulars, address 

N. GILMOEE, 
£1 Dorado, El Dorado county, 
llv6-eow California. 



Cotswold Bucks For Sale. 



About three hundred Bucks, half and three-quarter 
bred Cotawold, and a few Thoroughbreds, for sale at 
Low Prices. 

BEFERENOES: 

1400DY & FAKISH, San Francisco. 

8HIPPEE, McKEE & CO., Stockton. 

Orders left with the latter Arm will receive prompt 
attention. 



!J2v7-<t 



A. VBOMAN, 

Jenny Lind, Calareras Co. 



Cal. 



Ihoroughbred Jersey Bull Calves for S^le. 

I have now on hand twelve Thoroughbre* Jersey 
Bull Calves, bred by me from my last impolatlon to 
California, and will sell them cheaper thar '^^7 could 
be brought from the East. 

A. MAUJCJAKD, 



17T7-8ia 



8as Bafael, ''U'in Co., Cat. 



The attention of Wool Growers is continually invited to the 

Thoroughbred Stock Bred and Kept upon the 

IMLERINO KA.1NCH 

Situated at Niles, Alameda County, Cal., only five minutes walk 
from the station, junction of Ban Jose and C. P. B. K. Parties 
desiring to visit our ranch can leave San Francisco at 3 o'clock 

F. M., and have an hour at the ranch, returning on Overland train at 6 r. M. Ur coming out in morning, 

return to city at 11 o'clock a. m. The proprietors make the 

THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP A SPECIALTY, 

Believing them to bo the BEST SHEEP IN THE 'WORLD, and are constantly receiving fresh Importations from 

Addison County, T^rmont. 
Our flock are all Imported Sheep, and have no snp'riors in the United States. We always have on hand 
choice young BAMS and EWES, of all ages, for sale at peasonable Prices, giving time, if required, to responsible 
parties. City Office— 315 California Street, pan Francisco. 

10v7-eow Importers and Breeders of Spanish Merino Sheep. 




Kentucky Sales of Short-«orn Cattle 
for 1874. 

No. Head. 

Hughes & Blchardson, Lexingtov. July 22 60 

Wm. Warfleld & Co., Lexingtoa July 28 140 

B.F. & A. Vanmeter, Winchep^er, July 24 80 

J. V. Grigsby, Winchester, J»ly 26 SO 

I. O.llobinson&Co., Wlnciester, July 27 40 

Wamock k Megibbcn, Cyn-tiana, July 28 80 

F.J. Barbce, Paris, July .!9 60 

C. M.Clay Jr., Paris, J«ly 30 , 90 

J.Scott & Co., Paris, .tily 31 70 

J. Sudduth, Newtowi. Aug. 1 40 

The above flaler comprise all of the most popular 
families of 8hoi>-Horn Cattle in America, aud many 
imported animus. 

Apply to t^^ above addresses for their Catalogues. 
m30-6w 



LIVE STOCK EXCHANGE, fl# 

COR. FIFTH t BRYANT STS. SmSm 

Cattle, Sheep, Milch Cows, Hogs and Horses sold on 
commission or bought on farm for cash. 

Our accommodations for Live Stock are the most con- 
venient, complete and extensive in the city or State. 
Thoroughbred Durham Cows wanted. Address 

DAWSON k BANCROFT, 449 6th St., S. F. 

Special rates to members of the Grange. m9 



iTERSEY CA-TTUE. 

A few head of very choice Jersey Cows— Helfere and 
and Bull Calves — tor sale. Apply to 
16v7-8m B G. SNEATH, Menlo Park. 



Short-Horned Cattle & Berkshire Pigs, 

FOTt WA.LE 

A few fine young Bulls, one and two years old, got by 
Grand Turk, of Oak Home. Number o' Bull in herd- 
book, 8,258. Also, pure Berkshire Pigs, Work Horses 
and Mules, to be sold on reasonable terms. 

WILLIAM L. OVERHISEB, 

Oak Home Ranch, Waterloo Road, three miles from 
Stockton. 3v7-3m 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

Manufacturers of 

Linseed and Oastoi* Oils, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 

Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans de 
livered at our works. 
Office, 3 and 6 Front street 
Works, King street, bet. Second and Third. fel6-eow 




. ^ i-i o o k: ! 

••■ALBEKT E. BUBBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder of Fancy Fowls, 

. Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. Also Eggs 
for hatching from the flnert of Im- 

. ported stock. Eggs and Fowls at 
reduced prices. Send for Price 
List. 

ALBERT E. BDRBANK, 
lv8-3m 43 & 44 Cal . Market B.F. 



Fasmsbs write for yonr paper. 



^Hoadley Engines, Russell End-Shake Tliresh. 
era, Pitts' Po\<rers, Treadwell's Single-Gear Head- 
ers, Whitewater Wagons, etc., etc. Send for our II- 
nstrated Price List, to Tkeadweix k Co., San Francisco. 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over »U at the great Plovlag 

Hutch in Stockton, in 1R70. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is r^ 
laired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
xljusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pHBS over cradle knolls withont changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so oonstructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 
I4v2-3m MATTESON k WILLIAMSOK, 

Stockton, Oal. 



THE 



CELEBRATED MITCHELL WAGON 



SOLDBY' 

'MllLS&EVANS^ 

508 MARKET ST." 

I9T*-3m 



WATERHOUSE & LESTER, 

IMF0BTEB8 OT 

WAGON AND CARRIAGE MATERIAL, 

BODIES. OAEEIAGE PAET3, 
Wheels, Axles, Springs & Oarriage Hardware. 

SOLE AGENTS FOB THE PACCFIC COAST POE 

Clarke's Adjustable Phaeton Sunshades, 

•7' Send for price list. 

AJLSO AOENTS FOB 

Woolsey's Patent 'Wlieols, 

The best and handsomest Wheel made, having great 
strength and a fine finish.* There is no other wheel 
that has the metallic-shouldered band; and it cau be 
repaired as easily as the common wood wheel. 
19" Send for illustrated circular. Adddress 



"WATEBHOUSE 



122 and 124 Market street, and I 
19 and 21 California street, ) 



& LESTEB, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



17, 19 and 21 Seventh street, 
«v7-3m 



8ACRAMSNTO. 



BYROJV JACKSOIV, 

MANCTAcruRKn or 

Patent Self-Feeder & Elevator Attachment 

For Separators, at the Tolo Planing Mill and Ma- 
chine Shop, Woodland, Yolo County, Cal. 

This Improvement was patented in 1867 and in 1870. 
For the past two years I have been introducing it to the ' ' 
public with great success. It is pronounced by all that 
have tried it to be the greatest labor saving Invention 
of the age. No Thresher will be without It after wit- 
ncBHing Ita operation. It saves all the hard work of 
feeding and injury to health, and one-half the labor re- 
quired to supply the grain from the stacks. It will pay 
for itself in less than thirty days, besides doing better 
work. For particulars send for circniar; It give* all ' ^'' •' 
necessary information, besides the beat plan for using; ob • 
the Horse Forks ever adopted. Entire satisfaction 
guaranteed if properly used. 21v7-ilm 



July II, 1074.] 



B. O. BOWIiBT 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importers and manuAictrurer-s 

—OF— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

^ No. 9 Ilercbaiit's 'Exoha.nge, 
OALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO 



Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, top 
and open Rookaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Koad Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to our fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles S. Ooffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfleld & Jackson, Rahway, New Jersey, 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 
And other first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double Har- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

0. Graham, New York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkln 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 

No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 
2lT6-3m San Francisco, 

H. C. » H A. TV , 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

Agricultural Implements, 

201 and 203 El Dorado St., Sign of "Webster Bros." 
General Agent for the San Joaquin Valley for the 
Vibrator Threshers, Studebaker Farm Wagons 
and Improved Single Geared Headers. 
The Baxter k Webster Single Gear Headers are built 
only at my establishment. Address, H. C. SHAW, 
14v7-3m Box 95, Stockton, Cal. 




Ryder's American Fruit Drier. 




This DRIER is a perfect success in the East, and will 
be on this Coast when its merits are known. Its cheap- 
ness brings it within the means of every Fruit Grower. 
The uniformity and perfection of its work challenge 
comparison. The principle claimed for this Drier 
(and violated in all other Driers in xise) , is, that no 
moisture shall come in contact with the fruit after the 
cut surfaces 4re once sealed by the heat, to open the 
cells and allow the aroma and fine qualities of the fruit to 
escape, which makes it undeniably the most perfect, as 
it is the most simple mechanical method for cureing 
Fruits, Vegetables, Meats and Grains ever invented. 
This Drier qan make Raisins and the most beautiful 
crystalized fruit confection, equal to any imported. 
Can any other Drier do this? The fruit cured on this 
Drier last season, in this State, took the premium at 
the State Fair. Our Factory Drier will cure 60 bushels 
of peaches in a day. Send for Circulars. Farm, County 
and State Rights, and Driers with Heaters, sold by 



J. TIL. 



KEEIiER, General Agrent, 

306 California street, San Francisco 



THE OELEBBATED 




Now miinufactured in the East, in the most perfec 
manner. Guaranteed in every particular, surpassing 
any other in the market, for Farm, Ship, Irrigating 
and Uining purposes. Our large Force, properly 
mounted, makes a most effective Fire Engine. 

KIPP'S UPRIGHT ENGINE, the cheapest and best 
we could find in the East, 

0HA3E PIPE CUTTING AND THREADING MA- 
CHINE, a most perfect hand or power machine. One 
boy against two men with any other in use. Has the 
highest testimonials. It cuts a thread and makes nip- 
ples for all sizes of pipes from J< to 2 inches, and only 
$150. Also, Metal Ornamental Goods, Fountains, 
Vases, Statuary, etc. Send for Circulars. 

J. ISC. EEELEB & CO., 
Commission and Forwarding Merchants. 

Agents for Eastern Manufacturers, ^ 306 California 
street, San Francisco. 



Magnetic Spring House at Vine Hill, 

EIGHT MILES FROM SANTA CRUZ, ON THE SAN 
JOSE ROAD. 

The sbOYe house has been built for the benefit of 
Invalids, Hunters, Pleasure Seekers and those seeking 
recreation generally. The spring water is heavily 
charged with magnetism, charging knives at times 
BO as to pick up a needle. Water has affected wonder- 
ful cures in Neuralgia, Kidney Disease and affections of 
the optic nerve. A splendid ^ew of Monterey Bay 
can be had from the house. Guests giving me a call 
can rely upon it that no pains will be spared to make 
their stay an agreeable one. Board, $2 a day or $10 a 
week. Hot and cold baths, 25c each. 

aSvT-Sm C. G. FI3K, Proprietor. 



W. M. JACKSON'S PATENT GRAIN LIFTER. 




This is the only Lifter that has enabled the Header to cut all kinds of lodged grain. It has been in use 
several years and gives entire satisfaction, not only in cutting lodged grain, but in saving crinkled or straw 
fallen grain. The Lifter can be had by addressing W. M. JACKSON, Woodland. The price will be SIXTY 
DOLLARS for ten-feet headers; SEVENTY DOLLARS for twelve-feet headers. I will sell them to dealers when 
ordered the same as heretofore; also to the Grange Agent as a dealer. 

"wr. m;. JACKSON, 

26v7-4t Woodland, Cal. 



the celebrated new dkaw-feed 
Wheeler & Wilson 

SEWING- IHACHINES 

Are withou exception the most desirable for family 
use. They are the LIGHTESi' RUNNING Machine 
in the market, and sew"from the thinest to the 
thickest material with equal facility. 
These machines have, since their invention, stood at 
the head of the list in public favor, and the recent im- 
provements to them have increased their supeciority 
still more. Buy no Sewing Machine until you have 
tried these. 

WHEELER & WILSON MANF'G CO. 

E. W. HARBAL. Agent, 

20v7-4m-16p 427 Montgomery street, 8. F. 



GEANGERS, 

TAKE NOTICE. 

WE ARK SELLING 

FRENCH CHINA, GLASSWARE, 

PIL.A.TJED -WARE, ETC, 

CHEAPER THAN ANY OTHER HOUSE 

ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 
O. LAWTOIS &> CO., 

MARKET STREET, 
Under the Qrand Hotel, SAN FRANCISCO. 



GEO. H. TAY & CO., 
614, 616 and 618 Battery St., S. F., 

OFFER FOB SALE 

IRON PIPE, 

Br..A.CK: ana GA-LV-A-NIZED. 

PUMPS— LIFT AND FORCE. 

RUBBER HOSE, ETC 
STOVES and R.ANGES, 

THE RICHMOND RANQE, 

THE HENRY CLAY, 

THE EUPIBE CITY, 

THE ALVABADO. 

THE MONITOR, wrought Iron body, cast iron top 
and hearth, will cook for 50 to 500 men; an excellent 
stove for large ranches during harvesting season. 

AND A QBEAT VABIETT OP 

COOKING STOVES AND RANGES, FARMERS' 
BOILERS AND CALDRON KETTLES. 

Ralph's Patent Oneida Cheese Vats. 

DAIRYMEN'S GOODS, 

MILK PAILS, PANS, CHEESE HOOPS, ETC. 

JBA-IiBIT IMET-A-IL.. 

Wire for Fencing and Baling. 

ALSO, METALS. HOUSE FURNISHING HARDWARE, 
JAPANNED GOODS, ETC., ETC. 

22vl-3m 



UvT-eow-Sm 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

PETALUMA, OAL. 

Having increased our facilities for growing Trees and 
Plants, and permanently located our Greenhouses and 
Tree Depot corner Washington and Liberty streets, we 
are prepared to furnish Fruit and Shade Trees, Small 
Fruits, Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, Flowering Shrubs, 
Greenhouse and Bedding Plants, etc. Send for De- 
scriptive Catalogue and list of prices. 

Address, W. H. k Q. B. PEPPER. 

21v6.1y Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



WHALE OIL SOAP, 

— FOR— 

Hftstructlon of Bugs on Plants, Etc. 

PHOENIX OIL "WORKS. 

617 Front Street SAN FRANCISCO. 

SUv7-lm 



THE BEST IS THE CHEAPEST. 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 

TO BAISE LARGE CHOPS 

Y O TJ ȣ TJ S T IK.niGA.TE. 

To irrigate sucoessfally, you must htve the power that 
does nol give out when the wind fails. 

Laufkotter Bros. & Churchman's Horse-Power, 





-3 
M 

CO 

THREE SIZES— Warranted to Clean from 
60 to 200 Bushels per Hour, Perfectly. 

PRICES— $40, $50 AND $75. 

The Nash k Outts' Machine is the only machine that 
has taken the First Premium at California State Fairs 
in 1870, 1871, 1872 and 1873. 

Nash & Cutts' Machine will thoroughly separata 
Mustard Seed, Cheat, Barley, Oats, Cracked Wheat, etc., 
from Wheat in a rapid and satisfactory manner. 

No zinc sieves used in the Nash k Cutts' Grain Sepa- ' 
rator and Fan Mill; therefore we can 
Clean Faster, Better, and with Less Work 
and Troable, 
Than any other machine now in use. 
The Nash & Outts' machine is the only one that Will 
clean Alfalfa Seed. All we ask of any one in want of 
a Grain Separator is to give the Nash & Cutts' a trial. 
EVERY MACHINE FULLY WARRANTED. 
The Nash k Cutts' Machine is for sale by all Agri- 
cultural Implement Dealers In California. 
For further particulars addr esg 

NASH, MILLER & CO., 

No. 264 K street, Sacramento, Cal. 
Only manufacturers of the Nash & Cutts' Grain Sepa- 
rator for the Pacific Coast. Iv8-3m 

J. TTAGHVEK, 

MANUFAOTnREK OP 

FRENCH BURR MILL STONES AND 
PORTABLE MILLS. 



(Patented Febroaky 13tu, 1.^:2.1 
Never fails to supply more water than lour or five Wind- 
milU, even supposing von had all the wind you want. It is 
also suitable for running light machinery, such as Barley 
Crackers. Corn Shcllers, Fanning Wills, Grain Separators, 
or, for Sawing Wood. They are never failing, cannot get 
out of order, easily worked, substantial, and always give 
satisfaction wherever they nave been used. One horse can 
easily work two 6-incii pumpt, with a continuous llow of 
water. Force Pumps, irum 3,000 to 10,(100 Kallons per hour. 

WINDMILLS of all kinds manufactured to ordor. Wells 
Bored, Windmills and Uorse-Powers set in any part of the 
State, and repairing of all kinds Jone. 

Mauufactared and for sale by 

LAUFKOTTER BROS., 

v7-2m-3m Cor. J and 10th Sts., Sacramento. 




General Mill Furnishing. 1'- ilalil. Mills specially 
adapted for Farmers' use. 113 and 115 Mission streot, 
San Francisco. 13v7-3m-2am 



STAIVr>AIftr> SOAP CO.'S 

CARBOLIC SOAP 

FOB 

SHEEP WASH! 




COMPOSITION— OLEIC ACID. NICOTINE, 
SULPHUR, CARBOLIC ACID & ALKALI. 

It destroyes and removes Scab, Ticks, Fleas, MauRe, 
Scratches, Insects on Plants and Trees, Foot-Kot, eti-., 
etc. Being strongly impregnated with CARBOLIC 
ACID, it is one of the best disinfectants known. Its 
healing, cleansing'and disinfecting qualities are unsur- 
passed. 

The STANDARD SOAP COMPANY also manufactures ^ 
Laundry Soap, Family Soap, Hard Soap, Soft Soap, 
Marine Soap, Kane's Condensed Soap, Washing Powder, A 
WashingFluid, LiquidLaundry Blueing, Harness Soap, ■''' 
Thomas' Cool Water Bleaching Soap, Thomas' Patent 
Glycerine Soap, Mottled and White CaKtilc Soap, Silica, 
ted Saponia, Bay Rum, Florida Water, Hair Oils, Ex- 
tracts, Perfumes, Colognes, Cosmetics, etc., etc. 
204, 206 and 208 Sacramento Street, 

lCv7-3m SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

^21 t\ue street, between Montgomery and 

Kearny, San Fbanoiboo. 

■Jlv^-lv 

FARKLERS WANTING TO HIRE AN 

Engine and Zngineer for the season, for threshing, can 
hear of one bj uilling at, or addressing, 

J. W. RILEY, 
23T7-tf N*. 64 Third street, San Francisco 




32 



[July II, 1874 



Fourth Year of the Pacific 
Eural Press. 

The publishers of this Journal design making Its 
weekly Issues during its fourth year (1874) still more 
acceptable and raluable than those of the past. 
A Parmer's Paper Always. 
The BUBAJ. Pbkss— esUblished Jan. 1870, has been 
thoroughly a farmer's paper—" first, last, and always." 
Its success In popularity and rapidly increasing circu- 
lation has exceeded that of any other weekly on the 
coast. _ 

Neither Politics or Creeds. 
We refer with satisfaction to the Independent, chaste 
and useful character of our reading matter and the 
absence from our columns of questionable and demora- 
lizing advertisements. .... 

We shall strive to make It an ever welcome visitor to 
those who desire to constantly 

Improve the Heart and Mind, 
And snail give a larger space to our Home Cibclk de- 
partment, which from the first has been a popular fea- 
ture of the RtTBAi,. 

Our aim is to gather information from all reliable 
sources, in the varied forms in which it is to be obtain- 
ed. Our work is to divest our gleanings of all super- 
fluities; condense such information as is of most im- 
portance to our special class of readers— give it to these 
In the plainest and fewest words possible,— saving 
thtir time by our labor. 

Our Ijeadlnir Departments 
Will be continued under the following heads: 
The Home Circle, The Horse, 

Yoimg Polk's Column, The Swine Yard, 

Short Stories, Sericulture, 

Home and Farm, The Vegetable Garden, 

Useful Information, The Flower Garden, 

Domestic Economy. The Vineyard, 

Good Health, The Orchard, 

The Dairy, Tropical Fruits, 

The Apiary, Small Fruits, 

Poultry Notes, The Cereals, 

Homed Stock, Pasturage, etc.. 

Sheep and Wool, Fertilizers, 

Goats, Miscellaneous. 

Practical Farmers 
Know how important it is that the above subjects 
should be treated from a local standpoint— that gen- 
erally the farming tactics of the East will not do for 
this coast, that agriculture, in its infancy here , can de- 
rive greater benefits from an exchange of experience 
through the columns of the press than in older fields. 
Constantly observing and studying developments in the 
special field we represent, we can be expeoted to give 
truer information on agricultural subjects, than more 
general writers at home or abroad. 

Our Traveling Correspondents 
Will do much service by gathering a large amount of 
Interesting information from various parts of the Coast, 
which, but for their research and practiced observation 
might never be placed on record or reach the eye of the 
reading public. Of our many 

liOcal Correspondents 
We have particular reason to be proud. No paper on 
this Coast- old or new — has ever been so highly favored 
with volunteer contributions. They are talented, reli- 
»ble, independent and generous representatives of an 
Intelligent and enterprising people, noble types of good 
humor, unselfishness and true progress. 

Short Stories, 

Original and selected, will hereafter appear in each 
number. Their selection, we trust, will be such as to 
render them popular and unobjectionable to al I . In 
addition to a large number of 

Fine EngravinKS, 

Representing Choice Stock, Farm Products, Pcenery, 
Remarkable Productions, Improvements in Farming 
Implements and Machineir, Works of Art and the 
Beautiful in Nature, we shall from time to time present 
the modest 

Faces of Prominent Farmers 
"Who, as pioneers in the development of agriculture on 
this Coast, or as active laborers in the "Kriniiers' 
Cause," are worthy of the distinction they eujoy, and 
the favor with which they are looked upon by our 
many readers at home and abroad. 

Engravings (costing thousands of dollars originally) 
are inserted in our columns during a single year. They 
afford instant and perpetual impressions olten more 
derfect and real than words can convey. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

We shall continue to give our wiekly summary of 
matters connected with the iuterestand pronressof this 
growing and important movement. We shall aim to 
give information as fresh as possible in this depart, 
ment. Its readers are aware that the Ritbal has been in 
the lead in calling farmers to organize. We shall con- 
tinue to work zealously with the Granges for the noble 
objects of the Order. 

The present is an 

Important Period 

In the history of our Coast. The coming 12 mouths 
promise greater developments in its agricultural pro- 
gress than has been experienced in any previous yi-ar. 
Agriculturists are alive to improvements in every direc- 
tion, and those who would keep up with the spirit o( 
the times should certainly read the Rcbal Prkss. 

The S. F. Market Report" 
Will receive greater attention i" "^e department of 
Domestic Pboddck than »i"»' of any other weekly jour- 
nal. We shall op^re no pains to render the reports as 
raii^bi,; ana complete as possible. By the employment 
of our special reporter we hope to make this very im- 
portajQt part of our paper one of its best and most satis- 
r»<;tory features. 

Kind Words and Acts 

Have done much to build up in this Isolated and 
sparsely settled coast so large and complete an agricul* 
tural journal as the Pacific Rdbal Pbess. We com- 
mence the new year with a regular circulation of 

Over 5,000 Copies, 

A far greater issue than that of any weekly on this 
Coast, independent of a daily publication. If our 
friends will continue to " help us help ourselves," we 
hope to reach a circulation of 8,000 this year, and do a 
correspondingly greater service of good. While we have 
the greatest advantages and can ni:ike by far the best 
weekly for 

Agriculturists on This Side of the Continent. 

We cannot expect one-half so large a circulation as jour- 
nals in older and more populous districts. Consequently 
readers cannot rightly expect such a paper here at East- 
em rates. 

No Premiums But a Oood Paper 

Do we offer. .\ flashy chromo (or cheap map), 
with an HI suited paper, will hardly satisfy the farm- 
ers of this Coast, whose time is too precious for trifling. 
To many of you the benefit of a reliable and valuable 
paper should reach a hundred fold its cost, while to 
all a poor journal would be dear at any price. 

Sample Copies Furnished Free 

On receipt of stamp for postage. 

Agents are Wanted 
Who will do more or less active canvassing. To such 
we win furnish free iai^ples and pay liberally for their 
services. 

Terms of Subscription: 

One year (payable in advance) $*.00 

■Six months 2.25 

JCo Granges and Farmers' Clubs, furnishing club 
Jlsta, (3 per annum. 

D£:W£T& CO., Publishers, 
Oace, No, 224 Saasome etreet, Ban Francisco. 



Industrial Fairs for 1874. 

CALIFORNIA. 

The Aaoiial Fair of the Siate Agricultural Society for 
1871 will be held at Sacramento, to commence on Septem- 
ber 2l9t and cIosIdk September 26th. R. S. Cary, President, 
Robert Beck. Secretary. 

The Ninth Inlustrial Exhibition of the Meohanios' lo- 
stittite. S.ln Francisco. o|>enlD^ August i8tti, continues 
thirty days. Persons desiring to exhibit will present th'-ir 
applications for space at as early aday as possible. addres— 
inir their applioatioDS or inquiries to the 8ec^•-tar^' of * he 
Board of Managers, Mechanics* loBiitate, No. ^7 Post 
street. San Francisco, California. In order to secure siiace 
applications must be in before the 2Uth day of July, 1H74. 

The Fifteenth Annoal Fair of the Santa Clara Vallfy 
Aiinculturai Society will le held at San .lose October 5ih, 
Bth.'tli. 8!h. 9th and lOth. William C. Nelson, President. 
D. J. Porter, Secretary. 

The San Joaquin Valley Ai^ricQlturftl Society's Fair, at 
Stockton, commences September 2^th, and will continue 
four days. H. T. Compton, Sec'y. 

The Napa A Solano Agricultural and Mechanical Arts 
Society's annual lair commences on September 8ih. and 
continues four day. .1. B. Hovt. President; J. E. Willis- 
ton, Secretary; J. B. Frisbie, Treasurer. 



TREADWELL & CO. 

We certify that the partnership of Treadwell & Co., 
doing business In San i ranclsco, California, la composed 
of Leonard L. Treadwell and James F. Place, who both 
reside in the city and county of San Francisco, and 
William O. M. Berry, who resides In Oakland, Almeda 
county, California. 

San Francisco, Oal., May 26th, 1874. 

Leonabo L Tskasweix, 

Jas. F. PljlCK, 

Wm. O. M. Bebbx. 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA, 1 

Ctty and Coustx or San Fbakcuco. ) 

On this May 27th, 1874, before me Henry 0. Blake, a 
Notary Public, In and for said city and county, person- 
ally appeared Leonard L. Treadwell, James F. Place 
and William O. M. Berry, knovm to me to be the per- 
sons whose names are subscribed to the within instru- 
ment, and acknowledged to me that they executed the 
same. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and afiSxed my ofiicial seal, the day and year in this 
certificate first above written. 

HENRY C. BLAKE, Notary PubKe. 
Filed May ist, 1874. 

WM. HARNEY, County Clerk, 
jy4-4w By 8. C. ELLIS, Deputy. 



DTJBHAM STOCK AS BUTTER MAKERS. 

The following letter is published at the Instance of 
Peter Wall, Esq. 

Gbeen Valley Ranch, Marin Co., May 8th, 1874. 

Mb. J. B. Redmond- Z)ear Sir: We have just churned 
the cream obtained in seven days from our three-year- 
old heifer which we bought of you, and the result is 
fourteen and a half pounds (14ii pounds). 

Thinking that you might be interested in the matter 
I thought best to drop you a line. If any person 
thinks that your Durham stock does not milk well I 
would like to have them swallow this statement. 

Last year after bringing her from your place (and of 
course as a two-year-old) , and after four months from 
calving, she made, on dry feed in August, in one week, 
nine and a half pounds. Respectfully yours, 

25v7-4t O. ALLEN & SON. 



Our A.8reiit8. 

OuB Fbiends can do mnch in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
intluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

L. P. McCabty — General Agent. 

A. 0. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

W. H. RiTrENBEBRT- California. 

Chas. W. Otis— Solano County. 

C. M. Dalt— Colusa County. 

Chas. I'. Bell— Alameda, Santa Clara and Santa Criiz 
Counties. 

J. D. Cabet— Sonoma County. 

J . W. Andebson — Orange and Santa Ana, in Los Angeles 
County, Cal. 

Hood Alston— San Luis Obispo, San Bernardino and 
SanDlego Counties. 



The End-Shake Thbesbeb.— The following letter is 
from Wm. P. Harkey, Esq., Sheriff of Sutter county, 
referring to the value of the Lanfenberg End-Shake 
Shoe for threshing machines; 

Yuba Crrr, Cal., March 25, 1874. 

ME63BS.TnEAEWELL&Co.,San Frunciaco.—Gentlemm: 
In regard to the Lanfenberg End-Shake Shoe, which I 
bouk'ht of you last season, I will say I have given 't a 
thorough trial, and If I could not get another 1 would 
not take One Thousand Dollars for it. I used it 
throughout the season on a Russell Separator, which I 
had run previously with a side-shake, and it saved me 
a great deal of trouble and much loss. It saves all the 
grain. I consider it the best and most valuable im- 
provement on the threshing machine yet brought out. 
It in absolutely indispensable to the economical working 
of a good thresher. Wm, P. Habket. 

lijTT-Sra 



A COMPLIMENT. 

Plainsbcbg, Mekced Co., Ca»., June 22, 1874. 

Dewex & Co.— Omtlemen : I herewith tender my 
grateful acknowledgements for the energy, promptness 
and efficiency which you hav^ diiplayed in procuring 
my patent. 

Although you were entire strangers to me when I 
first communicated with yon, I soon felt satisfied you 
were gentlemen of integrity, and shall always be happy 
to represent you as such. Very truly yours, 

H. W. ROCKER, M. D. 



Oahpo, SakDieoo Co., Cal.. July 3d, 1874. 
Messbs. Dkwet k OJ.—Oentlemen: To-day I received 
the patent and other papers of my animal trap, that you 
BO successfully worked through the patent office for me, 
for which please accept my best wishes. The chances 
are that I will have another application for yoti to 
make for me before long. I am well satisfied with yonr 
manner of doing business, and I think inventors of 
this coast stand in their own light when they do not 
put their business int > your hands. 

I remain yours truly, A. M. OAB8. 



One of our most valaed exchanges Is the Pacific 
RcBAL Pbess, published by Dewey & Go,, San Francisco, 
Califrfula. Every number contains a vast amount of 
gene.'al news from the far west, besides much valuable 
information in the way of Grange news.- The Farmer's 
tHend, Meckanictbwrg, Pa. 

Plaintield, July 4th, 1874. 
Messbs. Dewey k Co.— Dear Sirt.- I acknowledge re- 
ceipt of yours of 2d inst., inclosing my Letters Patent. 
I thank you for the Interest you have taken In obtain 
Ing the same. Yours truly, M. W. COoN. 

Db. E. J. Fbabsb, Homospathlc Physician and Sur- 
geon, has removed bis ofllce and residence from 1U2 
Stockton street to No SOS Kearny street, northwest 
comer of Bush. £v7-3m 



DEWEY & CO., 
American and Foreign 



latent 




IVo. 33S o wxZsomery ^ t. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Patents Obtained Promptly. 
Caveats Filed Eipeditionsly. 
Patent Reissues Taken Ont. 
Patents Secured in Foreign Lands. 
.Vs.-fignments Made and Recorded in Legal Form. 
Copies of Patents and Assignments Procured, 
sz^minations of Patents made here and at 

Washington, 
examinations made of Assignments Recorded 

in Washington. 
ExaminationB Ordered and Reported by Tble- 

OBAPH. 

Interferences Prosecuted. 

Opinions Rendered regarding the Validity of 

Patents and Assignments. 

Rejected Cases taken up and Patents Obtained. 

Every Legitimate Branch of Patent Agency Bus- 
iness promptly and thoroughly conducted. 
Send fob Cibctjlak. 



Designing 

ana 

Engraving 

at 



This Office. 

We are prepared to do fine Wood Engraving ' 
for illustrating Landscape Scenery, Buildings, 
Machnery, Works of Art, Manufactured Articles, 
Trade Marks, Seals, Etc. We have a first-class ' 

Machine for Engraving 

A portion of the work, which can be finished i 
thereby more perfectly than by the eye and hand | 
alone. Our patrons can depend upon first-cla-ss i 
work always, and at reasonable prices. Samples ' 
can be seen at our office. i 

DEWEY & CO. 



Anglo-Californian Bank. 

LIMTTED. 

SuccessorB to J. Seligrman & Co. 

London Office No. 3 Angel Court. 

San Francisco Office No. 412 California street. 

Authorized Capital~Stock, $6,000,000, 

Subscribed , $;i ,000,000. Paid in , »1 ,600,000. 
Remainder ."subject to call. 

OiBKCToBs IN London— Hon. Hagb McCnIloch, Reuben 
D. Sasaoon, William K. Scholfleld, Ixaac Seliirman, Julius 
SinKton. 

Manaoebs: 

V. F. tAfW and I6XATX MTKI.\HAKT, 

San Fbancibco. 

The Bank is now prepared to open accounts, receive de- 
poniti, make collections, boy and sell Kxchange, aail Issue 
Leifers of Credit available thiuaghout the world, and to 
loan money on proper securities. 2v27-eowbp 

PACIFIC POTTERY, 

Depot— No. 3 California St., San Francisco. 

N. CLARK & CO. 

Manufacturers of 

EARTHEN AND STONEWARE. 



IMPROVE YOUR POULTRY. 

It Coats No More to Keep Oood Fowls than 
Poor Ones '. 




OAKLAND i'uULTRY YARDS, 

COR. 16TH AND CASTRO STREETS. OAKLAND, CAL. 

A few trios of Imported Dark Brahmas, of the cele- 
brated Black Prince strain, for sale at $.10 per trio. 
Also, one trio imported Golden Polish, at $30. 

For further information send stamp for IHnstrated 
Circular, containing a fnll description of all the best 
known and most profitable Fowls In the world, to 
GEO, B. BAYLEY, 

P. O. Box 659, San Francisco, 
9»7tf 



GE30. F. SILVESTER, 

SEEDSMAN, 

IMPOBT£B AND BXALXE IN ALL KLNDS 01* 

VEGETABLE, FLOWER, FIELD, FRUIT 
-A-ud Tree Seeds, 

GARDEN TOOLS, TREB3, PLANTS, Eto. 

No. 817 Waahlnrton Strsat, San Vraaoisoo, 
B«tWMB BattM7 sad Fisot. 



Jyli 



WATER AND SEWERAGE PIPE. 



Our Vitrified Iron Stone Pipe has been thorotighly 
testeil on private estates and public works, and Its mer- 
rits are fully endorsed by the leading Architects of 
the State. 

J. B. OWE1V8, A-sent. 

m9-bp-3m 

TO WINE & BRANDY MANUFACTURERS. 

Improved Grape Crusher and Stemmer. 

In these machines the grapes are fed In at one end 
and the cleaned steins are discharged at the opposite 
end, the pomat^ falling into a tank placed below, 
crushing the grapes without bruising the seeds. 

Run by steam, water, wind or horiie. power. Guaran- 
teed to crush and stem. In a satisfactory manner, from 
ten to sixty tons per day, according to size and power 
used, or no sale. 

Bend for Circular. Address, 

OEOKaE JOHNSTON, 

Sacramento. 

Or, W. F. JOHNSON, Folsom, Sacramento County, 
California. Reler to Lachman k Co., San Francisco, 
and Johnston Brandy and Wine Manufacturing Co., 
Sacramento and Marysvllle. 2v8-12w 



For the very best Photographs go to BRAD 

LEY i RDLOFSON'S QALLEBY, with an •• Elerator- 
429 Montgomery street, San FrancUco. 3t7-6iii 




Etfgrs! Eg:ers I Etrjsfsi 

For hatching, from reliable breeding stock 

«ne of the oldest and best yard* of pure 

bred poultry In the Cuited States. 

M. FALLON s 

SEVENTH AND OAK STB., OAKLAND. 
Offers for sale Eggs from the following varietiea of fowls: 
Llirht and Dark Brahmas, 
Buff. Partridge and White Cochins, 
Spangled, Oolden and SUwer Polish, 
Spangled, Oolden and Silver Hamburgv, 
Pure Whitefaced Black Spanish, 
Silkies, Qame, Leg-horns, White Sc Brown, 
Silver Gray Dorkins and Hoadans, 
Aylesbury and Bouen Ducks, 
Bronze Turkeys, the largest in California 

ALSO, CHESTER COUNTY WHITE PIGS, CHINA PIGS. 
7»fi;-tf.l6p2 

The New Wilson 

SEWING MACHINE 

Has points of superiority orer 
all others. A reliable warran- 
ty ix given with each machine 
for 

FIVB TEASS. 
It la nnequaled for tight and 
heavy work. Examine and 
compare It with ths highest 
priced machine in the market 
G. A. NORTON, Gen. Ag"t 
tor the Paclttc Coast. 

337 Kearny St., 8. F. 

PRICE. »ao. apavti 




W. M. BBANSOH. 



MCOB w. Koaxaa 



BRANDON & ROGERS, 
California Land Agency, 

410 KEARNY STREET, BAN FRANCISCO, 
Buy and sell unimproved lands, farma and city property 
throughout the .siaie ot California. Farms to exchange 
for cits property and city p'eperty f'<r farms. Eutero 
propertv to exchange (or Oalifortiia property. Traou 
favo' ably located, furnished for Oolonies. A large list of 
property to aelect Irom. Money Invested for other nartl'ii 
on ailvantageous terms. LonK experience in the bu>ineas 
anil exK-n^ive acquaintance In California and the Eaitern 
States, enable ua to effect speedy and satisfactory sales and 
eichangea. 20vll-ly-l8p 



MOUNT OIABLO VINEYARD— FOR SALE. 

Consists of 40 acres; can make 11,000 gallons of 
wine this year. Climate mild. Situated at the northern 
base of Mount Diablo. Oood Brandy Distillery; Wlaa 
Barrels: Wine Press; Large Concrete Wine Cellar. Good 
Spring of living water handy. Good reason* gtven for 
selling. Age of Vines from eight to ten yean. A cbolos 
variety of vines. A large quantity of flue grape land 
can be bought adjoining the above. The whole to b« 
sold at a great bargain. Apply to 

B. F. CLAYTON, San Jose. 
Or C.J. CLAYTON, 

10v7-6m Clayton, Contra Costs Co., Cal. 




Volume VIII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY i8, 1874. 



[Number 3. 



H. B. Jolley. 

We present to the readers of the Pbess to- 
day, a portrait of another prominent member 
of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry— Bro. 
H. B. Jollev, Master of Merced Grange, the 
first organized in Merced county. The friends 
of Mr. Jolley pronounce the accompanying 
portrait an admirable likeness, and we freely 
confess that we feel a degree of pride in the 
portraits that we have given of our friends, for 
we are a little sensitive in regard to the looks of 
our paper as well as to the matter contained 
therein, and we are proud in knowing that the 
personages whom the Pkess has introduced to 
its readers, present an appearance on paper 
equal to that of their record in the world out- 
side. 

The subject of our present sketch was born 
in Madison county, Indiana, on the 30th of 
November, 1824. His grandfather, W. H. 
Jolley, was a captain in Morgan's riflemen in 
the revolution of '76, and for many years after- 
wards judge of a court in Southern Ohio. His 
father, who was a Universalist minister, died 
when this son was in his fourteenth year, leaving 
his widow in charge of seven children and with 
limited means. The oldest son was an invalid, 
consequently the support of the family de- 
pended on the exertions of the mother and the 
subject of our sketch. Through the exertions 
of his mother and by working on a farm in 
summer, and attending school in fall and win- 
ter, he secured quite a liberal education. He 
also attended several select schools, and for 
some years followed teaching as a calling. 

In 1845 he was united in marriage with Miss 
Louisa W. Beemer. In 1848 he removed to 
Illinois, and in 1850 had his mother and 
younger brothers brought to his home, and 
settled them on his farm. During the succeed- 
ing year, he was elected County Surveyor, 
which office he held for t^^JO terms, when he 
was elected Clerk of the County Court. 

When Kansas and Nevada were opened by 
government for settlement, he removed to Kan- 
sas, and was appointed Marshal of the 13th 
district, and a judge of the first election held in 
Kansas. 

His family being dissatisfied with the condi- 
tion of things in Kansas, they left that State, 
and in 1861 crossed the plains and came to 
California; since which time he has been en- 
gaged in farming ia the San Joaquin valley, the 
last three years very extensively. In 1872 he 
farmed 3,500 acres of land, of which only 1,500 
were harvested. In 1873 he sowed 3,600 acres, 
of which only 300 were harvested. 

As was stated above, Mr. Jolley org".nized 
the Merced Grange, in the summer of 1872, and 
is now Master of the same. At the organiza- 
tion of the State Grange at Napa in July, 1872, 
he was elected a member of the Executive 
Committee, in which he has continued to render 
valuable services ever since. He was also soon 
after appointed by the Master of the State 
Grange as Deputy for Merced county, for one 
year, and continues to hold that position. As 
Deputy he has organized several Granges in 
Merced county, and also two Granges in Tulare 
county. He has always displayed most com- 
mendable zeal for the good of the Order, and has 
well exemplified the quaUties of a good Patron. 
He is now farming near Merced City. He has 
acted a very prominent and useful part in the 
Farmers' Canal Company, of Merced county. 

The "Kesonrces of California," by Hittell, 
sixth edition, re-written, has just been pub- 
lished by A. Boman & Co. The volume is an 
interesting one, not only to Californians, bat to 
people in the Eastern States and abroad, who 
wish reliable information of the State. The 
book treats of the topography of the State, 
society, climate, scenery, commerce, manufac- 
tures, agriculture, mining, geology, botany, 
zoology, law, topographical names, etc. The 
chapter on the last-mentioned subject might 
be read with benefit by some of our Eastern- 
readers, who get the familiar names of the 
country so badly mixed. Considerable space 
is allotted to both agriculture and mining, and 
the subject matter concerning them is well 
written up. As a whole, the work ia well 
worthy of perusal, containing not only much 
that is interesting, but considerable valuable 
information as well. 



Wheat, Fruit, Potato-bugs, etc., at the 
East. 

In Pennsylvania, New York and some other 
Eastern States, wheat growing is evidently 
being resuscitated, and the general report from 
this crop is at present exceedingly favorable. 
Fruit is also looking well; but the potato-bug 
is looking decidedly bad. In some portions of 
Pennsylvania this destructive and odious pest 
is greatly annoying the farmers. It is asserted 
that they travel by rail — not on the rail fence, 
as old-fashioned bugs have been ia the habit of 
doing, but by the railroads of the country. 
The theory is quite plausible, for it is well 
known that the potato-bug, as a flying machine, 
is a failure; and no visible means of transit 
has yet been made known by which he reaches 



A Short Cut to Peach Culture. 

It is to cut off any old branch of a peach 
tree, stick it into the ground — it may be used 
for a bean-pole while sticking there— and it 
will take root, bear splendid peaches— scorning 
the assistance of irrigation — performing all the 
functions of an old-style peach tree, and requir- 
ing none of the cares and labors which have 
hitherto been bestowed upon that class of trees. 
This, it seems, is the way they manage these 
things about Stockton. The occupation of the 
nurserymen in the vicinity of that celebrated 
city is evidently going, going, and will soon be 
gone. The grand patriarch of this new order 
of fruit trees, which now stands on the ranch 
of Mr. Learned, near that place, was originally 
a common garden stake. It is now pointed 
out to the effeminate, youthful occupants of our 




H. B. JOLLEY, MASTER OF HESCED ORANGE. 



his destination. He has been caught " steal- 
ing a ride" on the axles and other parts of 
railroad cars, and though even a larger propor- 
tion of his^ than of the human race, ia crushed 
and dumped into eternity by the improved 
facilities for transportation, there will enough be 
left for purposes of propagation. 

Among other current agricultural intelli- 
gence received from the East, Mr. J. B. Jones, 
of Rochester, N. Y., writes us as follows, under 
date of July 6th ; 

" After a long, cold spring, we are having a 
fine growing summer. Wheat, that looked so 
brown and lifeless in April, has thickened up, 
and is fully an average in all the Eastern States. 
Corn looks well and all other spring crops. 
Grass is heavy. The fruit crop, which with us 
is an important one, promises well. Srawber- 
ries have been fine and cheap (10c.) Rasp- 
berries and cherries are now ripe, and are a 
fine crop, bringing good prices, or from 10c . to 
15c. per qt. Grapes, apples, pears and peaches 
have all set well— peas, perhaps, the least; 
while peaches have not been for a long time as 
promising. The potato-bug has at last reached 
us, and, although as yet only a part of our fields 
have been attacked, the damage is quite serious, 
and another year we shall have a full crop of 
bugs. Well, we must fight them." 



Faib op the New Jebsby State Aobiccl- 
TUEAii Society. — The Secretary of the New 
Jersey State Agricultural Society sends us the 
programme and premium list of the sixteenth 
annual fair of this society, which is to be held 
at Waverly station, near Newark, commencing 
on Monday, September 14th, to continue 
throughout the week. The premiums are liberal 
in amount and are judiciously apportioned. 



gardens and nurseries as an example of what a 
tree can do that is forced to rely on its own re- 
sources; a noble self-made peach tree. If sur- 
veyors could be induced to make their stakes 
of the wood of the peach treo and use them in 
their exploring expeditions, what a start it 
would give to the horticultural advantages of 
the country! and if the early settlers would use 
this wood for their fence posts, how tourists 
and excursive journalists would praise the 
country! For if this system was practised, the 
passing tourists and "our reporters" would 
only have to climb to the top of a four-board 
fence and fill ttiose dear little hats, then eat, 
drink and be merry. It is true that in doing 
this they might incur the risk of pressing out 
some of the studied dents and kinks that all ed- 
itorial and touristical hats are expected to pos- 
sess, and thereby render their wearers liable to 
be mistaken for ordinary mortals; but after all, 
what is fame ! 



John MiTCHEiiL, the famous exile, is about 
to return to Ireland to become a candidate for 
the British Parliament. Nearly $2,000 has 
been collected in this country and in Ireland to 

defray Mitchell's expenses. 

^ ^ ^^ 

An immense fruit crop is expected in Tu- 
olumne county. In many places the farmers 
have to shake off the fruit to prevent their 
trees from breaking down. 

The Santa Clara College has received some 
coffee seeds, which they intend to plant as an 
experiment. 

Fias are now ripe in San ' Diego, and sell for 
twenty- five cents per dozen. 



How About Silk Culture ? 

All human enterprises have apparently as 
many stages of existence, and play about as 
many parts as man himself. The self-accusing 
spirit of the American people prompts them to 
confess a superlative degree of guilt in some 
rather ordinary crimes. They acknowledge 
themselves to be particularly addicted to "run- 
ning things into the ground;" to making costly 
idols one day and tearing them to pieces the 
next; taking up some new enterprise in a hasty 
manner, concentrating their hopes and ener- 
gies upon them, and leaving them "in disgust" 
just at the time when they ought to have stuck 
to them. Our foreign neighbors and adopted 
citizens are ever ready to yield an unqualified 
assent to all these self-accusations of ours; and 
somehow manage to thus escape similar 
charges, which might be as justly laid at their 
doors. Of those sins, or rather weaknesses, 
which we acknowledge as national character- 
istics, but are really mere failings, possessed 
by the whole human family, the disposition to 
be still beginning and never ending is con- 
spicuous. And among the things which we 
have rushed into wildly, and backed out of 
hurriedly, silk culture stands forth as a recent 
and conspicuous example. 

The extravagant hopes founded on the pro- 
spective silk business, and the injudicious 
management of its incipient stages, are too 
fresh in the memories of our readers to render 
a recital of them necessary; but we have faith 
that this, with other incipient enterprises of 
this country, will yet rise from their graves, 
and that the day of resurrection for the silk 
business, especially, is not far off. The ex- 
pected profits of the enterprise were possibly 
overestimated, and impatience undoubtedly 
misled reason in looking after immediate re- 
sults; but the abandonment of the undertak- 
ing was brought about by more realistic causes. 
The misdirected State patronage which in- 
duced the planting of myriads of a worthless 
class of mulberry trees, submitting the matter 
to the control of a corrupt ring, created a deep- 
seated disgust in the public mind which is 
really unjust, and is detrimental to the public 
interests. It is now asserted that certain for- 
eign elements, operating in our midst, were 
actively and efficiently employed in blighting 
our silk interests to save those of their own 
countries. 

But the errors and follies alluded to above 
will admit of speedy correction upon a revival 
of the active interest in the matter; and it only 
needs a conviction of the inimical influences 
having been exerted against them, to arouse 
and unite the energies of our people. The 
natural advantages which some portions of 
California, especially that in the vicinity of 
San Francisco, possess for silk culture were 
probably never overrated. They remain the 
same and can bide their time; and even another 
failure on our part would not preclude the next 
generation from placing this among the im- 
portant industries of the country. 

Close students and patient experimenters in 
this interesting art are now, and have continued 
from the first, evolving new theories, and re- 
ducing old ones to practice; and when they 
predict, as they do, that within ten years every 
family in and about San Francisco, who are 
disposed so to do, can make two or three hun- 
dred dollars per annum by feeding silk worms, 
we are hardly disposed to treat their theory as 
visionary. While the hasty popular verdict an- 
nounces that silk culture in this country is 
"played out," new varieties of silk worms are 
being introduced here, and new methods of 
treatment are being practiced. 

We would not designedly do anything that 
would have a tendency to revive the former ex- 
citement on this subject; but we fear that in 
our haste to dispose of business enterprises, 
and even still loftier undertakings, which are 
declared to have "had their day, " there have 
been some oases of "buried alive;" and we do 
not desire to see human efforts, any more than 
the human body, put under ground before life 
is extinct. 



Sub-Ticket Offices. — Officers of the prom- 
inent railways in session in New York recently, 
agreed to abolish all sub-ticket offices main- 
tained at nnnecessary expense and risk. 



34 



[July 18, 1874 



ORRESPONDENCE. 



The RuBAL Press, in openinK the columns of this de- 
partment to its correspondents, does not desire to lay be- 
tore its readers anything which i* not in keeping witn its 
character and position as an agricultural ana family paper. 
Facts are always thiinkfuliy received : and saggewtions and 
matters of opinion on subjects connected with agriculture 
are also acceptable; though correspondents are to be un- 
derstood as speaking for themselves and not for the Pbess. i 



A Letter to J. M. Kerlinger. 

Sib : — Having been a resident of the State t)f 
California more than twenty-four years, of 
which time eight years have been passed in the 
Sierras, I reply to your letter of July 6th, giv- 
ing you the result of my observation and ex- 
perience, hoping that you and other immigrants 
may find desirable homesteads in the foot-hills, 
where the resources of the soil and geniality of 
the climate offer unwonted and tempting in- 
ducements for permanent settlement. I think 
that I am quite thoroughly conversant with the 
topography and climate of the central portion 
of the State, from the coast to the mountains, 
and especially of the foot-hills, between the 
North Fork of the Feather river and the South 
Fork of the American. 

As the land along the Pacific Coa.st, and in 
the great interior valleys of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin rivers, is mostly covered with 
Mexican grants, or owned and possessed by 
capitalists and speculators, you will find it to 
be quite diiflcnlt to lay a soldier's homestead, 
excepting in the foot-hills of the Sierras. Here 
you may make a permanent home, through the 
beneficence of the government, leaving the 
balance of the State to the possession 
to those persons to whom it has been 
granted, and who hold it at high figures for the 
purposes of speculation and profit. Perhaps 
equalization of taxes may yet convince some 
ol them that they own too much for the public 
good and the prosperity of the commonwealth. 
Here in the foot-hills you may locate a quarter- 
section of land, (160 acres), whi3h has good 
soil, pure water, and an abundance of wood 
consisting of white, black, burr and live oak, 
and pine, for the fire-place ; and, for fencing, 
there is chaparral. The soil will generate every 
kind of vegetable, plant, grain cr tree, which 
can be cultivated in a temperate or semi- 
tropical country or climate. Here is now 
raised the best fruit on the Pacific slope, for 
rich flavor and juicy quality. I make no ex- 
ception or qualification to this proposition. 

Do you admire fine-fleshed and mealy pota- 
toes ? They are produced everywhere at an 
altitude of from one to three thousand feet above 
tide-water. Do you love peaches ? They are 
cultivated in the vicinity of Auburn, so racy 
and rare that they will melt in your mouth 
before they reach your palate. Do you want 
apples ? George W. Applegate, of Clipper 
Gap, Placer county, has nearly a hundred acres 
of the finest and best fruit that can be named. 
Will you have pears ? Dr. J. R. Crandall, of 
Auburn, raises the most excellent in the State. 
Will yon eat strawberries ? The editors of the 
RuEAX Press commend those cultivated by 
Felix Gillet, of Nevada city. Do you fancy 
oranges ? The editors of the Sacramento 
Union say that they have received some from 
Bidwell's bar, Butte county, which are superior 
in quality to the oranges of Los Angeles county. 
Do you drink wine "for the stomach's sake," 
or do you love the grape as a fruit ? James R. 
Nickeson, of Lincoln, Placer county, and Robert 
Chalmers, of Coloma, El Dorado county, have 
each of them over one hundred acres of foot- 
hill laud in vineyard; and their fruit and wine 
command premiums and diplomas whenever 
they choose to put them on exhibition. Fruit 
of all kinds is the great specialty of the foot- 
hills. 

The farmers of Placer county have poultry, 
hogs, ducks, geese, turkeys, goats, cattle, mules 
and horses. Very few of them have sheep. 
Nearly every family has a flock of goats. In- 
fants are reared on goat's milk in preference to 
cow's milk. Indeed, goat's milk id coffee is a 
luxury. The mohair of the Angora goat is 
becoming a valuable article of commerce in this 
county. Shirland & Thomas have large flocks 
of this breed of goats. The goat feeds on the 
wild grass and shrubs of the hills. The flesh 
of the kid is considered by many to be superior 
to mutton. Everything that is raised on the 
farm, in the garden, in the orchard, or in the 
vineyard, meets with a ready sale. When the 
local market becomes overstocked, the Cential 
Pacific railroad carries the surplus stock, of 
whatever kind, over the mountains to Nevada, 
Utah, Idaho and Montana. 

In regard to the climate of the foot-hills, it is 
entirely different from that of the coast coun- 
ties, and also that of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin valleys. There are no cold and chill- 
ing ocean winds, like those which prevail at 
San Francisco, and which lay the foundiition 
for so many pulmonary complaints. There are 
no destructive northers, which sometimes sweep 
down through the length and breadth of the 
great interior valleys. There are no tornadoes 
or hurricanes; there are no earthquakes; there 
are no sand storms or water-spouts, which are 
very common in the southern counties of this 
State, and which are often exceedingly destruct- 
ive to property and life itself. The rain-fall is 
from twenty to sixty inches annually, ranging 
according to the altitude above tide-water. 



Hence, there can be no drouth in the moun- 
tains. The springs and rivulets are perennial. 
During the winter, the prevailing winds are 
either from the northwest or southeast; the 
former being cold and usually closing up with 
some frosty nights; while the latter are warm 
and bring rain in copious measure. During 
the summer, the wind blows regularly from the 
coast over the interior valleys throughout the 
day, and is often hot and scorching; while 
throughout the night, it comes down from the 
higher mountains, rendering the temperature 
peculiarly charming and delightful. Hence, 
sleep is always sweet, sound and refreshing. 

There are dairy ranches in the mountains; 
that is, there are cows which are kept for but- 
ter and cheese. During the winter the cows 
are pastured in the valleys of the lowest foot- 
hills; but during the summer the same stock 
is pastured in the high mountain valleys, far 
above the belt of the oak, and even the tall 
pine. There are none to rent, but there are 
butter and cheese to 'sell. Qualified school- 
teachers can get a salary at from $50 to $100 
per month; but San Francisco is the place 
where school-ma'ams do mostly congregate. In 
the mountain towns, generally, carpenters can 
obtain good wages. But I candidly think that 
even "energetic, intelligent people" cannot do 
much on a place in the mountains, or anywhere 
else in Cahfornia, without some money for a 
starter. Such people must have money " for a 
living, until they really get a start," if they 
would make farming pay in the foot-hills. 
However, I know two families in this neigh- 
borhood, who did not have $50 after they pur- 
chased their land, and in two years they have 
become comfortable, and in a measure inde- 
pendent. But the men, and the women an 
well, worked harder and more persistently than 
the most of people would do Tinder similar cir- 
cumstances. Their places are now worth 
$2,000 or $2,500 each. As Arthur once said: 
"Where there is a will, there is a way." There 
is no doubt that people of moderate means can 
do more and get along better in the foot-hills 
than in the San Joaquin valley, where some- 
times the ground becomes as dry and parched 
as the Colorado desert. It requires capital to 
ditch, dyke and irrigate the wide and extended 
alkali plains of that great valley; thus prepar- 
ing and fitting it to be one of the great wheat 
sources of the world. A man of moderate 
means may make a comfortable home in the 
foot-hills. T. S. Mybick. 

Auburn, July 9th, 1874. 

From Dry Creek. 

Kditobs Pbess: — Feeling assured of your 
willingness to publish anything that would be 
of interest or advantage to the public, especially 
those seeking homes in the State; and never 
having seen anything in print respecting this 
locality, I thought best to let the readers of the 
Peess know something of a beautiful tract of 
country lying on either side of what is known 
as Dry creek, situated in the southern part of 
Placer county, and within 14 miles of Sacra- 
mento city. I consider it worthy of as much 
notice as many other places of which we read 
BO much. We can boast of as healthy a climate 
as any other part of the State. The soil is 
varied, being composed of clay, sand and de- 
composed granite. It will produce as good 
wheat, barley and oats as any other part of the 
country. Potatoes and other vegetables do 
well if properly cultivated, though we do not 
boast of as many bushels to the acre as some 
other localities; but we have the satisfaction of 
reaping when we sow, having never known a 
total failure on this creek. There were a num- 
ber of jjieces sown with alfalfa last winter, the 
most of which look well and will no doubt be a 
success. The orchards and vineyards give 
promise of a large crop, and the hay crop was 
good, having been cut and large quantities of 
It already marketed. We are now busy thresh- 
ing wheat and barley, which will be an average 
crop, although the north winds four weeks ago 
injured them somewhat. 

Our nearest market is Roseville, a pleasantly 
situated little town at the junction of the C.P. 
Cal. and Oregon R.R. It is a good market for 
hay and barley, which is shipped in large 
quantities to the mountains for feeding stock 
in the lumber regions. What we want, in order 
to make this one of the most thrifty towns in 
the State, is a few enterprising men with capi- 
tal to erect a mill and factories and such other 
improvements as are needed to make a live 
place. We have the wheat and wool, and need 
the mills to fit them for use. Judging from the 
acreage now in summer fallow, there will be 
double the area sown next fall that has ever 
been before. Another important item is the 
large quantities of white oak timber, which, 
converted into stove-wood, commands a good 
price. 

I would say to those seeking homes in the 
country, give us a call before buying (not that 
I have lands for sale, as I have none; but be- 
cause they are yet cheap, compared to many 
other places; possessing no more advantages 
than are to be found here. ) Improved farms 
can be bought for $20 per acre. There are 
large tracts of land, from two to five miles of 
Roseville, that I am told can be bought cheap, 
and on reasonable terms. They are now used 
for sheep ranches. We have a Grange in Rose- 
ville in perfect working order, which numbers 
something over 70 members, and still tjiey 



come. V.W.S. 

Dry Creek, Placer Co. July Gth, 1874. 



About Hydraulic Rams. 

EoiTOBs Pbess:— In the Robal of Dec. 6th, 
1873, I saw an article and an illustration of a 
hydraulic ram. I wish to know if they are 
suitable for irrigation, what price for one of 
such sort, also the price per foot of the receiv- 
ing and conducting pipe, and the elevation they 
will bring the water to ? I want to irrigate a 
pie.'e of valley land which has a small rivulet 
running through it. The flood of last winter 
washed out the channel to a depth of eight feet. 
The picture in the Rural is a good description. 
I will feel much obliged if you will reply in the 
the RnBAL as soon as convenient. I want to 
know the scale of prices both of the ram and of 
the hose or pipe, as I want a large one, or one 
that will discharge as much water as would fill 
an ordinary stove pipe— if there are such. It 
seems to me that vendors of such articles would 
be wise in advertising them in the Rubal. If 
the water of a small stream can be raised so as 
to run over the adjoining land by such a plan 
it would be a great advantage over a wind-mill, 
as it would be constant. StrBSCRiBEE. 

[We have never seen hydraulic rams used for 
irrigating, but from our acquaintance with 
them as used for other agricultural purposes, 
we can conceive of no reason why they should 
not be available in this. To answer properly 
all the enquiries of our correspondent would 
take more space than the present crowded con- 
dition of our columns would permit. If "Sub 
sciber " will furnish us with his address we will 
send him such information as he evidently 
needs. We would, however, take this occasion 
to put in a good word for the hydraulic ram; 
endorsing its claims as a reliable and enduring 
worker in many important positions; having 
known one instance where one of them bad 
worked constantly for a term of 17 years, re- 
quiring in all this time only two or three re- 
placements of worn out parts, and was still run- 
ning when last heard from. They are coming 
into extensive use among the dairymen of the 
East, who use them for bringing water to their 
stable-yards and milk-houses. We have never 
known of one being " thrown aside." — Editobs 
Pbess. ] 

The Army Worm. 

Editobs Pbess: — I notice several articles in 
your paper from C. W. Otis, describing a worm 
which is destroying the vineyards in his sec- 
tion. A worm which I take to be the army 
worm has made its appearance here, destroying 
almost every variety of vegetation that is tender 
enough to feed upon, in its march; several 
corn crops, vegetables of all kinds, grape 
vines, and even alfalfa have been attacked by 
them in this neighborhood. They only disturb 
com when very young. For several days the 
irrigating ditches here have been literally 
covered with them, and having kept a strong 
current of water flowing through them has been, 
I think, a great protection, as quantities have 
been washed away from the cultivated portions 
of the ranch. In the South, where the cotton 
crop is frequently destroyed by the army worm, 
they iisually appear in increased numbers 
within three weeks after their disappearance, 
which is the time, I believe, necessary for the 
moth to deposit and hatch the eggs. Should 
we have a second visitation from these worms 
I have great apprehensions for any end all 
crops in their line of march. J. Dixon. 

Buena Vista Rincho, July 6th, 1874. 



Hoi^ticUltUi^e. 



Do Beks Eat Gbapes ? — As I have cultivated 
bees in a part of France where grapes are the 
main crop, near the hills of Burgundy, cele- 
brated for the wine produced by the culture of 
the sugared pinean, a grape richer in sugar 
than all the American kinds, I think I can 
bring some light on the discussion existing be- 
tween Professor Riley atd my friend Krusctike. 
There has been considerable discussion between 
the wine-growers and the bee-keepers in the 
above named district, and it is very well estab- 
lished that bees are unable to cut the skin of 
grapes. In order to ascertain the fact, the 
most juicy and sugared grapes, pears, sweet 
cherries, plums, apricots, etc., were put inside 
the hives; never have the bees attacked them, 
if they were not previously scratched. The 
experiment was repeatedly made; it was dis- 
covered also that the first cutting was made by 
a kind of wasp, or by birds, ot caused by the 
rain falling when the fruit was ripe. In Italy 
the same experiments have led to the same re- 
sults. It is therefore unjust to accuse the bees 
of the mischief. It is to be regretted to see 
such distinguished men as Professor Riley 
bring forward the accusation, and some bee- 
writers sustain it, who, with a more careful 
observation, would have arrived at an alto- 
gether different conclusion. — Live Stock Journal. 

Destbotino Wobms in Pots. — The worms in 
the pots may be destroyed by stopping; up the 
holes in the pots with corks, and watering with 
lime water until it stands on the surface. The 
lime water may remain for an hour; then, on 
removing the cork, it will pass off. The lime 
water may be made by pouring 30 gallons of 
water over 10 pounds of fresh lime. Stir well 
up, and allow the whole to stand two or three 
days; then employ the clear liquor. 



How to Grow the Oleander. 

The oleander is a very ornamental plant 
when properly grown, but we seldom see fine 
specimens. There is scarcely one of my read- 
ers who has not seen dozens of tall, straggly 
plants. I propose to give a few directions by 
which fine plants may be grown. 

Take a healthy cutting, place it in a bottle 
of water, and let it remain there till roots ap- 
pear; then pot it, shifting it into larger sized 
pots as its roots require more room. Do not 
try to have it branch until it blooms. It will 
then have a long, straight stalk— a good foun- 
dation for the plant you desire. After bloom- 
ing, three shoots will start; allow these to grow, 
as these are the flower shoots, but after these 
have bloomed, cut back all the shoots to within 
four or five inches of the former branching 
place. Do this each time the plant blooms. 

Two years ago we had a plant given us which 
was four years old and several feet high. In 
the autumn my husband remorselessly cut it 
down to within five inches of the first branch- 
ing, but after starting the following spring it 
grew rapidly. The oleander has many good 
qualities. It will bloom well for its owner all 
summer, and then, after cutting down in ih* 
fall, may be put in a dry cellar for the winter, 
doing better during the following summer for 
its long rest. While growing it requires an 
abundance of water. It would be a good plan 
to allow it to stand in pans constantly fall of 
water till after blooming, when water should be 
gradually witheld till cut in, and then it should 
be put in the cellar and no mo?e water given it 
till the following spring. It is well to re-pot the 
plants every three years (just before starting 
them in the spring)^ If you do not wish them 
in larger pots, pare the ball of roots with a 
sharp knife on the sides and bottom, re-pot in 
strong, rich loam, and set in a shaded place, 
and in a few weeks the root will form anew. — 
Kitty Clover in Floral Cabinet. 

Uses of the Cherry Tree. 

At the Michigan Pomological meeting, Mr. 
H. S. Chubb paid a tribute to the cherry tree, 
which, in every position, contributes in some 
way to the comfort and service of man. "Even 
the gum which exudes from its wounds is pre- 
cious for medicinal purposes and makes an ex- 
cellent mucilage;" its fruit is handsome; is un- 
doubtedly the best that is canned or preserved; 
for drying, it has "no equal in the whole realm 
of commerce," its curative properties are uni- 
versally conceded, and its rich color is the ac- 
knowledged standard of beauty on the lips of 
the most charming of women. Nor is this all. 
Its timber ranks high; "the household furniture 
next best to black walnut and mahogany is made 
of Michigan cherry, and thence transported to 
all parts of the world; the best printer's furni- 
ture is manufactured from Michigan cherry, 
and distributed from thence wherever,civiliza- 
tion has carried the printing press. Cherry, 
grown wild in the woods of Michigan, is songut 
for by the manufacturers of school furniture, 
as the best wood they can find for their pur- 
pose. It is easily worked; receives a good pol- 
ish; has a delightful lively color, and, in con- 
trast with maple and walnut, gives a pleasing 
variety to decorative cabinet and carpentry 
work, which of late years have introduced a 
new charm to dwelling, office, store, railroad 
car, steamboat, and private carriage. The 
wood is hard without being coarse or knotty, 
and its grain, though not prominent, is fine 
and beautiful." Thankful ought we to be, and 
proud, that we live in a land and enjoy a cli- 
mate where this fruit and timber can be grown. 



Owing to some mysterions change of climate, 
Scotland is becoming, year by year, less pro- 
ductive in the matter of fruit. At a late meet- 
ing of the Botanical Society, Mr. McNab read 
a paper on " Further Evidences of Climatic 
Changes in Scotland," and mentioned that 
several old Scotch gardeners, as well as ama- 
teur cultivators, concurred with his opinion 
that several varieties of fruit now cultivated in 
that country were by no means equal to wh at 
they were from thirty to fifty years ago. 



A LADY correspondent of Moore's Rural Neic 
Yorker says: I take good, thick paper, out 
three-cornered, and double it in the shape of a 
funnel, fill with dirt, and planting a seed in 
each one, bury it in a box filled with earth. 
The seeds will soon germinate. When the 
plants are ready to remove to the flower-bed, 
lift the paper out and plant it like roots. The 
paper will soon rot and the plants will never 
wilt. I transplanted nasturtiums in this way 
with perfect success. 

Chbysanthemum will remain in bloom a 
great while longer if taken up and put in boxes 
just as the buds are opening than if left in the 
ground, no matter how favorable the weather 
may be out of doors. Moving does not injure 
them in the least if the work is done well; but 
the transplanting tends to retard the develop- 
ment of the buds, and keeps them in a partially 
dormant condition, but not enough so to pre- 
vent them from coming to perfection.— OAio 
Farmer. 

■ A Rapid Geowino 1'bee. — At the Knap Hill 
nursery, Surrey, Englind, is a specimen tree 
of the J'opolus Canadensis, nova, a variety of 
the Cottonwood, which in three years has made 
the extraordinary growth of twenty feet, form- 
ing well made trees. It is esteemed by Messrs . 
Waterer as a better grower than any other 
poplar, and its habits free and healthy. 



July i8, 1874] 



A 35 



E IJOE^SE. 



Principal Points to be Regarded in the 
Judgment of Horses. 

It is well-known that men of large experience 
in the judgment and selection of horses are the 
first to discern faults of • conformation and un- 
soundness, whether the infirmity is in an in- 
cipient state or more fully developed. One 
glance at the legs or feet is generally suflicient 
to detect malformation or infirmity, and any 
serious deficiency in this part determines the 
usefulness, and consequently the value, of the 
animal submitted for the examination of a com- 
petent judge. A good body will wear out two 
sets of poor limbs; and this point should al- 
ways be kept in view in the selection of horses 
for any purpose whatever. A good head is a 
very material feature in all sorts of horses use4 
for hunting, hack, or harness work. Coarse or 
heavy heads are seldom seen on really good 
horses; but big, lean and well-shaped heads 
are not objectionable, if they are not out of 
proportion to the strength of the neck and the 
size of the horse. Short, sharp and lively 
looking ears; clear, but not very prominent 
eyes, with plenty of width between them across 
the forehead, are points of excellence. A 
small muzzle and good open nostrils, with 
plenty of width between the jaws, are ele- 
ments of beauty always appreciated. A clean 
gullet — without a fleshy appearance or flabby- 
looking skin at the juncture of the head to 
the neck — must always be looked for when 
perfection of form is wished. An arched 
neck is not at all desirable, and a straight 
"cow" neck should be regarded as an objec- 
tionable feature. From the "poll" of the 
head to the withers there should be a slight 
incline, and the length of the neck should be 
determined at first sight as neither too 
long nor too short. It should, however, be 
clean and muscular, without lumber or heavi- 
ness on the crest, and the wind-pipe should 
be clearly defined from its juncture with the 
throat to the crest. Lengthy and obliquely 
placed shoulders are essential in the formation 
of all horses used under saddle, or the rider 
will not be carried with safety or pleasure. 
With such shoulders as these, allied to long 
and muscular forearms, large, well-shaped 
knees, short and strong cannon bones, with the 
back sinews clearly defined; clean, well-formed 
fetlocks, and pasterns neither short, stilty, nor 
too slack, on sound, well-formed feet, a horse 
can hardly fail to ride pleasantly and firmly in 
his fine band. A wide chest is objectionable, 
for the reason that it causes a rolling gait, and 
a narrow one will place the fore legs so nearly 
together that he is always in danger of " speed- 
ing out;" that is, striking the inside of one leg 
with the foot of the other. When standing in 
front of a horse, a good judge will take partic- 
ular notice of the manner in which his feet are 
placed on the ground. If his toes are turned 
inward, he is termed "pigeon-toed," and is 
more objectionable than if he turned them 
out. Yet, in the search for that rarity— a per- 
fect horse — both these faults will result in his 
rejection. A short back is always stronger than 
a long one, though not quite so easy to the 
rider. Nicely-arched and muscular loins, wide 
hips, and well-rounded quarters, with strong 
and muscular thighs, are also most desirable 
points. The hind legs should not be straightly 
formed, and the hock — being one of the most 
important joints in the frame of a horse — should 
be especially well formed, and free from every 
sign of bone or blood, spavin, curb, thorough- 
pin, or coarseness of any description. The 
hind legs should be placed far enough apart to 
prevent the interference of the hooks or fetlocks 
with each other, otherwise there vrill be that 
unsightly appearance known as "cut hams;" 
but they should not be so wide asunder as to 
induce uneven or imperfectly-balanced action. 
— London Farmer. 



Let the Hobse Koll.— -Horses that are kept 
in the stable during summer, should be given 
daily the luxury of a roll on the earth. Roll- 
ing is the means given by nature for the animal 
to rid itself of vermia and skin diseases, and 
it tends to make the animal healthy. Some 
owners object to allowing a horse to roll on 
the bare earth, because it gets dirt into the 
hair and makes extra work to keep the animal 
clean, but the extra work pays, if rightly tfn- 
derstood. We allow our horse to roll in the 
dirt when he is not moist with perspiration, 
and then stand an hour or two with his coat 
full of dust before being cleaned up. — Ohio 
Farmer. 

Sweeny Kemedy. — A correspondent of the 
Cincinnati Gazette says : Take equal parts of 
sweet oil, turpentine and hartshorn; put in a 
vial and shake well; then add chloroform, and 
shake it up well before using. Put it on three 
mornings in succession, freely; then hold a 
blanket on it for 10 minutes. It is a sure cure. 
It also cured rheumatism for me, in my arm, 
from which I had been a sufi'erer for 20 years. 

[We have cured sweeny by applying to the 
part afifected a woolen cloth, saturated with 
turpentine, then holding a heated flat-iron as 
close to it as the animal will allow. But few 
applications will be needed. — Eds. Press.") 

Cube fob Bbittlk Feet. — Wash the borae'a 
feet clean when dry, apply with a brush, to the 
hoof only, a coating of this mixture : Fish oil, 
one part; vegetable tar, one part; oil of tar, 
one-eighth part. 




Boiled Corn for Poultry. 

In the breeding of poultry as in all other pur- 
suits, a little care and forethought invariably 
return an apparently disproportionate result. 
In the rearing of poultry, where the expendi- 
ture on each fowl is small and the materialjpro- 
vided comparatively inexpensive, we are apt to 
overlook the small wastes whicn occur in the 
transformation of the different grains into 
poultry, but which aggregate quite a respecta- 
ble sum. 

The opinion that corn is very nourishing 
food for fowls is so universal, that no further 
thought is given the matter. If any one shauld 
suggest that corn would be easier of digestion 
if soaked or boiled, he would very likely receive 
the answer that corn was nothing hard to digest 
for birds, which swallow stones and other hard 
substances without detriment. A moment's 
thought, however, will convince that the mill- 
stones and the grist are very different thiugs, 
and feeding hard grain, although not exactly 
like feeding the millstones with pebbles, bears 
a certain likeness to it. The trouble attendant 
on the preparation of food, if it is to be cooked, 
may indeed seem very disproportionate to the 
advantage to be derived from such treatment 
but, in reality, little time need be spent, as 
before going the rounds of the nests a little hot 
water may be poured over the grain, a tight 
cover put on the kettle, and the whole placed 
over the stove, where, by the time your rounds 
are completed, the corn will have become 
steamed aud mellow, and have lost none of its 
good qualities. Remember each hen has a car 
tain amount of animal force to be expended 
every day in some direction, and the less she 
has to give to digesting her food, the more she 
will have to be expended in egg-producing, 
The advantages of the warm food in winter, 
when much food goes toward producing animal 
heat to withstand the cold, are two-fold from 
the direct action of the warmth and the slower 
action of the food itself, to say nothing of the 
fact that the content produced by nourishing 
food will result in more eggs, for a hen thor- 
oughly at home will lay many more eggs than 
a discontented one. We have performed the 
experiment ourselves and know that feeding 
boiled corn does pay, and it is as a result of ex, 
perience that we offer this plan to our friends 
■•-Live Stock Journal. 



Why High Priced Eggs do not Hatch. 

High priced eggs do not always hatch, for we 
have tried them and know. We set two dozen 
under orthodox hens of amiable disposition 
that knew how to stick to the nest, and did it 
for twenty-three consecutive days. It wasn't 
the fault of the expressman, for they did not 
come by express. They were not old. We 
knew the yard wnere they were laid, and they 
were fresh egg-i. There was a twelve pound 
rooster, with the hens that laid them. And 
the result of the hatching was one thorough 
bred Buff Cochin chick. Now, there are 20 
reasons why they did not hatch— beginning 
with this, that the hens were kept confined in 
two small yards. We do not know what phy 
Biological laws are violated that hens kept in 
close confinement do not breed well. Perhaps 
it is because they are fowls of the air, and need 
a good deal of that article and plenty of mother 
earth to make them thrifty. The fact is pretty 
well established in the experience of poultry- 
men. There is no trouble of this kind with 
hens running at large. They steal their nests 
in hay mows, under the barn, under the shed, 
in the woods, in out-of-the-way places with no 
protection at all, and nearly every egg hatches 
until frost comes. But with the fancy breeds, 
as they are called, come small yards, that 
several varieties may be kept upon the same 
place, and here trouble begins. All sorts of 
causes are alleged for the failure of the egos to 
hatch. The expressman is roundly abused. 
The breeder is dishonest. He may be only 
ignorant, and over-;inxious to ! ell eggs at six 
dollars a dozen. If small yards are not a good 
reason for infertile eggs, we will bring forward 
the other nineteen. The moral is: It is safer 
to buy high priced eggs after seeing tha fowls. 
—Ex.' 

Salt in Poultry Diet. — Salt is necessary 
for human diet, and is found in small quanti- 
ties in the bones of all animals. To pigeons, a 
species somewhat allied to hens, it is very ben- 
eficial. It is almost certain death to fowls if 
thrown out in large quantities, as when meat 
or fish barrels are emptied in their way. Salt 
fish or salt beef has been known to cause their 
death. But a little salt mixed with the chicken 
dovigh is beneficial; rather less should be given 
than persons generally use in their own food. 



A TouKG lady in Concord, Mass., says there 
is profit in the poultry business. She com- 
menced with about 60 fowls in the spring. 
From these she raised 4.50 chickens. During 
the season she sold eggs to the amount of $90, 
and from September 20th to January 27th, she 
got ready for market 150 pair of chickens, which 
she sold for $260, making in all $350. 

Profits from Fowls. — A farmer in Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, sold from 30 hens in 
1873, eggs and chickens amounting to $430.78. 
The cost of feed and commissions for selling 
amounted to $161.84, leaving a net profit of 
$268.94.— Wio Farmer. 



SH^^f \^o Wool. 



Rules For Shearing. 

We have been asked for directions as to how 
to shear sheep. However at home we may feel 
in the sheep barn, or on the shearing floor, we 
confess to being somewhat at sea when trying 
to impart information at so long range. 
Shearing a sheep is one of the things that need 
to be seen to be appreciated. There is no mys- 
tery about it; but it is, nevertheless, a trade 
that has to be learned by practice. The novice 
that has determined to become a good sheep 
shearer, should provide himself with, 1. A 
good pair of shears (avoiding cheap ones). 2 A 
splendid stock of patience. 3. A pair of over- 
alls. 4. A smooth cutting whetstone. If we 
were required to add to the above, we would 
say, a little more patience; for it is the ner- 
vousness and impatience of the workman that, 
in nine cases out of ten, leads to the cramping 
and crowding of sheep, which begin struggling 
for relief, thus adding to the confusion aud te- 
diousness of the operation of shearing. 

Even among accomplished workmen, there 
are different practices in the operation of shear 
ing. Some commence work on the brisket, oth- 
ers on the neck, some at the top of the head, 
and still others lay bare the belly first — laying 
the sheep down on the left side, keeping its 
head down by drawing its right foot across the 
neck, and holding it with the left hand. Some 
shearers use a bench or table, fourteen or 
eighteen inches high, upon which the sheep is 
placed, though a majority prefer to keep the 
animals on the floor during the operation. We 
recommend the latter, as it is equally as easily 
learned, is no more tiresome, and the table or 
bench is not always so easily improvised. The 
man who learns without it is always ready for 
work; the one who learns to use it is often at a 
disadvantage. ^.Bx. 



Sheep-raising in Ventura. — Sheep-raising 
is at present one of the most important inter- 
ests of Ventura county, and it will doubtless 
remain as such until the development of the 
country closes out the various ranges, which 
will probably be many years yet. For several 
seasons past the business has been steadily in- 
creasing, proving lucrative to those engaged in 
it, and bringing large sums of money into this 
section. The present number of common sheep 
in the county is about 125,000, and we learn 
from Mr. Kennedy, one of the most extensive 
sheep-raisers of the county, that the average 
yield of wool for the season, including the fall 
clip, will be about three and a half pounds per 
head. Ordinarily this would not be regarded 
as a very heavy yield, but the wool this season 
is of a superior quality, and being very fine 
and clean, weighs less than the clip of last 
year. Of this spring's clip there have been 
shipped from this port up to date, 1,472 bales 
averaging about 300 pounds, and about halt 
that amount from Hueneme, which includes 
nearly the entire clip. The amount shipped 
from this port, we are told, is almost equal to 
the entire shipments of wool from here last 
year. There are a number of excellent sheep- 
ranges in the county, but the Simi and Las 
Posas are the most extensive and important. 
— Cor. San Jose Mercury. 

Sheep Disease in New Mexico. — A corres 
pondent in Santa Fe county, New Mexico, 
sends the Agricultural Department the follow 
ing : I would like to call the attention of the 
department to a disease among lambs, reported 
to me by Mr. E. W. Eaton, one of my assistant 
correspondents. Mr. Eaton says: I would li!ie 
to call your attention to a disease that destroyed 
about six hundred of my lambs, and in the 
same proportion, say two-thirds of all the 
lambs dropped in several other cases, and, if 
possible, get some information from the de- 
partment of its cause and cure. It is in the 
mouth and on the lips, having the appearance 
of syphilitic warts in the mouth, and growing 
to entirely cover the teeth. So far, I could see 
it did not affect the tongue, the lips growing to 
three or four times their natural size. I used 
spirits of turpentine; this seemed to partially 
check the disease for a time, but did not en- 
tirely cure. 

The wool clip of Colorado and New Mexico, 
for the year, is estimated by the Pueblo 
Chieftain at 5,000,000. The computation was 
made some time ago. however, before the fall 
prospects could be well indicated. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the American Farmer 
proposes that Southern farmers devote a few 
acres to ruta bagas, for sheep food, arguing 
that, in order to raise early lambs, the ewes 
must have succulent food to produce milk. 
While his neighbors were losing lambs one 
winter through feeding dry corn and hay, he 
avoided this by giving plenty of cabbages, 
which he happened to have on hand. 



Cure fob Sheep-Killinq Doos.— The Rural 
Sun recommends suspending the dog from the 
top of a pen, so that his fore-feet will be about 
four inches from the floor, and then letting the 
oldest buck in the flock exercise his butting 
propensities on him. It is said to be an effect- 
ual cure. 



Stretches in Sheep. — John B. Chapman, 
Madison county, N. Y., says the best remedy 
he knows is a pint of warm lard. Stretches, 
he says, are produced from eating old, dry hay, 
or a want of drinking water or both combined. 



E 



Good Honey Localities. 

Individual instances are not rare, of good 
yields of honey in almost every Southern State, 
but they are neither as numerous nor constant 
as in higher latitudes. We believe two principal 
causes can be assigned for this : The backward 
state of bee culture, and greater extremes of 
climate. Bees will not do well in too wet sea- 
sons, nor the opposite, and it is well known 
that the Southern States are much more liable 
to these extremes than the Northern States. 
Some of the extreme Western States are worse, 
perhaps, than the Southern in this respect, 
and there bees will not do well. The South 
has been lauded, frequently, as "the home of 
the honey bee," but we think the advantages of 
pasture are with some northern localities. Only 
in one thing does the South have the advan- 
tage, and that is in mild winters. The short- 
ness of the winters may not be any particular 
advantage, as the prolonged season of work, 
very early and very late, does not afford very 
much substantial aid — the stocks consuming 
more than they gather. Quiet in winter quar- 
ters, as all bee-keepers know, is better than 
activity when it is useless. 

The South abounds in flowers, but many of 
them do not yield Uoney. There is no nectar 
in the thousand and one swamp flowers of the 
South, Still, aside from these there are natu- 
ral sources sufficient to make most of the 
Southern States good honey districts, if they 
are not subject to drouth. These dry spells 
usually occur in the latter part of the summer 
and in the early fall, during which time no 
honey is gathered, and accumulated stores are 
eaten up. In such localities, if alsike is culti- 
vated very extensively, and has the advantage 
of irrigation, which is easily secured in most 
localities, all the trouble is avoided, and the 
climate is one of the most desirable. 

Another drawback to Southern bee-culture, 
and a serious one in my opinion, is the moth. 
Many will say " pshaw !" but that won't alter 
my opinion. The climate and long warm sea- 
son of the South is favorable to the develorment 
of these pests to the highest degree. They 
breed in vast numbers and grow with astonish- 
ing rapidity, and destroy with unrelenting per- 
sistency. Of course, this can all be overcome, 
but bee-culture in the South is not far enough 
along yet to do this. 

The greatest drawback to bee-culture in the 
South, however, is the want of enterprise, and 
the lack of interest in the subject. On this 
part of the subject we shall not enlarge at the 
present, leaving that for a future article. We 
close with the assertion that almost any locality 
in the United States can be made good for bees 
by the cultivation of those useful grasses and 
grains that produce honey largely. — Bee-keep- 
ers' Magazine. 



Remedies foe Bee Stings. — Among the 
various cures recommended for bee stings, and 
to be applied to the part, are liquor potassae, 
olive oil, vitriol, laudanum, vinegar, honey, 
salaratus and water, salt and water, soft soap 
and salt, raw onion, tobacco juice, a paste of clay 
or flour, the expressed juice of any green leaf, 
or of the ripe berries of the coral honeysuckle. 
As animal poisons deoxydize the blood, their 
antidotes will be anything that contain much 
oxygen. The poison of a bee being acid, an 
alkali must be employed to neutralize it. If, 
therefore, we were selecting for trial any of the 
above so-called remedies, we would choose 
either soft soap or ammonia. But if the indi- 
vidual stung is not very nervous, cold water 
applied to the wound will be quite sufficient, 
and it should not be rubbed. One great essen- 
tial is, if heated, to get cooled just as soon as 
possible, and to avoid becoming heated again 
for at least two days. Nothing is so apt to 
make the poison active as heat, and nothing 
favors its activity loss than cold. Let the body 
be kept cool and at rest, aud the activity of the 
poison will be reduced to a minimum. Any 
active exertion, whereby the circulation is 
quickened, will increase both pain and swelling. 
—Ex. 



Introducing Queens. — Upon releasing a 
Milan queen to the bees, I was anxious to be 
sure that she be well received, so I removed a 
comb from the hive and let the queen go out 
on it among the bees, and was at once satisfied 
all was right. I introduced a second Milan 
queen in the same way, and others since. 
Being at a neighbor's apiary, when he was 
about releasing a queen, I suggested the same 
way, with like results. If one has a valuable 
queen I recommend this way of releasing, as 
should the bees pack on her they can be scraped 
oft" in a basin of water, when the workers will 
scatter and the queen be recaged. This plan 
of scraping a wad of bees into water was sug- 
gested to me by my neighbor. I think it firat- 
rate, as there is great danger of losing the 
queen by trying to pull off the bees. — Ex. 



The most complelie check upon robbing bees 
is to place a bunch of grass or wet hay over the 
entrance to the hive. The bees will find their 
way to the entrance to their own hive, the 
robbers will be caught by the sentinels in pass- 
ing through the grass, and soon cease their 
pilfering. 

Young bees come to maturity frofn two to 
four days sooner in California than in Pennsyl- 
vania. — Ilnrhisnn. 



36 



(July i8, 1874 




The California State Grange Headquarters 

are at room 9, No. 320 Caliloruia street, S. F.— General 
State Agent: I. G. GAnDNKR, (Member of the Execu- 
tive Committee) . State Secretary: W. H. Baiteb. 



Patrons who are subscribers to the Rukal Press 
should pay their subscriptions promptly in order to se. 
cure club rates. 

OBGANIZINO DEPTJTIES. 

EDrroBs BcBAL Press :— As the commissions of the 
Deputies of this State are only for the term of one year, 
many of them will soon expire by limitation, and it 
will be necessary for those who wish to have their com- 
missions renewed to inform me, so that new ones may 
be Issued to replace the old. J. M. HAMn.TON. 



Visalia Grange, Kern County. 

Editors Peess: — Since December I have 
Tfiad your paper regularly, and have derived 
not a little pleasure from your frequent accounts 
of the Harvest Feasts and other good times 
enjoyed by the different Granges in the State. 
Bat the better part of that matter is, Mr. Edi- 
tor, that in the mean time we have been having 
Harvest Feasts and other good times occasion- 
ally in the Visalia Grange, although no one has 
ever said anything to you about them, so far as 
I know. 

On Saturday last we graduated a class of ten, 
and had an unusually pleasant time. The la- 
dies of Tulare county certainly know how to 
prepare a feast and enjoy a festivity. The 
great pity is that so many farmers' wives and 
daughters have so few of them to enjoy. But 
as the Grange ofifers such excellent facilities for 
social intercourse, we hope that all that class 
for which it was designed, and who so greatly 
need its opportunities, will not be slow to avaU 
themselves of its advantages; and if the Grange 
shall accomplish no greater or better work than 
occasionally to call awaj' from their endless 
rounds of ceaseless care some of the already 
overworked mothers and daughters, and give 
to them thoughts on subjects and enterprises 
abreast of the times, who will dare to call the 
organization a failure ? Who will not rather 
pronounce it a blessing, both to the present 
and the future ? 

Our Grange now numbers 82 members, and 
is in good working order. There is a class of 
19 prepared for the degrees, to be conferred 
during the month. The celebration here on 
the 4th was a decided success. The oration by 
Mr. Daggett was an especially praiseworthy 
and successful eflfort. In careful preparation, 
in jast and appropriate utterances, in clear and 
forcible expression, I have seldom known it ex- 
celled on similar occasions. 

James O. Blakelt, Seo'y. 

Potter Valley Grange ''Swarmed." 

Potter Valley Grange, No. 115, numbering— 
by secretary's book — 161 members, has 
swarmed. In other words, our hired hall being 
uncomfortably crowded and unsafe, and the 
members of the extreme ends of the valley 
hopelessly divided on the question of location 
of n Granger's ball, a division, taking with it 
regalia and funds in the treasury, pro rata, 
has been effected, and a second Grange, with 30 
charter members, organized July 4th, brother 
Merry o£&ciating. 

The new Grange takes the name of Porno 
Grange, Porno, Mendocino Co., being the post 
office address of its officers and members gene- 
rally. 

With those who join by card and those who 
have signified their intention to apply for 
membership, the new Grange will very nearly 
equal the mother Grange in numbers, and we 
may reasonably hope that, working in harmony 
for the interests of the Order, the two will 
accomplish more than one could have done 
under the circumstances. 

Potter Valley Grange will never cease to be 
grateful!}' remembered by its members in the 
new Grange — late settlers especially^for the 
social re-unions which made friends of strangers 
and cultivated the fraternal relations that in all 
localities consecrate a home. [The names of 
the officers of Porno Grange are in another 
column — Eds. Press.] 

Several officers of the Porno Grange having 
held the same official positions in Potter Valley 
Grange, prior to the division, it may save con- 
fusion in correspondence to mention, that L. 
A. Preston was elected Master, and Mrs. A. H. 
Slingerland, Secretary of Potter Valley Grange, 
in place of John Mewhinney and Geo. B. 
Nichols, resigned. 

C. I. H. Nichols. 



Death op L. K. Woods.— The steamer from 
Humboldt brings to us the sad news of the 
death of Bro. L. K. Woods, Master of Kiwel- 
lattah Grange, who died suddenly on July 12th. 
Brother Wood was active and devoted as a Pa- 
tron; as a man, honorable, and esteemed by all 
who knew him. He was a pioneer in Humboldt 
county, being one of its earliest settlers. In 
his death society has lost an honored member, 
and our Order mourns the loss of one of its 
brightest ornaments, and a faithful laborer in 
our cause. He was a member of the State 
Orange, where he endeared himself to all. He 
leaves an interesting family — wife and six chil- 
dren — to whom is extended the heartfelt sym- 
pathy of our Order. T. H. M. 



Shipping the Grain. 

A Defense of the Grangers and their Agents. 

The following article has been prepared by 
Bro. J. W. A. Wright, Lecturer of the State 
Grange, and its careful perusal is commended 
to Patrons thronghotit the State, as a fall vindi- 
cation of the course and policy of the house of 
Morgan's Sons, the Grange shipping agents of 
this State: 

The California harvest of 1874 and the hand- 
ling of our abundant wheat crop have at last 
fairly begun. 

We have reached a time to which many, 
especially farmers in the protection of their 
interests, have looked forward with great anx- 
iety. Both parlies concerned naturally have 
been and are planning to gain certain points, 
the grain-buyers to secure as much grain as 
possible at a low figure, the farmers to realize 
for their wheat as high a price as the Liverpool 
market and ocean freight will justify. 

Now, what is being done, pro and con, and 
what is clearly the line of duty for us farmers 
to pursue in this emergency ? 

First for the grain-buyers : Fortunately, most 
of the city and interior papers of our State ex- 
press themselves favorably to this important 
and permanent movement of our Granges 
to free producers generally from the evils 
of low profits or no profits, and from their 
consequent dependency. The farmers appre- 
ciate their generous support and are grateful 
for it. Unfortunately, the Evening Post and 
one other city paper are an exception to this 
general rule, as is proved by several recent arti- 
cles. The latter are so lengthy that we cannot 
quote them entire. We shall repeat only a few 
important points, for the sake of answering 
them, though each article is bristling with 
other objectionable features that we should like 
to ventilate. 

Monopoly of Grain Ships. 

The 7'osi of June 22d says: "Nothing worse 
for our farmers could possibly happen than 
that there should be anything like a monopoly 
of wheat-carrying ships. It has been currently 
reported en 'Change that the new house of 
Morgan's Sons have chartered some 70 vessels, 
of a carrying capacity of about 100,000 tons, at 
freights varying from £4 to £4 10s. As it has 
also been generally circulated that these parties 
are to be the agents for the sale of wheat be- 
longing to the farmers, it seems inconsistent 
that they, as the agents of the producers, should 
monopolize the bulk of the ships coming to 
this port, thus establishing a high freight mar- 
ket to the detriment of the farming interests." 

Then follows a sentence or two containing 
such expressions as "The schemes of Morgan's 
Sons to monopolize the freight market to the 
injury of our producers," and "The extrava- 
gant figures given by Morgan's Sons," etc. 

Some Things which Farmers Remember. 

Fellow farmers, what a "mare's nest" they 
have found! How they hold up their hands in 
holy horror for fear some monopoly may in- 
jure their dear producers. 

Have the Post, its writers and readers for- 
gotten that in September and October, 1872, 
when our amount of surplus wheat was by no 
means so great as it is likely to be this year by 
their own showing — have they forgotten, I say, 
that ships had to be chartered at from £5 to 
£5 13s per ton to take our grain to Liverpool? 
If they have forgotten it the farmers have not, 
and we have reasons never to forget that glar- 
ing injustice. Perhaps the farmers of this 
State know as soon and as surely as any men 
in it when our crops are likely to yield a large 
surplus, and when we shall need a large num- 
ber of ships, as well as sacks, to move our 
grain. 

Formerly we used but little of that foresight 
which we possess in common with other men 
to anticipate these wants and to guard against 
impositions from unscrupulous speculators on 
our necessities. These matters we had gener- 
ously and confidingly left to others, who, we 
wished to believe, were friendly to our inter- 
ests. But in 1872 such rates as $25 and $28 
per ton for ships, 18 and 21 cents a piece for 
two-bushel grain sacks, $2 5U a ton per season 
for storage, 18 to 24 per cent, per annum for 
borrowed money, and similar exactions in 
reference to all farm produce, convinced us to 
a man that, to save ourselves from ruin and to 
secure justice in handling our products and 
supplies, we must ourselves, by combined ac- 
tion, look into such matters as shipping, sacks, 
storage, interest, sales and trade, ana try to 
avoid in future such losses as we had all ex- 
perienced from previous exactions. 

Hope in the Grange Movement. 
In the spring of 1873 the ground-swell of the 
Grange movement reached our shore, and 
furnished us a means of redress, such as the 
farmers of America never before possessed. It 
found us in the proper frame of mind to em- 
brace it heartily. Hence the California State 
Grange, and under its guidance now more than 
220 subordinate Granges; hence our maturely 
considered and carefully established agencies 
and business plans. It our producers combine 
to prevent such abuses as those above quoted, 
what just man will blame them ? 

For some reason, how difl'erent was the range 
of everything required by grain raisers last 
year from the rates of 1872. Ocean freights 
from $15 to $21, sacks 15 cents, storage from 
$1 to $1.50 per ton, interest 12 and 15 per 
cent, per annum, besides a lively interest in 
handling all our products, and supplying all 
our wants reasonably, sulisfnr.tori/y . 



The producers of this State— and they are no 
small nor mean class of citizens— rejoiced and 
felt easier. Why ? 

Because they had tangible proof, not that 
any absurd " agricultural millennium " was at 
hand, but that indeed there was promise of a 
"better time coming," when more equity, fair- 
ness and a juster division of profits and less 
oppression from monopolies can be attained. 

But every farmer in this State knows the 
many good results flowing from the unity and 
earnestness of our producers in this one organ- 
ization. Let us never forget them, and let 
them ever be preserved and advanced. 
The Shipping Agents of the Grangers. 

Now, the Post seems to be very much and 
very unnecessarily exercised because it sud- 
denly becomes known on 'Change that "the 
new bouse of Morgan's Sons has chartered 
some 70 ships" at £4 to £4 10s. It had heard 
the rumor that this firm are our Grange aeents 
for handling wheat, and all at once it dreads a 
hurtful monopoly of shipping. 

It may as well be fully understood by every- 
body that the firm of E. E. Morgan's Sons are 
the accredited grain agents of the California 
Grangers, and have been ever since August 
last, and will continue to be for an indefinite 
period. The whole history of the connection 
of this firm with our carefully made business 
arrangements is a subject of pride and congra- 
tulation with every Grange member who is at 
all famiUar with the facts of the case. 

Nor is it, correctly speaking, a new house, as 
one or two of the city papers delight to call our 
agents, slightingly. It is true that they did not 
establish their branch house in California till 
last year ; but the firm of E. E. Morgan's Sons 
is one of long and respectable standing in New 
York city, and there is no shipping firm in 
America more favorably known throughout 
Europe. 

They have ever shown themselves to be fair 
dealers, and opposed to uniting with any com- 
binations forming oppressive monopolies. They 
have constantly pursued an independent course 
in San Francisco, and have never joined in any 
way with our oppressors. 

What Morgan's Sons Did for the Grangers Last 
Year. 

These facts placed in their hands last year 
the grain interests of the Granges of California, 
and most nobly has the firm fulfilled its trust. 
Indeed, no such triumphant success has at- 
tended any Grange business elsewhere in the 
United States, as followed the efforts of Mor- 
gan's Sons in our behalf last year. The writer 
is a Grange member, has been identified with 
the work of our Order in California from its 
incipiency, and knows whereof he speaks. 
The firm on this coast has at its head a most 
thorough and widely-known business man, who 
for more than a year baa managed to "hold bis 
own" against the combined genius of the grain 
speculators of San Francisco, in spite of their 
well-known efforts to crush his firm. Every 
Grange in this State owes a debt of gratitude to 
the firm and the man which they can never 
repay. "For what?" does any reader ask? 
Why, for the liberality, the zeal, the fidelity, 
the success with which they have managed the 
business intrusted to them; for the sacrifices 
they have actually made, the abuse apd mis- 
representation they have borne, the constant 
devotion they have shown to crown the self- 
protecting pains of our farmers with success. 
Every Grange member can receive proofs of 
these facts in details which we are not at liberty 
to make public, and we should never forget 
them. 

From these facts what may the Post and everj' 
one else infer ? Why, that whatever the firm 
of Morgan's Sons does, in the way of chartering 
ships, or importing sacks, or direct shipment 
of our grain to Europe, for which we are pre- 
paring, is done with the full knowledge and ap- 
proval of the State Grange of California, 
through their Executive Committee, after due 
deliberation upon all the facts in the case, and 
with no object in view but the good of our 
Order throughout the State, 

Extremes to be Avoided. 

In ocean freights we have two extremes to 
avoid. We must not place them so low as to 
drive the much-needed shipping from our coast, 
nor so high as to rob the producer of his hard 
earnings. It has never been the wish of the 
farmers of California to place any freights so 
low that they will not make a fair profit for 
shippers, and for all others who furnish trans- 
portation. In view of the vast crop of wheat 
to be moved, and the natural inclination of 
ship-owners to charge high freights for an abun- 
dant crop, we, as farmers, are well pleased to 
have so much shipping secured at $20 and $21 
per ton, instead of the $25 to $28 paid by us 
in 1872. It allows ship-owners a fair price, of 
which they cannot complain, and is a saving 
over the old style of $5 to $7 a ton to begin 
with. 

True, the Post closes the article in question 
by the assertion that a ship has been chartered 
" outside of the monopoly " — (isn't it amus- 
ing — "outside of the monopoly") — at £3 178 
Od to Liverpool, that is, for 50 cents less per 
ton than the £4 we have agreed to pay. 

Now, my brother farmers, this statement is 
of exactly the same nature as one which fol- 
lowed the announcement that the Grange agent 
had imported for this crop 2,000,000 sacks at a 
certain price. Don't be deceived. Do you not 
remember the assertion made then and since 
that sacks could be bought at something less 
than the Grange agency offered them for ? 
Devices of the Grangers' Opponents. 

Did you ever hear of an opposition steamer 



being placed on the waters of California against 
a monopolizing line of steamers which charged 
unreasonable rates ? What followed? Why, 
the monopoly placed its rates as low as po.isi'- 
ble to try and run the opposition boat out of 
the trade. Have they generally succeeded ? 
"They have; and we, the producers, have con- 
tinued to be overriden by monopolies. Believe 
me, this dodge on ocean freights and sacks is 
exactly of the same character. Our opponents 
wish to drive us from the trade and to destroy 
our confidence in the leaders we have selected, 
and in our agencies. Do not be deceived by 
them. 

We are perfectly willing for any firm in this 
State to furnish ships or sacks at a less rate 
than we have been able to establish, or to pay 
a higher price for grain than we have been 
able to secure by direct shipments. Why ? 
Because the legitimate profits remaining 
in the pockets of our farmers will be in- 
creased by all such means, and this is just 
what we are laboring for. We should like to 
inquire, just for curiosity, what will people 
who are now talking down freights agree to fur- 
nish us ocean freights for in September and 
October next ? 

The Post of July Ist says, besides many 
other things in keeping with its preceding ar- 
ticle: "We question the policy of farmers turn- 
ing speculators in tonnage." The truth is, 
our farmers in their Grange movements are not 
speculators in tonnage nor speculators ingrain, 
nor speculators in any other way. They are 
merely "taking time by the forelock," and 
adopting sound business plans under the guid- 
ance of well tried and well trained business 
men of their own choosing, in order to protect 
themselves from impositions, which they know 
they have suffered in the past at the hands of 
speculators of all kinds. Let us call things by 
their right names. 

A surprising editorial also occurs in the Post 
of July 8tb, rather nnging farmers to hold on 
to their grain with the hope of reducing ocean 
freights. This is surprising, because it differs 
so materially from the well known sentiments 
in former vears of those who control the 
Post. 

A Curious "Commercial" Document. 

But we will turn for the present from news- 
paper statements to consider some extraor- 
dinary assertions found in the annual grain 
report of this coast, which goes to the marts of 
Europe and America as the law concerning the 
grain market of California— at least, it has 
always been so considered heretofore. 

Besides considerable acrimony, this report 
contains several inaccuracies, such, for in- 
stance, as Ihe statement that the farmers' "new 
advisers" led them to expect $3 for their wheat, 
when $2.50 was the highest anticipated; and 
who doubts wheat would have reached that, 
but for the financial panic in October? Now 
for the only statement of this report which we 
care especially to notice at present. 

It says: "Already a band of charlatans, who, 
unfortunately, appear to have obtained control 
of the press, are ventilating new dogmas of 
trade, urging farmers to leave their legitimate 
calling to become merchants; prophesying that 
by leaving the old channels an agricultural 
millennium will dawn on this State. The far- 
mers, themselves, eager for high prices, are 
only too easily deluded by this kind of clap- 
trap, and, unless wiser counsels prevail, we 
may expect a recurrence of many of the blun- 
ders of last year." 

What this "Charlatanism" consists of. 

Ha! Somebody must be hurt. We should 
like to see repeated a few such "blunders" as 
kept in our pockets a part of our hard-earned 
money, which would otherwise have gone 
under our old advisers into the coffers of oar 
wealthy grain speculators, would we not? And 
you, brother farmers, and those yon have 
placed in front to labor for the good of our 
common and noble cause, are called "a band 
of charlatans," and are scandalously misrepre- 
sented in public as well as in private. And 
this just because last year you managed by 
your combination to retain for the benefit of 
your creditors and your families a few hundred 
thousand dollars which would otherwise have 
gone into the hands of speculators already 
grown rich at your expense. 

Does this not of itself sufficiently show the 
animus of the opposition you have to meet in 
struggling to secure your just rights ? Does 
not this unwarranttd attack bear on its face 
sufficient proof to justify all your efforts for 
self-protection ? Though it is our purpose to 
continue our policy of regard for the feelings 
of all concerned, would not this harsh language 
almost justify a departure from that well-known 
courtesy we have shown toward everyone who, 
by nature or choice, may be opposed to us ? 
Allow us to say, however, that said grain re- 
port no longer "has nor deserves to have the 
weight which it once had. Its bias and drift 
are now thoroughly understood. These state- 
ments are of a piece with the reports no* rife 
in city and country, that the Grangers are 
quarreling among themselves; that they can 
not agree, just as it was predicted about them. 
They are of a piece with the absurd and ma- 
licious rumor, that our agents, Morgan's Sons, 
who have been, and are so true to us, have 
formed an alliance with our opponents. Noth- 
ing is further from the truth than such state- 
ments, brother farmers. In all of them "the 
wish is father to tbe thought." Nothing would 
so please, and so play into the hands of our 
opponents, as to make ut quarrel and lose con- 
fidence among ourselves. Oh ! how they 
chuckle even over the hope of such a result. 
Let us renew our vows to disappoint them. 



July i8, 1874.1 



37 



Let as continue to work harmoniously for the 
success o{ all our plana, in spite of all difficul- 
ties. Harmony and thorough concert of action 
are at all times vital to our success. 

"United, we Stand— Divided, we Fall!" 

Brother farmers, never let them divide us. 
Even though we desire the privilege of quarrel- 
ing a little among ourselves, let us be a unit 
toward all who place themselves in opposition 
to ns. 

In conclusion, reviewing all the circum- 
stances of the case, what is it best for us to do 
this season to secure the highest market value 
for our wheat ? Evidently, we should ship 
direct to Europe by the means already pro- 
vided. We can sell as soon as loaded, at the 
highest rates the English market will justify, 
paying commission to but one agent instead of 
four, and thus carry out the Grange principle 
of as direct a trade as possible between pro- 
ducer and consumer; or, if present prices are 
still unsatisfactory, we have the privilege of 
carrying our grain and selling at any time dur- 
ing the passage, or on its arrival, when the 
results of the English and continental harvests 
become known, and prices are more definitely 
fixed, thus saving storage, sundry commissions 
and high rates of interest on money advanced. 
Any Grange members can ship in lots of one 
hundred tons or less. However, Granges are 
already fully informed of the details of our 
plans. But here we will be met by the state- 
ment, that Grange members who shipped di- 
rectly last year lo^t by the operation. 
Grange Shipments Last Year. 

This is entirely a mistake. No Grange mem- 
ber lost by direct shipments last year. Some 
farmers are said to have lost in this way, but 
not one of them was a Grange member, nor 
did they ship through the Grange agency, and 
indeed they shipped through parties naturally 
adverse to the success of direct shipments by 
farmers, and before our Grange agency was es- 
tablished. Of course, our grain-buyers will do 
everything in their power to make direct ship- 
ments unpopular with farmers. But very few 
Grange members shipped directly last year. 
Complete preparations were made early in Au- 
gust to ship directly on a large scale, but our 
grain-buyers continued to Ipay such handsome 
prices for wheat that our agents advised far- 
mers to sell rather than ship, and farmers gen- 
erally were satisfied to do so. The only in- 
stance where Grange members shipped directly 
was as follows; On the ship "North American," 
which sailed early in December last, five 
Grange members, whose names can be given if 
necessary, shipped one hundred tons each. 
They realized on this wheat from $2.35 to 
$2.40, according to quality, while wheat sold at 
the same time in San Francisco at only $2.25. 
These facts can all be vouched for, it desired. 
Stand Fast in the Ranks. 

Consider well the words here ofi'ered. They 
have been carefully weighed before being pre- 
sented for your consideration. Above all things, 
remember what is necessary for our success 
this year and in future. Preserve unity in our 
Order and its plans, at all hazards; have no 
quarreling among ourselves about side issues 
and non essentials; labor for the good of our 
Order everywhere; rally in a solid phalanx 
around your leaders and agents; let no schemes 
of our opponents take away your confidence 
and estrange you from them; do these things, 
and our vital interests will be saved. Do not be- 
come demoralized by the tricks of our foes, but 
ever be on the alert to detect them. Remem- 
ber, this is a critical time in our history. Let 
each endeavor to do his part well, and let this 
fresh abuse and injustice knit us the more 
firmly together. How rich the assertion, that 
we innocent farmers "appear to have obtained 
control of the press." Well, our papers do 
generally seem to side with us, but it is only 
from their true sense of justice. We regret 
that the Post is so blind to equity and its own 
interests as to side with monopolies rather than 
with our farmers. Let our press and people 
prefer to cast their lot with the so-called ' 'band 
of charlatans," otherwise known as Grangers, 
who now have a strength of between one and 
two million members throughout the Union, 
and some 15,000 or 20,000 in ou: own State, 
rather than side with the ring of grain specula- 
tors, knowing both parties as well as we do. 
Evidently, the spirit which made it necessary 
for our "band" to organize is not dead, nor is 
it even true that it sleepeth. — S. F. Chronicle. 

. Temescal Gbanoe Harvest Feast — Temescal 
Grange, of Oakland, held its harvest feast on 
Saturday last, and, as usual on such occasions, 
quite a number of the uninitiated were invited to 
participate. Professor Carr, of the State Uni- 
versity, Master of the Grange, delivered an ad- 
dress upon the aims and purposes of the Order, 
which was well received by all present. The 
address will be found published in full in 
another column. After the Professor had con- 
cluded there were impromptu speeches by sev- 
eral of the invited guests, all of which were 
well received, and abounded in good wishes for 
the success and prosperity of the Order. One 
of the best of these addresses was given by 
Rev. A. F. White, of Oakland. He was fol- 
lowed by Mr. Henry, President of the Oakland 
Savings Union; Mr. Harwood, of the Oakland 
News; lit. Barter, of the Semi-Ttopical Press; 
Mr. Sbinn, Master of the Centerville Grange; 
Bro. Merry of Healdsburg, and several others. 
The table was covered with the choicest viands, 
to which ample justice was done by all who sat 
down to them. 

There are about two hundred Grangers in 
Inyo county. 



Address by Prof. Carr. 

The following address was pronounced at the 
harvest feast of Temescal Grange, Oakland, on 
the occasion of the anniversary of the organi- 
zation of that Grange, Saturday, July 11th, by 
Dr. E. S. Carr, Prof, of Agricultural Chemis- 
try at the State University, and Worthy Master 
of Temescal Grange. It has been furnished for 
publication by especial request: 

Patkons and Friends: — It is only six years 
last April since the first missionary of our Or- 
der set out on his journey to the great valley of 
the Mississippi, "The granary of the world," 
as it had come to be called before California 
disputed the title — where, in spite of enterprise, 
industry and great natural advantages, combi- 
nations of the non-producing classes had made 
it almost impossible for the farmer to live by 
his pursuit. The agricultural classes had al- 
most to a man become aware of their helplessness 
in the hands of a power, created by the people 
in their eagerness for easy access to the world's 
markets, without safeguards and mostly without 
stipulations for its exercise. An internal com- 
merce, worth $450,000,000 annually— the direct 
earnings of the people of the United States — 
was practically beyond their control ; and while 
every other industry was being fairly remuner- 
ated, the agricultural was steadily going behind, 
until in these great wheat-producing States it 
was on the verge of bankruptcy. While every 
man who handled the farmer's products was 
getting rich, the farmer himself was becoming 
poor through the exactions of transportation, 
and the exorbitant prices he was paying for 
nearly every article he used. It seemed absurd 
for a class of men to complain year after year 
of grievances which they had power to remedy. 

For one-half the voting population of the 
United States are engaged either in agricultural 
pursuits, or others directly depending upon 
them, and if these 4,000,01)0 farmers and their 
friends wanted a change of masters, or to be- 
come their own masters, they had only to com- 
bine as a unit in favor of the requisite meas- 
ures, and the men to execute them. Scattered 
all over the country in sparse settlements, on 
large plantations, in suburban districts, there 
had never been any organization of their inter- 
ests or power until December, 1866, when O. 
H. Kelley, of the Agricultural Bureau of Wash- 
ington, who had made a tour of inspection of 
the agricultural resources of the Southern 
States under President Johnson's orders, laid 
before a few friends, assembled in his own 
house, his scheme for the Order of Patrons of 
Husbandry. 

This little cloud, no bigger than a man's 
hand, now overshadows more than a million 
hard fisted, sworn defenders of the right to live 
by the soil; this little spark, which a breath 
might have extinguished, is glowing as a beacon 
light to oppressed millions beyond the sea. 

So small a thing as an organization of the 
agricultural class for self-protection and self- 
improvement was not calculated to alarm those 
clear heads, those powerful organizing brains 
which had consolidated power into all the com- 
binations and rings, growing rich on the far- 
mer's toil; not until an unexpected develop- 
ment of brain power within the Order, was 
there any attention paid to its rapid numerical 
growth, the most wonderful in the history of 
any organization. You all know how the Pa- 
trons multiplied in the States of the interior, in 
Iowa, which has 4,000 members in its State 
Grange, in Minnesota and in Missouri. To 
plant a Grange was to create a magnetic pole, 
and every member became a magnet in turn, 
as we have seen in Michigan, whose first Grange 
of 150 members, opened in Nov. 1872, multi- 
plied 150 times in a single year. There are 
now 430 active Granges, and enough organizing 
and to be organized before the second anniver- 
sary to bring the number up to 600 in the Wol- 
verine State. The little State of Vermont, one 
of the last to organize, has 120 Granges, and 
10,000 members. In our common country we 
cannot travel far without finding a hospitable 
gate opening into the symbolic farm ; for there 
are 41 State Granges, 17,000 Subordinate 
Granges, with a membership of 1,032,840, one- 
fifth the entire agricultural population, and 
from one-third to one-half of all eligible to 
membership. Should the present rate of in- 
crease continue, by the end of another yew the 
number will be doubled. Even here, where the 
farming interest is so new, and so scattered, 
200 Granges with 15,000 members are en- 
rolled. 

A tree which is going to bear very choice 
fruit must be cut back if it is making wood at 
the expense of fruit buds. We must keep to 
our legend, "We seek the greatest good to the 
greatest number," and ever remember the 
motto adopted by the National Grange, "In 
essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in 
all things, charity." We must remember that 
it is quality more than quantity which is to de- 
termine the value of our Order in elevating the 
masses of laborers to all the dignity of citizen- 
ship. 

We he ir already of a division and defection 
in our ranks. Within the last month a Grange 
in the State of Illinois has seceded, given up 
its charter and disbanded. This is the most 
serious drawback experienced by ns— the loss 
of one seventeen-thousandth of our body; but 
the alleged reasons, as well as the charges made 
by outside parties, that the National Grange is 
wielding unconstitutional powers, and sucking 



the treasures of the subordinate Granges dry, 
deserve a moment's consideration. Let us see 
how much the National Grange can get from 
the subordinate Granges. A new, male mem- 
ber of a subordinate Grange, who has taken 
four degrees, has paid five dollars besides his 
regular monthly dues. Of this sum, the Treas- 
urer of the subordinate Grange pays to the Sec- 
retary of the State Grange twenty-five cents 
for each degree taken, or one dollar for the 
four degrees, with twenty-five cents annual 
dues from each member, making $1 25 in all. 

Now, out of this dollar and a-quarter, the 
State Grange pays over to the National ten 
cents for each degree, and ten cents annual 
dues, or fifty cents for the first year, and ten 
cents annually thereafter. That is the amount 
of our tax for all the information, secret or 
otherwi.se, furnished by competent agents 
elected for a moderate term of office, about every 
immediate, vital topic of agricultural interest 
in the United States. It shows how much im- 
portance is attached to the growth of our 
Order, that the sums remaining in the National 
Grange treasury, when its reasonable expenses 
are paid, can be supposed to enrich any one. 
It is not the money power in the National, but 
the money power in the subordinate Oranges, hold- 
ing as they do the best securities in the world, 
which the enemies of the farmers fear. We 
can carry on within ourselves all the banking, 
warehousing and mercantile operations neces- 
sary to our existence, with persistent adherence 
to the principles of our Order. 

We have stated as explictly as language can 
do it, that we are not enemies of railroads — 
that we are not enemies of capital — that we do 
not intend to abolish middlemen, but only to 
dispense with whatever service of these classes 
which we can do without. We are pledged to 
cheap transportation, to industrial improve- 
ment and to industrial co-operation; first with 
each other, and then on the most equitable 
principles with other classes of laborers. We 
are pledged against high salaries, exorbitant 
profits and rates of interest; against litigation 
when it can be avoided. We are pledged to 
enlarge the abilities and usefulness of woman, 
and to a better, more practical and more thor- 
ough system of education. 

We are expecting powerful and well organ- 
ized opposition to the further extension of our 
Order. We know exactly where to look for it. 

Political power does not belong to us by vir- 
tue of our membership here, but of our citizen- 
ship. A good Patron can no more be a bid 
citizen than he can be a shiftless farmer. A 
sense of personal responsibility as citizens will 
necessarily increase as the weight of intelligent 
manhood and womanhood increases among us. 
We have hardly begun to realize the social and 
educational benefits embraced in our organiza- 
tion, we have been so busy in getting organ- 
ized. We are like a family moving into a new 
house, and are hardly settled enough to know 
how we like it. But it is much to know that it is 
founded on the rock — that it is large enough 
for any increase of the family — that there are 
food and shelter and raiment for all who enter 
it, if they will consent to dwell together as 
brethren, and work for the common good. 

As a concluding sentiment, Dr. Carr ofi'ered 
the "Hymn of Labor," which our English breth- 
ren are singing amid all the privation and dis- 
tress which attends their struggle towards 
emancipation. He thought it a good doxology 
for Grangers to sing to the tune of " Old 
Hundred." 

We thank Thee, for the men who lead. 

Who fight our cause with tongue and pen. 
Whose love to Thee, best shown in deed. 
Breaks forth in ardent love to men. 

We thank Thee, that from south to north, 
From east to west the flame has spread. 

And that the breathing from Thy mouth 
Has kindled unto life the dead. 

Lord, make us patient, as Thou art, 
Yet constant to Thy great design. 

From thoughts of vengeance keep each heart; 
Justice and love are both divine. 

More men, more manhood now accord. 
Make us more worthy to be free. 

Where dwells the Spirit of the Lord, 
There is the home of liberty. 



Change op Officers. — The Master and Sec- 
retary of Potter Valley Grange have been 
changed, and are now as follows: L. A. Pies- 
ton, M.; Mrs. A. H. Slingerland, Sec'y. The 
Post-office address has also been changed to 
Potter Valley, Mendocino county. 

The Master and Secretary of Rhonervillo 
Grange, Humboldt county, are now as follows : 
H. S. Case, Master; Samuel Strong, Sec'y. 

Kiwellattah Grange, Humboldt county, has 
also changed its Master and Secretary, as fol- 
lows : H. W. Arbogast, M.; Cyrus Daniels, 
Sec'y. Present Post-office address. Areata, 
Humboldt county. 

Healdsburg Grange has also changed its Sec- 
retary, H. W. Gladden now occupying that 
positon. 

Wiley Watson has resigned his position as 
Master of Visalia Grange, Kern county, and 
Thomas Fowler has been elected to fill the 
vacancy. H. C. Higby has also resigned as 
Secretary, and James O. Blakeley elected to fill 
his place. 

Tehaichapa Grange Officers. — The names 
of the officers of this newly organized Kern 
county Grange are as follows: John Norboe, 
M.; E. McVicar, O.; W. B. Brink, L.; W. S. 
Eastwood, C; H. F. Wiggins, S.; T. H. God- 
win, A. S.; James Prewet*, Sec'y; W. C. Wig- 
gii^s, T.; Robert Taylor, G. K.; Lucy Wiggins, 
Ceres; Julia Taylor, Pomona; Lizzie Butts, 
Flora; Mrs. McVicar, L. A. S. 



New Granges. 

Editors Press : — It gives me pleasure to re- 
port that I have just returned home safe, from 
an arduous trip to Round valley, Mendocino 
county, 115 miles from here, having been 
called there to organize a Grange. July 4th, I 
was at Pomo, Mendocino county. The 
Grangers of the valley turned out in full force, 
and had a splendid dinner to which all did 
ample justice. 

PoMo Grange, Pomo, Mendocino County. — 
On the afternoon of July 4th I organized Pomo 
Grange with 30 charter members, and the fol- 
lowing officers were duly elected and installed: 
John Mewhinney, M.; B. Pemberton, O.; T. 
W. Dashiells, L.; G. W. Pickle, S.; Isaac 
Grover, A. S.; W. B. Jones, Chap.; Life 
Farmer, T.; Geo. B. Nichols, Sec'y.; B. B. 
Brown, G.K.; Mrs. Dannah Mewhinney, C; 
Mrs. Lavinia Grover, Pomona; Miss Martha 
Hughes, Flora; Miss Jennie Deselms, L.A.S. 
P.O. address of Master and Sec'y, Pomo, 
Mendocino Co. 

Round Valley Grange, Covblo, Mendo- 
cino Co. — On July 7th, I organized Round 
Valley Grange, with 30 charter members and 
the following officers: Philo Handy, M.; C. H. 
Eberle, O.; William Pullen, L.; Nelson Brush, 
S.; P. K. Faulds, A.S.; Joel Eveland, C; C.H. 
Bourne, T.; J. A. Crawford, Sec'y.; J. A. 
Foster, G.K.; Mrs. MaryM. Melendy, C.; Mrs. 
Esther O'Farrell, P. ; Mrs. Mary A. Hornbrook, 
Flora; Miss C. L. Long, L.A.S. P.O. address 
of Master and Sec'y, Covelo, Mendocino Co. 
Two more Granges are soon to be organized in 
Mendocino county. 

The Fourth at Pbtaluma. —We have re- 
ceived from Bro. J. W. A. Wright a full report 
of the Patrons' celebration of the Fourth at 
Petaluma, the publication of which we are 
compelled to defer until next week. We have 
also received from the same source " Notes on 
Inyo and Kern counties," taken during Bro. 
Wright's late visit to that section, as Organ- 
izing Deputy for the Order, which will appear 
next week. 

CcrMMiNGS Valley Grange, Kern Co. — The 
officers of this newly organized Grange are as 
follows: G. W. Thompson, M.; J. M. Brite. 
O.; P. P. Martin, L.; M. S. Freeman, C; T. 
M. Yates, Sec'y; Jesse Davenport, T. ; O. B. 
Wilson, S.; J. D. Chappell, A. S.; H. L. Todd, 
G. K.; Mrs. J. E. Martin, Ceres; Mrs. S. Cum- 
mings, Pomona; Mrs. S. Chappell, Flora; Mrs. 
M. J. Freeman, L. A. S. 



Home Again. — Bro. Baxter, Secretary of the 
State Grange, returned from his trip to the 
East, on Thursday, and is once more at his 
post, at the Grange Agency, corner of Califor- 
nia and Sansome streets. 

A Handsome Compliment. — J. Walter Ward, 
retiring Secretary of Napa Grange, and now 
the assistant Secretary of the State Grange, 
was lately the recipient of a purse containing 
$100. . _^__ 

Planting Trees. — The Grangers of Powder 
river valley, Oregon, are endeavoring to in- 
duce all members to plant trees on their prem- 
ises — a most worthy purpose. 

New Deputy. — Bro. T. J. Farbee, of Bish- 
op's creek, Inyo county, has been appointed 
organizing deputy for the counties of Mono and 
Inyo. ^^^^^^___^ 

Postal Changes Ordered for the Pacific 
Coast. — The following postal changes have 
been ordered on the Pacific Coast: Offices es- 
tablished : At Montserrat, San Diego county, 
Cal.; Simeon Goldbaum, Postmaster. At Free- 
port, Cowlitz county, W. T.; V.N. Vallace, 
Postmaster. At New Locoma, Pierce county, 
W. T.; W. H. Fife, Postmaster. Postmasters 
appointed: Mrs. Eliza Perry, at Big Trees, 
Calaveras county, Cal. ; Charles E. Thomas, at 
Alcatraces, San Francisco county, Cal.; William 
Estwart, at Morro, San Luis Obispo county, 
Cal., G. H. Tebbetts, at Santa Barbara, Santa 
Barbara county, Cal. ; John C. Worth, at Peo- 
ria, Linn county. Or.; Z. Beard, at Tangent, 
Linn county. Or.; Charles A. Montgomery, at 
Fort Colville, Stevens county, W. T.; John'H. 
Hill, at Whitlman, Walla Walla county, W. T. ; 
Jacob Ralph, at Beale Spring, Mohave county, 
Ar. Offices discontinued: Deep Creek, Tooele 
county, Utah; St. John, Tooele county, Utah. 

The Best Seed for Lawns. — Since the publi- 
cation in the Press of last week of the brief ar- 
ticle concerning the lawns of San Francisco 
we have received inquires as to the best seed 
for lawns in this locality. In answer to euoh, 
we would state that Kentucky Blue Grass and 
AVhite Dutch Clover, combined, are the seed- 
ing most used by our landscape-gardeners. 
About three-fourths of the grass to one-fourth 
of clover is the proportion most in use, though 
some prefer a larger percentage of clover. AH, 
however, agree that the two combined produce 
a neat surface and strong sod. 

Fruits now on the Stands. — Some additions 
have been made within the past week to the va- 
rieties of fruits in our market. Peaches that 
are peaches — almost — are now on hand; some 
of the better kinds of plums are showing their 
blooming cheeks in public places; blackberries 
are improving in size and flavor; the apple 
market, and the apple itself, are "softening" a 
little, and a few sourish grapes, even, are here 
to be moralized on by the San Francisco foxes. 
Let them come;, we are resigned. 



38 



,m PBESi, 



[July 18, 1874 




The Use of Flowers. 

God might have made the earth bring forth 

EnouKb for great and small. 
The oak tree and the cedar tree, 

Without a flower at all. 

Of all we might have had enough 

For every want of ours; 
For luxury, medicine and toil. 

And yet have had no flowers. 

The ore within the mountain mine 

Requireth none to grow: 
Nor doth it need the lotus flower 

To make the river flow. 

The clouds might give abundant rain, 

The nightly dews might fall, 
And the herb that keepeth life in man 

Alight yet hsTe drunk them all. 

Then wherefore, wherefore were they made 

.411 dyed in rainbow Unht, 
All fashioned with supremest grace, 

Up-springing day and night? 

Our outward life requires them not. 

Oh, why then had they birth ? 
To minister delight to man. 

To beautify the earth. 

To com^'ort man, to whisper hope. 

Whene'er his faith is dim; 
That He who careth for the flowers 

Will much more care for him. 



-Mary Hoviill. 



The Time to be Pleasant. 

"Mothei's cross !" said Maggie, comiug into 
the kitchen with a pout on her lips. Her aunt 
was busy ironing; but she looked up and an- 
swered Slaggie. 

"Then it is the very time for yon to be 
pleasant and helpful. Mother was awake a 
good deal in the night with the poor baby." 

Maggie made no reply. She put on her hat 
and wrtlked off into the garden. But a new 
idea went with her: "The v(ry time to be 
helpful and pleasant is when other people are 
cross." 

Sure enough, thought she. "That would be 
the time when it would do the most good. I 
remember when I was siok last year, I was so 
nervous that if anybody spoke to me, I could 
hardly help being cross; and mother never got 
angry or out of patience, but was just as gen- 
tle with me. I ought to pay her back now; 
and I will." 

And she sprang up from the grass where she 
had thrown herself, aud turned a face full of 
cheerful resolution toward the room where her 
mother sat snothina and tending a fretful, teeth- 
ing baby. Maggie brought out the pretty ivory 
balls, and began to jingle them for the little 
one. He stopped fretting, and a smile dim- 
pled the corner of his lips. 

" Couldn't I take him out in his carriage?" 
she asked. 

"I should be glad if you would," said her 
mother. 

"I'll keep him as long as he is good," said 
Maggie; "and you must lie 'on the sofa and get 
a nap while I am gone. You are looking dread- 
fully tired." 

The kind words and kiss that accompanied 
them were almost too much for her mother. 
The fears rose to her eyes, and her voice 
trembled as she answered, "Thank you, dearie, 
it will do me a world of good if you can keep 
him out an hour; and the air will do him good, 
too. My head ached badly this morning." 

What a happy heart beats in Maggie's 
bosom as she turned the little carriage up and 
down on the walk. She had done real good. 
She had given back a little of the help and 
forbearance that had so often been bestowed 
upon her. She had made her mother happier, 
and had given her time to rest. She resolved 
always to act upon her aunt's advice: "The 
very time to be pleasant and helpful is when 
everybody is tired and cross." 

How TO Manage a Husband. — A lady read 
the^foUowing paragraph in a paper: "A young 
wife once cured her husband of a disposition to 
absent himself from home at night by provid- 
ing a good dinner, and saying to him afterward, 
'George, if you find a sweeter spot than our 
home describe it to me, and I will rival it if I 
dio in the attempt." A kiss and a few tears 
completed the victory." This lady tried the 
game on her husband. He wasn't melted a bit; 
he merely said, "When you can get the boys to 
come here and smoke cigars and talk politics, 
and yoQ set up a keg of lager, you can count 
me in. I like the company of the boys; 1 do." 
Our lady saw that sentiment had no effect on 
him. So she didn't throw herself on bis neck 
and hug and wet his paper collar with tears; 
but she took a saucer and fi.red it at his head, 
and followed it up with a cup, and ended by 
slinging a dish of strawberries on his shirt bo- 
som. Since that time he has been an exam- 
plary husband. Yet he does seem very anxious 
for her to visit her dear mother as often as four 
or five times a week. 



The Harvest, Local Option, etc. 
ter Valley. 



in Pot. 



There is one town in Connecticut that is not 
afraid of the measles. It's Haddam. 



[Written for the Press by Mas. C. I. H. Nichols.) 

Far as the eye can see, the fields, only a few 
days ago a waving expanse of preen, are 
broken up, here and there, into cosy neighbor- 
hoods, the hay-cocks sitting in social groups 
like friendly gossips at a country tea-party, or 
chasseeing in the hedge like danct rs at a harvest- 
feast. But here come the hay-makers and 
their carts, and now the fun takes on a business 
air. Breeze and hay-forks dispute the pos- 
session of the merry waltzers. 

Our long and late continued winter rains, 
developing more cheat than wheat in the early 
sown grain on low ground, have caused our 
farmers to cut for hay whole fields and portions 
of fields, seeded for grain. The yield is very 
generally heavy and the cash value of the hay 
will probably equal that of grain, had the sea- 
son favored its production. 

Late sown grain is very good, and corn — of 
which more than usual has been planted— is do- 
ing finely. On tliO evening of the 5th, a driz- 
zling rain set in and continued at intervals 
through the 6fh and 7th, scarcely starting a 
rill or wetting the ground to any considerable 
depth, but treating it to a wet blanket that 
benefited late crops very perceptibly and gave 
garden vegetables a frfsh start. 

Many acres that would have been sown to 
small grain had the winter offered the usual 
opportunity for plowing, were planted to corn. 
The soil was no soonfr dry enough to plow, 
than the corn planting demanded all the forces 1 
our farmers could muster and left no margin 
for summer-fallowing. 

In January the early sown crops, volunteer 
and on fallow and corn ground, promised 
splendidly. At the present date Ihe hopes of 
our farmers are vested in the late sown grain, 
and with their large hay crop and a good corn 
season, they have abundant reason for content. 
Our season is at least two weeks later than us- 
ual for fruit — of which there is great abun- 
dance — as well a>< other crops. 

I was very much interested in Mr. Crane's 
report of his army worm experiences, and as I 
have no fancy for lodging and boarding the 
ugly things, though as curious as Mr. C. to 
know what "they are aiming at," I shall look 
carefully for his fiuul report of that imprisontd 
100. The worm which he describes visited 
this valley some years ago, I am told, and 
without injury to the crops, and disappeared 
suddenly. It has been prospecting among us, 
in considerable force, for seme three weeks, and 
at the present writirg is rapidly disappearing, 
no one can tell whither. It has considerately 
passed by the growing crops and "garden 
sass" and grape vines, so far as I have heard, 
and fed on the weeds bordering roads, fences 
and ditches. It betrays an eager appetite for 
sour dock and if only it would act on Mrs. Carr's 
suggestion to the tourists to Yosemite, and 
cram its herbarium with "the beautiful white 
blossoms" and "fern-like leaves" of the Tar- 
weed, which abounds here in all its varieties, 
in pasture and native grass lands, this 'large 
army worm," as our neighbors in the Sacr.i- 
meiito valley call it, would be a public bene- 
factor, even if it did, like the demented Solons 
of this beautiful State, tax the "growing 
crops," (crops in expectancy !). Ah, how I 
admired these same blossoms till I made ac- 
quaintance with the villainous odor and gummy 
adhesiveness of their foliage, gluing skirts, 
hose and even the pedestrian's boots with a 
dirty, greenish mixture almost impervious to 
soap and water, and at certain seasons of the 
year communicating a nauseous flavor to milk 
and butter; the cream when strongly impreg- 
nated foaming and utterly refusing to "come." 

On the 10th inst. "Local Option" re-atserted 
the popular will of Potter valley, which had 
neither a saloon nor a drunkard, and tucked 
Calpella (the other voting precinct of the 
township) under the thrifty wing of temper- 
ance. 

Our Potter valley election differed in two re- 
spects from every Local Option election of 
which I have seen returns — not a vote was 
cast for license, and not a woman was on the 
ground to pray, or coax or oheer the voters. 
Eighty votes were cast in the precinct. Fully 
one-third of the elec'ors, busy with their hay- 
making and sure of a no-license victory, did 
not go to the polls; while the women of the 
valley, serenely confident of the is-sue, staid at 
home, patched the trowsers, darned the hose, 
sewed on buttons, cared for the children and 
chickens and prepared appetizing suppers. 
Alas ! what did become of the chickens, moult- 
ing hens, and babies, in towns whose women 
assembled at the ballot boxes, boqueting but- 
ton-holes, dispensing refreshments and appeal- 
ing 10 a liquor and gold smothered humanity. 

As I have read published accounts of the 
praying and electioneering labors of the women 
of our country in behalf of temperance, I have 
felt both jubilant and regretful; sometimes, I 
confess, thoroughly indignant at the comments 
of friends — unwilling friends of tho pro- 
gramme. Jubilant, that woman, as the reserve 
corps of God and good men in the grapple with 
giant wrong, holds firmly and modestly the 
advance post assigned her. llegretful, that the 
mass of men and their leaders have proved re- 
creant guardians of the public weal and let 
loose an enemy which she must attack with 
prayers and tears and sacrifice. Aud indig- 
nant, that man who pretentiously bar her from 
contact with "the muddy pool of politics" and 
drunken voters at the ballot box, as an elector, 
should send her to kneel in the gutters of 
that muddy pool and to brave the votaries of in- 



temperance in the reeking kennels of their 
craft ! "Consistency, thou art a jewel !" 

Surely the labors of these women, tolerated 
by many, who regard them outside woman's 
sphere, as a forlorn hope, are a reproach to the 
legislation which has made such vicarious 
offerings of womanly devotion necessary. The 
political morality, which, under the plea of reg- 
ulating, justifies the licensing of a demoralizing 
traffic or pursuit or "social evil," emanated 
from the bottomless pit. And the political 
economy which enters a plea of benefits from 
such regulation, or license fees, is an unmiti- 
gated cheat and swindle. 

Here in my quiet retreat, deeply sympathiz- 
ing in a straggle to which I have given some 
of the best and happiest years of my life, I 
have interviewed the present, questioned the 
future and drawn upon the experience of the 
past for an answer to — "How will it end and 
when ?" 

And how will it end ? Faith, sustained by 
testimony of the past and present, answers: 
"Not in immediate success; never in ultimate 
defeat." It is God's cause, and in the running 
fight permanent successes overlay transient 
defeats. Defeat is the discipline of success. 
But many a drawn battle must precede final 
triumph. The inadequately sustained forces 
of temperance, as in the conflicts of the past, 
will again and again "change their base," or 
rest on their arms to renew their strength and 
recruit their numbers. 

But what is to be the inflnenc » of the work 
on the workers themselves ? is a question anx- 
iously asked in regard to these praying, election- 
eering bands of women . In the light of the past, 
I answer, unused faculties and slum lering ener- 
gies will be developed, repressed sympathies will 
be set free, and new lessons, upsetting old time 
ideas and prejudices concerning woman's duly, 
capability and rights, as a free-will worker un- 
der God, will be taken to heart, by both men 
and women, to bear fruit more abundantly in 
all future conflicts between right and wrong. 
The spirit of the conflict, dictating the manner, 
deeply concerns the worker and insures success 
or defeat in proportion as it appeals to or 
outrages the better instincts of humanity. 

Shall we work, and for what and how ? are 
questions that every soul, that would grow to 
the stature and normal proporti.'-ins of man- 
hood or womanhood, should intelligently an- 
swer. Shall we work ? Yes, surely, for God 
in giving us the abilit , has indicated both our 
duty and our right to «ork. 

For what shall we work ? For every good 
cause which challenges in us an unused or 
half used faculty for the work. 

How shall we work ? Work in harne-s or 
out, as we can best bring our energies to bear 
upon desired results, or as opportunity offers. 

And what will be the result of the efforts put 
forth, on the personality, mental, social and 
physical, of the workers ? I answer — a har- 
moniously developed manhood to men, woman- 
hood to women; in proud contrast with the 
Caspar Hausers of society, who have been re- 
strained from the legitimate use of this and 
that faculty aud stimulated in the use of others, 
till mentally, morally and physically they are 
more or less cripples and dyspeptics, to whom 
rational, useful, humanely rounded lives are 
impossible, and wholesome, soul-strengthering 
aliment indigestible. 

Then let us work out our salvation from sin- 
licensing laws and prejudices and win ihe clear 
head and strong heart, that can comprehend 
and execute the higher law of universal love 
and justice. 

A Revolutionary Relic. 

Mr. J. A. Anderson, of El Monte, sends to 
the Peess the following lileniry curiosity, with 
the accompanying explanatory note: 

[ In a number of the Hlitoricnl Mar)azlne may 
be found the following ingenious piece of po- 
etry, which one of its correspondents vouches 
to have been circulated in Philadelphia during 
the occupation of the city by the British, in the 
war of the Revolution. Its author is unknown. 
Its peculiarity consists in the manner in which 
it may be read, viz: in three different ways: 1. 
Let the whole he read in the order in which it 
is written; 2. Then the lines downwards on the 
left of each comma in every line; and (3) in the 
same manner on the right of each comma. By 
the first reading, it will be observed that the 
revolutionary cause is deprecated, and laud ed 
by the others:] 
Hark ! hark ! the trumpet sounds, the din of war's 

alarms 
O'er seas and solid grounds, doth call us all to arms: 
Who for King George doth stand, their honors soon 

will shine: 
Their ruin is at hand, who with theCJongress join. 
The acts of Parliament, in them I much delight; 
I hate their cursed Intent, who tor the Congress fight. 
The Tories of the day, they are my daily toast; 
They soon will sneak away, who independence boast. 
Who non-resistance hold, they have my hand and heart; 
May they for slaves be sold, who act a Whigglsh 

part. 
On Mansfield, North and Bute, may daily blessings 

pour. 
Confusion and dispute, on Congress evermore ; 
To North that British lord, may honor still be done, 
I wish a block or cord, to General Washington. 



"Abe you going to make a flower bed here, 
Judkins?" asked a young lady of the gardener. 
"Yes, miss; them's the orders," answered the 
gardener. "Why it'll quite spoil our croquet 
ground." "Can't help it, mi.ss; them's your 
pa's orders. He says he'll have it laid out for 
liorticulture, not for husbandry." 

A PLACABD in a Brooklyn barber's shop win- 
dow announces,' 'Boots blacked inside." But 
must not that be very bad for the stockings? 



The Story of a Little Bird. 

There was an old couple who earned a poor 
living working hard all day in the fields. 

"See how hard we work all day," said the 
wife, "and it all comes of the foolish curiosity 
of Adam and Eve. If it had not been for that, 
we should have been living now in a beautiful 
garden, with nothing to do all day long." 

"Yes," said the the husband; "If you and I 
had been there, instead of Adam and Eve, all 
the human family had been in paradise still." 

The Count, their master, overheard them 
talking in this way, aud he came to them, and 
said: 

"How would you like it if I took yon into 
my palazzo there, to live, and gave you ser- 
vants to wait on you, and plenty to eat and 
drink ?" 

"Oh, that would be delightful indeed ! That 
would be as good as paradise itself !" answered 
husband and wife together. 

"Well, you may come up there, if you think 
so. Only remember, in paradise there was one 
tree that was not to be touched, so at my table 
there will be one dish not to be touched. You 
mustn't mind that," said the Count. 

"Oh, of course not," replied the old peasant; 
"that's just what I say when Eve had all the 
fruits in the garden, what did she want with 
just that one that was forbidden ? And if we, 
who are used to the scantiest victuals, are sup- 
plied with enough to live well, what does or 
matter to us whether there is an extra dish it 
not on the table?" 

"Very well reasoned," said the Count. "We 
quite understand each other, then ?" 

"Perfectly," replied both husband and wife. 

"You come to live at my palace, and have 
everything you can want there, so long as you 
don't open one dish, which there will be in 
the center of the table. If you open that, you 
will go back to your way of life." 

"AVe quite understand," answered the peas- 
ants. 

The Count went in and called his servant, 
and told him to give the peasants an apartment 
to themselves, with everything they could want, 
and a sumptuous dinner; in the middle of the 
table w.is to be an earthen dish into which he 
was to ptit a little bird alive, so that if one 
lifted the cover, the bird would fly out. He 
was to stay in the room and wait on tbem, and 
report to him what happened. 

The old people sat down to dinner, and 
prhi^ed everything they saw, so delightful it 
all seemed. 

"Look ! that's the dish we're not to touch," 
said the wife. 

"No;better not look at it," said the husband. 

"Pshaw ! There's no danger of wanting to 
open it when we have such a lot of dishes to 
eat our fill out of," returned the wife. 

So they set to and made such a repast as 
they had never dreamed of before. By degrees, 
however, as the novelty of the thing wore off, 
they grew more and more desirous for some- 
thing newer and newer still. Though when 
they at first sat down it seemed that two dishes 
would be ample to satisfy them, they had now 
seven or eight, and they were wishing there 
might be others coming. There is an end to 
all things human, and no other came. There 
only remained the earthen dish in the middle 
of the table. 

"We will just lift the lid up a little wee bit," 
said the wife. 

"No; don't talk about it," said the husband. 

The wife sat still for five minutes, and then 
she said : 

"If one just lifted up one corner of the lid, 
it would scarcely be called opening it, you 
know." 

"Better leave it alone, altogether, and not 
think about it at all." 

The wife sat still another five minutes, and 
then she said: "If one peeped in iust the least 
in the world, it would not be any harm, surely, 
and I should so like to know what can the 
Count have put in that dish ?" 

"I'm sure I can't guess in the least," said 
the husband, "and I must say I can't see what 
it can signify to him if we did look at it." 

"No; that's what I think, and besides, how 
would he know if we peeped ? It would not 
hurt him," said the wife. 

"No, as you say, one could just take a look," 
said the husband. 

The wife did not want more encouragement 
than that. But when she lifted one side of the 
lid the least mite, she could see nothing. She 
opened it the least mite more, and the bird 
flew out. The servant ran and told his master, 
and the Count came down and drove them out, 
bidding them never complain of Adam and Eve 
any more. — Roman Folk Lore. 



Purity or Chabacteb.— Over the beauty of 
the plum and the apricot there grows a bloom 
and beauty more exquisite than the fruit 
itself— a soft, delicate flush spreads one its 
flushing cheek. Now, if yon brush your 
hand over this it is gone. The flower that 
bangs in the morning impearled with dew, ar- 
rayed with jewels — once shake it so that the 
beads roll off and you may sprinkle water over 
it as yon please, yet it can never be again what 
it was when the dew fell silently on it from 
heaven. On a frosty morning you may see 
panes of glass covered with landscapes, moun- 
tains, lakes and trees, blending in a beautiful 
picture. Now, lay your hand upon the glass, 
and by the fcratch of your finger, or by the 
warmth of your palm, that delicate tracery will 
be obliterated. So, there is in youth a beauty 
and purity of character, which, when once 
touched and defiled, can never be restored. 



July i8, 1874.1 



^9 



The Deacon's Hat. 

A rather ridiculous scene occurred in Nor- 
-walk, Ohio, recently. The hero is a prominent 
and much respected deacon. The other Sun- 
day he started for church with an old hat on 
his head. It was an easy hat, and the old 
gentleman enjoyed it. It appears there are 
pegs to hang hats on in the churches there. 
He thus disposed of his head-gear on reaching 
the church, and took his seat with the congre- 
gation. 

When the services were over he lingered as 
is customary and proper for deacons to do. He 
finally reached the porch, and stopped for his 
hat, and any respectable citizen can imagine 
the horror he experienced on beholding but one 
liat left, and that a most dilapidated and scan- 
dalous looking article. Ha could feel his blood 
boil within him as he looked at it and thought 
of the mutton-head who owned it, and had 
"walked off with his glossy beaver instead. He 
said out loud that the owner of that hat was a 
mutton-head, and ground his deaconish heel 
into the floor, and felt much relieved by so 
•doing. Then he tied a handkerchief about his 
head because the old hat was much too large 
for him, and he could not wear it even if flesh 
and spirit had not revolted against the spectacle. 
He told the sexton that the hat must have been 
built in a dry dock, and the only thing that 
troubled him in the matter was how a man with 
a head that size got into the church anyway. 
Then he stalked majestically homeward, with 
the red handkerchief wound about his head, 
and the detestable hat held at arms' length of 
him, and altogether forming a spectacle that 
fastened the astonished attention of every 
beholder. 

Arriving home, he extended the obnoxious 
article towards his wife, and waiting an instant 
for her to take in the awful enormity of the 
offense, he explosively shouted : " Look at 
that villainous rag !" The lady looked at it 
and was astonished. " I don't wonder you are 
sick," be howled, morosely; " it makes me sick 
to think of the bull-head who owns such a 
smoke-stack palming it off oa me, and taking 
my new beaver for himself in mistake. (He 
ground this out in a withering sarcasm.) "A 
pretty mistake, I must say, when this rag is big 
enough to cover a cart, and filthy enough to 
make a crow sick." 

" But that's your every day hat," asserted his 
wife, in still greater astonishment. 

"My bat !" gasped the amazed deacon, star- 
ing at her with eves half-way out of their 
sockets, and then laughing hysterically and 
shivering from head to foot. 

"Certainly, it is," persisted his wife, "and 
here is vour best hat," taking that article from 
its accustomed place and holding it out to him. 
Without a word the miserable man sank into a 
chair, and after staring blankly at his wife for a 
moment, slowly said : "The ways of Provi- 
dence are past finding out. Kub my head, 
Matildy !" 

Civility. — A courteous man often succeeds 
in life, and that even when persons of ability 
fail. The experience of every man furnishes 
frequent instances where conciliatory manners 
have made the fortunes of physicians, lawyers, 
divines, politicians, merchants and, indeed, in- 
dividuals of all pursuits. In being introduced 
to a stranger, his affability or the reverse creates 
instantaneously a prepossession in his favor, or 
awakens unconsciously a prejudice against him. 
To men civility is, in fact, what a pleasing ap- 
pearance is to woman; it is a general passport 
to favor— a letter of recommendation written in 
a language that every person understands. 
The best of men have often injured themselves 
by irritability and consequent fudeness; where- 
as men of inferior ability have frequently suc- 
ceeded by their agreeable and pleasing man- 
ners. Of two men, equal in all other respects, 
the courteous one has twice the advantages, 
and by far the better chance of making his way 
it the world. 



The Invisible Children. — It is not when 
your children are with you ; it is not when you 
see and hear them, that they are most to you; 
it is when the sad assemblage is gone; it is 
when the daisies have resumed their growing 
again in the place where the little forms were 
laid; it is when you have carried your children 
out, and said farewell, and come home again, 
and day and night are full of sweet memories; 
it is when summer and winter are full of 
touches and suggestions of them, when yOu 
cannot look up to God without thinking of 
them , nor look down toward yourself and not 
think of them ; it is when they have gone out 
of your arms, and are living to you only by the 
power of imagination, that they are the most to 
yon. The invisible children are the real chil- 
dren, the sweetest children, the truest children, 
the children that touch our hearts as no hands 
of flesh ever could touch them. — Journal of 
Education. 



" What do they mean ?" said Spicer's friend, 
pointing to the three gold balls in front of a 
shop the other day. " Indians," was the re- 
ply. "Indians!" said his friend. "Yes, 
Pawn-ees," retorted Spicer. — Boston Bulletin. 

A BOOK-BiNDEB had a book brought to him to 
be rebound. After the job was finished he 
made the following entry in his day book: "To 
repairing the 'Way to Heaven,' twenty-five 
cents." 



A little boy having, broken his rocking- 
horse the day it was bought, his mother began 
to rebnke him. He silenced her by inquiring, 
"What is the good of a horse till it's broke?" 



Yo^HQ f OLKS' GoLllf^fl. 



The Little Robin. 

As I sat at my window this evening, 

A robin came flying along ; 
Then he hopped and he twittered— then chirping 

He sang me a beautiful song. 
He sat on a rose-bnsh so slender, 

As h,e poured forth his beautiful lay; 
Then another be sang, and sat singing, 

As if he intended to stay. 

On a sudden, his bright eye discovered 

A cord ■which the rose-bush confined. 
"Oh, ho I" thought the robin, "what fortune I 

How nicely my nest will be lined ! 
This cord is now just what I wanted, 

To put in my dear little nest, 
I will see if I cannot untie it, 

Or break it — yes, that would be best." 

And he fluttered, then worked away bravely; 

But finding he did not succeed, 
He sang a sweet song for a moment, 

Then worked away bravely indeed, 
He pulled again, never despairing. 

Then rested once more from his work, 
Then at it again he went strongly, 

And broke it at last with a jerk. 

Then off to the fir-tree so shady 

My robin flew swiftly away. 
And deposited safely his treasure 

With some small bits of straw and of hay; 
Then back again came the dear robin, 

He quickly came flying along, 
And again on the rose-bush sat lightly, 
And sang me another sweet song. 

Now think of this robin, dear children, 

When something perplexes, I pray; 
Stop and sing a sweet song for a moment. 

And the trouble will vanish away. 
Persevere in your least undertaking 

As this dear little robin to-night; 
Be patient, be cheerful, dear children. 

And your duties will seem very light. 

— Children's Hour. 



Value of the Morning Hours. 

Tom Jones was a little fellow, and not so 
quick to learn as some boys; but no one in 
the class could beat him in his lessons. He 
rarely missed in geography, never in spelling, 
and his arithmetic was always correctly done; 
as for his reading, no boy improved like him. 
The scholars were fairly angry sometimes, he 
outdid them so constantly, 

"Why, Tom, where do you learn your les- 
sons? You don't study in school like the oth- 
er boys." 

"I rise early in the morning," answered 
Tom. 

Ah! that is it. "The morning hour has gold 
in its mouth." 

There is a garden near us, which is the pret- 
tiest and most fruitful spot in the neighbor- 
hood. The earliest radishes, peas, strawberries, 
potatoes, grow there. It supplies the family 
with vegetables, besides some for the market. 
If anybody wants flowers, that garden furnishes 
the sweetest roses, pinks, and "all sorts" with- 
out number. The soil, we used to think, was 
poor and rocky, besides being exposed to the 
north wind; and the owner is at his business 
all day, yet he never hires any one to dig or to 
weed for him. 

"How do you make so much out of your lit- 
tle garden?" he was once asked. 

"I give my mornings to it," he answered; 
"and I don't know which is the most benefited 
by my work, my garden or I." 

Harry's Chickens. . 

•♦ 

Sammy Brent lived "way down south," and 
was just as full of mischief as a boy of thirteen 
could be. One evening he came home after a 
ramble through the woods and by the river, 
and asked his brother Harry, who was eight 
years younger than himself: 

"Harry, wouldn't you like to have some fun- 
ny chickens?" 

"I'm just sure I would," answered Harry. 

' ' Well, you take these three eggs and put them 
in a box of sand and set it in the sun, and after 
a while you'll have three of the funniest chick- 
ens you ever saw." 

Harry followed his brother's directions, and 
morning, noon and night, he might be seen 
watching for his brood to poke their bills up 
out of the sand. At last, one hot day, just be- 
fore noon, the sand began to move, and the 
queerest kind of a chicken came out. It had 
a long, flat body without feathers or wings, 
four feet, and a tail nearly as long as its body. 
As soon as Harry's excited eyes could see clear- 
ly he exclaimed : 

"Oh! oh! it's a alligator! it's a alligator come 
out of an egg." 

If Harry had been a little older he would 
have known that the alligators bury their eggs 
in the sand and wait for the sun to hatch them, 
and as soon as the young alligators appear, the 
mother conducts them to the water. 



Sunshine. — Sunshine is beautiful and joy-in- 
spiring always. All things animate and inani- 
mate take on a new life in its presence. Not a 
flower but gratefully recognizes it, not a bird 
but carols the sweetest under its touch. 



A LITTLE girl asked a minister, "Do you 

think my father will go to heaven. 

"Why, yes my child. Why do you ask? " 
"Well, because if he don't have his own way 

there, he wont stay long, I was thinking." 

Anduew .Jaokson was accused of bad spelling, 
but John Kandolph defended him by declaring 
that " a man must be a fool who couldn't spell 
words more ways than one," 



QoOD KJEi^LjII. 



The Human Frame. 

No. 6— The Larnyx. 

The larnyx is one of the most delicate and 
beautiful organs of the body. It is, in fact, 
an admirably constructed musical instrument 
so placed as to utilize the currents of air, 
passing in and out of the lungs, for the pro- 
duction of sound. It is a piano, flute and cla- 
rionet all in one; and all compressed within 
the space of a cubical inch. The lungs are the 
bellows which supply the air; the trachea is 
the tube which concentrates and conducts it to 
the music box, while the "vocal chords" sup- 
ply the place of the numerous wires which 
cause the different tones to be produced in the 
piauo. But, while there are dozens and doz- 
ens of these wires required in the piano, this 
tiny, but unrivaled instrument has but two, 
and these, like the eyes and ears, are perfect 
duplicates. Yet, these two "chords" of yellow 
elastic tissue are capable of producing a far 
greater variety of sounds than the boasted 
Chickering with its seven or eight octaves. 
True, the human voice, except in rare cases, 
does not exceed two or two and a-half octaves, 
but the instrument of art only has a single half 
tone between each note, while the voice in this 
respect is almost unlimited — Jenny Lind, it is 
said, being capable of producing one hundred 
appreciable tones between any two mnjor in- 
tervals in the scale. Besides " this, when we 
consider the endless variety of expression the 
voice is capable of, compared with the puny 
"stops" of other instruments, it becomes use- 
less to draw comparisons further. 

But perhaps it may be desired to know some- 
thing more of the mechanism by means of 
which these wonderful results are accomplish- 
ed. Well, this box, placed just below the base 
of the tongue, and the forepart of which con- 
stitutes the well-known Adam's apple, is tri- 
angular in form, with the apex pointing out- 
ward, and is constructed out of nine "boards," 
or pieces of cartilage; these being bound togeth- 
er by eight muscles and about a dozen liga- 
ments. Two of these cartilages have little horn- 
like terminations which project upwards into 
the cavity of this box, and at the ends of these 
are attached one extremity of each vocal chord, 
the other being attached on the opposite side. 
These cartilages are movable by means of mus- 
cles which cause them to partially rotate; thus 
putting the chords on the stretch or otherwise. 
These muscles are under the control of the will; 
and, just as the violin string gives a shriller 
sound when drawn tighter, so the owner has 
only to telegraph down, and these cartilages 
are "yanked" around in a twinkling, the vocal 
chords put upon extreme tension, and "Come 
out of that, John Henry!" is uttered with a 
shrillness that makes the little culprit fairly 
jump out of his boots. 

These chords are, as we have said, composed 
of elastic, yellow fibrous tissue, and covered by 
an extremely delicate mucous membrane, the 
thickening of which, by colds or otherwise, 
causes that huskiness of voice so often 
observed. 

Another curiosity connected with the voice, 
is a "sounding box," hollowed out of the fron- 
tal bones, known as the "frontal sinus," and 
which communicates with the fossa of the nose 
by means of tiny apertures. These often be- 
come also closed through the thickening of 
the mucous membrane from colds, etc., and 
hence occasion that peculiar, flat tone of voice 
known as "talking through the nose." When 
the cold passes away the aqueducts are reopen- 
ed, resonance restored, and the nasal tone 



The "Open Treatment" of Wounds. — The 
principal maxims followed by Prof. Rose in the 
treatment of wounds are to secure absolute rest 
after arrest of bleeding, and to provide for per- 
fect freedom of discharge and scrupulous 
cleanliness. Another principle is to interfere 
with the healing process of wounds only when 
special indications are afforded, and to consider 
stitches and bandages of all kinds as inter- 
ferences to be so avoided. The air to which 
the wounds are freely exposed in the open 
treatment must, of course, be pure, and the 
system accordingly includes the use of ener- 
getic ventilation. In the hospital, ventilation 
IS obtained only by constant opening of the 
doors and windows, a proceeding which, it is 
true, renders the heating ari'angements often 
insufiicient in winter. The advantages claim- 
ed for this method are : There is no pressure 
or constriction by dressings. An irritation of 
the wounds by changing the position and ex- 
ternal applications is avoided. There is no 
danger of infecting the wounds by impure ar- 
ticlen. The danger of retention of matter is 
small. The state of the wounds may be con- 
trolled at any time by simply lifting the cov- 
erlets. As healing by the first intention is 
given up, as many ligatures may be applied 
as are desirable, and thus secondary hemorr- 
hage may be better avoided. The air of the 
wards is not infected by emanations from the 
dressings, as in the case of other methods, 
except Lister's. There is less need for mate- 
rials for dressings, therefore less expense. 

An infussion of flaxseed, with licorice-root 
and lemon juice added, is recommended as a 
common drink in catarrh. 



Taking Cold. 



The secret of avoiding the unpleasant con- 
sequences thought to spring wholly from the 
action of cold upon the body has very little de- 
pendence upon exposure, but a great deal upon 
an impure and weak condition of all the' vital 
processes. In other words, with an average or 
superior constitution, and an intelligent obser- 
vance of all the laws of health, men and women 
could not take cold if they wanted to; they 
might be exposed to the action of cold to a de- 
gree equal to the beast of the field, and with 
like impunity. But in the case of persons with 
feeble constitutions, and who disregard know- 
ingly or otherwise- -and most frequently other- 
wise—the conditions of healthy existence, no 
degree of care will prevent the taking of cold, 
as it is termed. They may live in houses regu- 
lated with all the precision of a hot-house— 
they may cover themselves with the most high- 
ly protective clothing the market provides , and 
yet they will take cold. The consumptive per- 
son does not live, nor ever will live, even if kept 
in a temperature absolutely uniform, and 
clothed in a wholly faultless manner, in whom 
the well known signs of one cold after another 
will not be apparent. But, on the other hand, 
there are those who, like the late Sir Henry 
Holland, of good constitutions and living in 
accordance with the laws of health, may travel 
as he did from the tropics to the arctics again 
and again, clad only in an ordinary dress coat, 
and yet scarcely know what it is to have a cold, 
or sickness of any kind. The truth is, 
that in order to avoid taking cold from ordi- 
nary, or even extraordinary exposure, the 
vital processes cf the body must be made 
made strong enough to rise above the untoward 
influence of external conditions. If the body 
is not thus superior, if it is so weak that it can 
only act harmoniously under the most favora- 
ble conditions, a continued state of health is 
not among the possibilities. No more will a 
weak body maintain itself without harm amid 
great external disturbance than will the weak 
machinery of a steam vessel maintain itself 
without injury amid a severe storm. The avoid- 
ance of elemental disturbances are not possible 
in the one case any more than in the other, yet 
it is precisely what persons by the ten thousand 
are to-day seeking to accomplish in the pre- 
servation of their health. The study is not how 
to make their blood purer, their bodies stronger, 
but how to dodge the ugly weather. 

The conclusion from all this is, that neglect- 
ing the conditions upon which strength of con- 
stitution and purity of blood depend, and then 
striving to avoid in a sedulously careful man- 
ner the evil influences of colds upon the body, 
is like neglecting the substance for the shadow 
of health ; or more properly, it is like one who 
starves his body, and then strives to keep quiet 
in order that his strength shall not be exhausted. 
Let food be taken, and the exhaustion from ex- 
ercise will not ensue; let all the conditions of 
health be observed, and then the natural 
changes of the weather will fall harmlessly on 
the healthy functions of the body. — Sanitarian, 

Transfusion op Blood. — In many cases, 
particularly those in which exhaustion had 
taken place from hemorrhage, transfusion has 
been attended with remarkable success. In 
cases where organic disease previously existed, 
failures have been frequent. Dr. Flint states 
that while normally a patient should have 
from fourteen to eighteen pounds of blood in 
the system to' properly sustain the functions of 
the body, the injection of from four to seven 
ounces of blood into the circulation of a person 
apparently dying has been known to com- 
pletely restore the patient to life. The intro- 
duction of portions of blood without the red 
blood-globules has been unattended with good 
results. These blood-corpuscles are the oxy- 
gen carriers. It is Dr. Flint's opinion that 
this operation is perfectly practicable, and that 
it should not only be employed in those des- 
perate cases where favorable results are scar- 
cely expected, but should be resorted to be- 
fore patients have fallen into such a desperate 
condition. 

Legislation and Hygiene. — The various 
lessons given us by Nature as to the possibility 
of checking or preventing disease have culmin- 
ated in the fact that the State uses its moral 
power and material resources toward preserv- 
ing the health of its citizens. As to how far 
the State may thus exercise authority, there is 
a difference of opinion; but the neglect of a 
city government to provide proper sewerage 
and the course of a common drunkard, both 
tending to disturb the public peace and the 
comfort of individuals, are alike crimes and 
should be considered as sxich in law. The ex- 
istence of vile deposits which overwhelm the 
inhabitants with a tainted atmosphere, or the 
sjiread of the habit which strikes at the root of 
the physical, moral and intellectual health of 
the people, are both producers of disease to the 
community, which should be as sedulously 
guarded against as the visitation of a fever to 
the individual, and the means used to defend 
the people from their ravages are striking ex- 
amples of pure preventative medicine. — Sc. Am. 

Pbevkntion in Place of Cube. — President 
Barnard says that the advance of modern sci- 
ence is such that the physician will eventually 
find his occupation gone. The people would, 
as they advance further in knowledge of natural 
laws, become more and more able to dispense 
with the doctor, and in brief would learn so to 
apply the " ounce of prevention " as to obviate 
the necessity of the " pound cure." 



40 



[July 18, 1874- 




PUBLIBH£D BV 

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i. T. DKWBT. W. B. EWIIB. O. H. BTBOMO. ». L. BOONE. 

PuiNOiPAL Editob .TT7....W. B. EWER. A.M. 

Office, No. 224 Sansome street, Southeast corner of 
Oftlifornia street, where friends and patrons are Invited 
to oxir SoiENTino Press. Patent Agency, Engraving and 
Printing establishment. 

ScBscBiPTioNS pavuble in advance — For one year $4; 
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pay for one and one-third year. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. O. o rders at onr risk 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July i8, 1874. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



OENERAIi EDITORIALS.— H. B. Jolley; Wheat, 
Fruit, Potato-Buss, Etc.. at the East; A Short Cut to 
Peach Culture; How About Silk Culture? 33. Cali- 
fornia Batter; Hints on Hop-Growing, 40. About 
Comets; Wild CoCfee; Straw-Burning Engines, 41. 
Patents and Inventions, 44- 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— H. B. Jolley, Master of Merced 
(irange, 33. About Comets, 41. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— A «.etter to J. M. Ker- 
linger; From Dry Creek; About Hydraulic Bams; The 
.\rmy Worm, 34- 

HORTICULTURE.— Do Bees Eat Grapes? Destroy- 
ins WorniH in Pots; How to Grow the Oleander; Uses 
of the Cherry Tree; A Rapid Growing Tree, 34. 

THE HORSE.— Principal Points to be Regarded in 
the .Imiyment of Horses; Let the Horse Roll; Sweeny 
Rcmcdv; Cure for Brittle Feet, 35. 

POULTRY YARD. — Boiled Corn for Poultry; 
Why Hi«h Priced Eggs do not Hatch; Salt in Poultry 
Diet; Profits from Fowls, 35. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— Rules for Shearing; Sheep- 
Raising in Ventura; Sheep Disease in New Mexico; 
Cure (or Sheep-Killing Dogs; Stretches in Sheep, 
35. 

THE APIARY.— Good Honey Localities; Remedies 
for Bee Stings: Introducing Queens, 35. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Progress of the 
Patrons in California; New Granges; Meetings; Etc., 
36. 

HOUE CIRCLE.— The Use of Flowers (Poetry); 
The Time to be Pleasant; How to Manage a Husband; 
The Harvest, Local Option, Etc., in Potter Valley; A 
Revolutionary Relic; The Story of a Little Bird; 
Purity of Character, 38. The Deacon's Hat; Civility; 
The Invisible Children, 39. 

YOUNO FOLKS' COLUMN.— The Little Robin 
(Poetry) ; Value of the Morning Hours; Harry's 
Chickens; Sunshine, 39. 

GOOD HEALTH. -The Human Frame; The "Open 
Treatment" of Wounds; Taking Cold; Transfusion of 
Blood: Legislation and Hygiene; Prevention in Place 
of Cure, 39. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— An Architectural Infliction; 
Protecting Varnish; Xitro-glycerine; Air; Aerolites; 
An Oyster Patent; Combined Sail ana Drag for Boats; 
Making Match Sticks; Another Calculating Machine; 
Ice Manufacture; Native Silver Amalgamw; A Natural 
Hygrometer; Incombustible Wood; Blisters in Veneer- 
ing; Testinp! Belting Leather; Cement for Glass and 
Porcelain; 'To Seften Skins; Gas from Clay, 48. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various coun- 
ties in California, 44. 



K^emo'val. 

July 13th, 1874, the business office of this Journal 
was removed just one block east of our former lo" 
cation, to No. 224 Sansome Street, southeast comer of 
California, over the Bank of British Columbia, where 
we have secured large and elegant quarters. This re- 
moval is made in consequence ol the sale of the build- 
ing which we formerly occupied, to parties who will 
proceed immediately to demolish the present st nicture 
and erect a new and magnificent block in its place. 



Pkssonai,. — It is with much regret that we 
announce the fact that Mr. W. Wadsworth, 
who for some three years past has been con- 
nected with the editorial department of the 
Pacific Bueal Press, has been compelled by 
serious indisposition to withdraw, permanently, 
from all editorial labor. Since March last our 
columns have largely missed his able and 
genial pen. Protracted visits to Santa Cruz, 
Los Angeles, and more latterly to Verdi, near 
the summit of the Sierras, have thus far failed 
to restore his declining health. His numerous 
friends, in all parts of the State, will share with 
us in regrets at his declining health, and join 
us in the hope that he will yet return once more 
to the active duties of life. 



•'The Human Fb.«ie."— We give to-day an- 
other of the excellent series of articles on The 
Human Frame. They are prepared ejtpressly 
for this paper by a gentlemen connected with 
it By thoroughly understanding the subject 
which he has taken in baud, and having form- 
ed a correct estimate of the tastes and needs of 
the general reader in these matters, he has 
been able to give a large amount of useful in- 
formation in an attractive form. 

Examine Youk Hoctse.— Since the church acci- 
dent at Syracuse the people all over the country 
have been examining their meeting-houses, and 
about every other such building is reported by 
somebody as unsafe. The only astonishing 
thing is that half the inhabitants haven't been 
killed before now. 



California Butter. 

The complimentary notices which are re- 
ceived from the East, concerning the good keep- 
ing qualities of California butter, do not fully 
satisfy us. They imply that we have merely 
made a lacky hit in the mode which we have 
adopted for preparing our butter for market; 
and it seems to be expected that we should 
accept them as a liberal concession on the part of 
those who could not conscientiously admit the 
product itself, aside from its style of going to 
market, among the first-class dairy products of 
the land. We are not, however, disposed to 
complain of any slight, or even want of appre- 
ciation, on thq part of our distant customers; 
for we are aware that it would be casting a 
worse slight upon them to suppose that they 
did not know that butter could not be kept 
good, that was not good when it was taken out 
of the churn. 

It is not to complain of the want of our full 
complement of praise, but rather to inspire con- 
fidence on the part of the producers of Califor- 
nia butter, that we have taken the subject in 
hand. This is one of the very few products in 
regard to which our people are willing to admit 
that other portions of the country possess 
superior advantages; but if they had conceded 
certain other claims to their Eastern neighbors, 
and withheld this, they would have arrived at 
a fairer and more judicious distribution of 
agricultural honors. They have evidently been 
led into this mistake by the pratings of Science. 
This lady has condescended to make frequent 
visits to the dairy, of late. Possibly these 
visits have been a little too frequent; for though 
some of her hints have been of practical bene- 
fit, many of her conclusions have been un- 
sound, and have misled her too confiding vota- 
ries. It has been remarked that when a lady 
takes out her gold watch in a crowded street 
car to inform herself of the time of day, her 
fellow passengers are justified in the conclusion 
that she has not carried a watch a very long 
period of time; and by the same rule we may 
suppose that those who display among the 
masses an elaborately and highly burnished 
case of science, from which dangles a long 
chain of sounding epithets, have not long been 
in possession of the same. 

Science has condescendingly called on her 
poor relation, Agriculture, and has seemed to 
tiike a particular fancy to the dairy department. 
She has furnished dairymen with an analysis 
of gr<i3ses and soils, and told them in what 
localities the component parts of butter are to 
be found in their greatest purity and abund- 
ance; and in this connection we have befen 
assured that California is not among the few 
favored spots where first-class butter can be 
made. 

We are willing to admit that we have not yet 
seen anything of the California make that is 
quite up to the once famous " Orange county 
butter," of New York, or that equals the now 
celebrated Philadelphia butter; and among the 
many dairying districts of the East there are 
probably other favored spots where, during a 
brief season of each year, a grade of butter 
may be made which we cannot equal. But we 
are not disposed to accept any classification 
which places California butter in the " ordin 
ary," or even in the " good grades ;" for we 
assert that, with the exception of the strictly 
" fancy" article, our butter Is superior to that 
of Eastern manufacture. 

From our observations of the effects of cli- 
mate on milk, we cannot see how that of Cali- 
fornia can be otherwise than favorable to butter 
making. Where the condition of the atmo- 
sphere is such that the milk sours before the 
cream rises, and where the cream becomes 
tainted and moulds a few hours after skim- 
ming, we cannot expect as much butter 
from the same amount of milk, or as good an 
article as in situations which allow the cream 
ample time to rise, and do not render it lia- 
able to the slightest taint during the butter- 
making processes. It will, perhaps, be remem- 
bered by the readers of the Pbess that Harris 
Lewis, of Herkimer county, N. Y., recently 
gave, through the columns of our paper, his 
opinion of the probable effects of our remark- 
ably pure atmosphere on cheese-making; stat- 
ing that among other advantages which we 
might expect to derive from our climate in this 
product, cheese made and cured under such 
circumstances would possess long-keeping 
qualities. Mr. Lewis, in his letter to the Pbess, 
limited his observations to cheese-making; but 
we are confident that he and every other ex- 
perienced dairyman will agree with us that 
these climatic advantages are equally available 
in butter-milking. 

The uniform temperature of the climate of 
Calitomia undoubtedly gives uniformity to 
California butter, and it is this quality, which 
is imparted to it even by the food of which the 
cow partakes, which gives it much of the re- 
markable keeping quality for which our system 
of packing is especially credited. "Fancy but- 
ter" is pleasant to read about, and it is really 
delicious eating; especially where the con- 
sumer brings to the feast a bit of his own 
fancy; but uniformity in butter is a quality far 
more desirable than fancy; especially where it 
is uniformly good, or even better than good, as 
is the standard butter of California. If people 
do not go into ecstasies over California butter, 
on the other hand their senses are never 
shocked by it as they are by a large portion — 
perhaps three-quarters — of that which is made 
in the East. It is interesting to observe the 
almost timid manner with which the retail 



purchaser of eastern butter makes his acquaint- 
ance with the article. His sense of smell has 
received so many gross affronts of this charac- 
ter that he does not bring it in close proximity 
to his nose, but "scents it from afar" at first. 
When the nose, as a partner in the purchase, 
assents to the bargain the taste is consulted; and 
after some deliberation, accompanied by an 
ominous scowl and a suspicious smacking of 
the lips, the purchase is perhaps completed. 
Similar scenes are enacted over the butter- 
plate at the table. It is scarcely considered a 
breach of hospitality or of table etiquette for the 
guest to lift the butter to his nose before spread- 
ing it on his bread. But we see little of this in 
California. As it is safe to eat a California 
apple in the dark, so can we spread, as well as 
eat, our bread in peace, with no noisome stench 
or flavor to molest or make us afraid. 

What we have said in regard to the keeping 
qualities of California butter being more attrib- 
utable to onr climate than to our mode of pack- 
ing, should not be considered as evidence of a 
want of faith on onr part in this mode; for we 
think that our butter-makers achieved a fortu- 
nate hit when they adopted it. We want no 
butter -firkins in the State, though butter 
packed in them here would undoubtedly keep 
better than in those places where they are in 
general use ; but our long, two-pound roll pos- 
sesses many advantages. In convenience and 
neatness in marketing it cannot be surpassed; 
and a slice from one of them furnishes a be- 
coming occupant for the butter plate. Enrolled 
in thin cloth, and pickled in large butter casks, 
it can be safely transported to any distance. 

We hope that by improving our dairy stock, 
and by increased facilities for making and mar- 
keting butter, we shall be able to compete as 
successfully with Eastern dairymen in regard 
to prices, as we now do in the quality of the 
product; and that we shall soon export largely 
of this article. The exclusive exportation of 
grain fortunately suits the emergencies of a 
new country; but all farmers are aware that if 
continued it will exhaust the vitality of the 
soil, and they do not need the croakings of as- 
sayers to stimulate them to an endeavor to 
substitute something of a different character as 
soon as practicable. For this purpose nothing 
is so well adapted as dairying. It enriches in- 
stead of impoverishing the soil, and whatever 
enriches the soil, enriches the owner of the soil. 



Hints on Hop Growing— No. 7. 

Drying Hops. 

Our apology for allowing the present num- 
ber of this series of articles to follow so closely 
upon the heels of its predecessor, which ap- 
peared in last week's issue, is, that the two 
processes of which they treat are still more 
closely connected and are also close at hand. 

A good dry-house is not an expensive struc- 
ture, and when not used for drying hops is 
available for various other purposes. A build- 
ing covering a space of 18x36 feet, and having 
16 feet posts, will be sufficiently large for a hop 
yard of ten acres. The lower story, divided 
into two apartments of equal size, will form 
the store-room and the press-room, where the 
baled hops can be stored. The upper story, 
divided in the same way, will form the kiln — 
over the store-room — and the store-room for 
unpressed hops. Let the building be as tight 
as a good outside boarding and inside ceiling 
will make it; for air and light should be pretty 
effectually excluded. About two feet may be 
taken from the bight of the kiln and added to 
that of the stove-room. This will more effectu- 
ally concentrate the heat in the kiln, and the 
floor being elevated above that of the store- 
room it will add to the convenience of shoving 
the dried hops from the former to the latter. 
In place of a floor between the stove and kiln- 
rooms, heavy wire cloth should be placed upon 
the joists; and over this baling cloth should be 
spread to prevent the hops from sifting through. 
No glass windows should be placed in any of 
the rooms, with the exception of that in which 
the hops are pressed, as the hops should be 
kept from the light as much as possible. One 
window with shutters that fit closely and that 
can be readily managed is all that is needed for 
the other three rooms; though the stove-room 
should have ventilators near the floor, which 
may be opened or closed as more or less heat 
is required. There should bo no entrance to 
the stove-room except through the press-room ; 
and the window through which the hops, when 
brought from the yard, are emptied into the 
kiln, is all the communication needed between 
this room and the outside world. A platform 
under this receiving window will be needed in 
placing the sacks of newly picked hops from 
the wagon into the kiln. 

Ihe dried, unbaled hops being extremely 
bulkv, it is desirable to have as much space as 
possible in which to store them, as baling can 
not be well attended to during the drying sea- 
son. To gain space for this storage, a foot — or 
even more— may be taken from the room 
beneath the press-room by placing the divid- 
ing floor thus much lower. The press-room 
should be well lighted, as it is here that the 
sewing of the bales is done; and, when the 
drying season is past, this room famishes a 
good shop for the farm. Near the center of 
the room a hole about two feet square should 
be left, under which the press is to bo placed, 
and from which the hops are poured into the 
press through a cloth hopper. This can be 
done with a trap door, and opened as the press 
is to be filled. 

One of the largest size box stoves will answer 
for hop-drying, through a regular hop stove is 



made for this purpose. Let the pipe run up 
to within about two feet of the floor above, 
then entering a "T," from each end of which a 
pipe rtms around each side of the room enter- 
ing the chimney on the side opposite that at 
which the stove is placed. An earthen floor for 
the stove-room is preferable. 

In pliicing hops within the kiln for drying, 
be careful and not trample them. Have them 
lay up as loose as possible. Begin in ' the part 
of the room most distant from the receiving 
door, placing them about you, and crowding 
yourself out of the room, by the increasing 
surface of hops. Take a light rake, and make 
the surface smooth as you extend it. About 
sixteen inches is a good depth to spread the 
hops. When the supply is complete, close the 
receiving door or window, also that which leads 
into the stove-room, and the " batch " is ready 
to have the heat applied. 

The dryer must not expect to remain a longer 
time in the stove-room than is necessary in 
making the fires. He should, however, give 
this duty his close attention, as a uniform heat 
is desirable. An experienced dryer will be able 
to catch a few minutes' sleep occasionally, 
between the fire-makings; but as a general rule 
the dryer should not trust himself in this 
respect. The stove should be kept at such a 
heat as will show spots of red on its surface 
nearly all the time. Have a stock ol un- 
pulverized sulphur near at hand, and occasion- 
ally, about every two hours, place two or three 
ounces on the stove. This will preserve the 
bright green color of the tops. 

Under ordinary circumstances, ten hours' 
time is sufficient for drying a batch of hops. 
The dryer, commencing his fires at six o'clock 
in the evening, will be able to retire at four in 
the morning, leaving everything tightly closed. 
About nine o'clock the kiln should be visited, 
when they will be found to be partially cooled. 
They should now be thoroughly stirred, by 
walking through them, scraping the feet along 
the floor, instead of stepping, thus plowing 
them up and bringing the bottom hops to the 
surface. They can again be closed tightly, and 
left until such time in the afternoon as you 
wish to prepare for another drying ; then they 
should be shoved into the store-room. As we 
have before suggested, the hops should be kept 
from the air and sunlight as much as possible, 
from the time they are taken from the hot - 
picker's box to that ol entering the press- 
hopper. 

When hops are properly and thoroughly 
dried the}' should have a delicate green color, 
and be crisp and brittle, pulverizing readily by 
rubbing in the palm of the hand. 



OtTT OF MoBMONDOM. — Mr. Fred. D. Perris, 
editor of the Utah Mijiing Gazette, called at the 
office of the Bubal Pb£ss on Tuesday of this 
week, in company with William H. Sherman, 
Esq., also a citizen of Salt Lake City. The 
principal object which these gentlemen have 
in view is to prospect, from a colonization 
point of view, the northern portion of Califor- 
nia. Should the observations of this visiting 
party, and the inducements offered them, war- 
rant a favorable report, it is believed that quite 
a numerous colony — not co-operative — will 
leave Utah daring the present year and titke np 
their abode in this State. The parties having 
this enterprise in hand are possessed of the 
means and experience needed in organizing 
and establishing a self-sustaining community. 
From conversation with Messrs. Perris end 
Sherman, we are inclined to believe that 
Mormonism will need slaying over again, 
not being as near its hitter end as the 
Gentile world have fondlj believed. What is 
really Ihe most discouraging phase of the 
subject at present, is the fact that it is becoming 
partially modified, and displays evidences of 
adaptability to progression. 

Chicago's Seconx) Fibb. — Chicago has been 
overtaken by another terrible conflagration; 
this time, however, mostly in a part of the 
city not covered by expensive improvements. 
Two or three fine streets, however, have suffer- 
ed severely, and the post-office, one of the 
large hotels, a fine theater and church have 
been destroyed. Some sixty or more acres of 
ground were burned over, embracing from 
fifteen to twenty blocks, and the loss is esti- 
mated, from five to eight millions. Several 
hundred families, mostly poor and suffering 
before, have been turned out of house and 
home by this calamity, the full particulars of 
which have not yet reached us. The sympathy 
of the entire country and of the whole civilized 
world, indeed^ is with Chicago in this her sec- 
ond great disaster. 



MoBE State Faibs. — We have received, a 
copy of the premium list of the Kansas City 
Industrial Exposition and Agricultural Fair, to 
open at KiinsasCity, Mo., September 14th, and 
continue six days. The premiums offered 
amount to $20,000. With the above came a 
copy of the list of premiums to be awarded at 
the approaching annual fair of the Oregon 
State Agricultural Society. 

The "Mitchell wagon," sold by Mills & 
Evans, at 508 Market street, is one ot the most 
popular farm wagons now being sold on this 
coast. These gentlemen have adopted the 
novel advertising expedient known as " Com- 
mission Scrip." 

The prices paid for wool this year in Yreka 
ranged from 22^ to 26 cents, those who sold 
first getting the lowest rates. 



July i8, 1874] 



>il 



More About Comets. 

We gave a short chapter on comets last 
week, and so much interest appears to be 
taken in this class of heavenly bodies just at 
this time, that we have been persuaded to add 
another chapter to-day, which we premise by 
calling attention to the accompanying engrav- 
ing, that presents a vivid illustration of the 
four chief characteristic appearances which 
heavenly bodies of this class present to the 
vision. Fig. 1 represents the comet of 1689, 
which presented a curvilinear-shaped tail like 
that which accompanied the famous comet of 
1858. Fig. 2 represents the somewhat unusual 
appearance of a double or many tails. Fig. 
4 represents one, whose tail, either from its 
particular position with reference to the ob- 
server appears straight like a shadow, or which 
really is so. Fig. 3 represents the only in- 
stance we have had of a comet without any ap- 
pearance of a caudiil appendage, even at its 
nearest approach to the sun. Fig. 5 repre- 
sents a portion of the ordinary orbit of a comet 
which it will be seen is extremely elliptical. 

Notwithstanding all that has been written 
and said about comets, we really know but 
very little about them; but 
nearly all people, scientific 
men especially, are very 
anxious to know more. Phil- 
osophers have talked wisely, 
but generally very vaguely 
about them, and have ex- 
pressed opinions in some re- 
spects quite at variance. 
Sometimes we are told that 
they are composed of such 
flimsy stuff, that were one con- 
densed into a solid body, it 
might be readily carried in 
an ordinary pocket — that they 
are simply visible nothings! 
Of course such talk is arrant 
nonsense; because the value or 
weight of the mass of many 
comets has been approximately 
calculated, which have been 
ascertained to be bodies of 
large gravitating power, and in 
some cases the nucleus is 
known to consist of a dense 
opaque mass. 

The nucleus of the comet 
now in the heavens is evident- 
ly a comparatively solid mass. 
This is known by the intense 
brilliancy which it presents 
when examined through a 
telescope. We have repeated- 
ly made such examination 
since its appearance, with a 
small, but very superior in- 
strument, having a 3-inch 
object glass, and lind that the 
brightness of the nucleus is 
rapidly increasing as the 
comet approaches the sun. At this time its, 
brilliancy is far superior to any star, and can' 
be compared to nothing but the sun itself. 
But whether viewed as ephemeral or substan- 
tial bodies, comets present a most interesting 
subject of study and speculation. 

What We Know Ahoui Comets. 

We know positively that they differ widely 
from planets in their lesser density and very 
eccentric orbits. Planets all revolve around 
the sun in one direction, and in very nearly the 
same plane; while comets move in every pos- 
sible direction and at every possible inclination 
from any given plane. The paths of comets 
are either an ellipse, a parabola, or a hyperbola; 
in the latter cp.se they come into the solar sys- 
tem from one direction and go off in another, 
and in such tracks that it is impossible that 
they can ever come back to us when they have 
once left. They are simply wanderers in space, 
without any fixed track. Some comets have 
revolutions as short as three years; one, that of 
1811, is estimated to have a revolution stretch- 
ing through a period of not less than 3,000 
years ! Planets have a uniform speed, while 
the speed of comets varies according as they 
recede from or approach the sun. When near 
their aphelion or greatest distance from the 
sun their movement is exceedingly slow; when 
at their perihelion or nearest the sun they 
move with almost incredible velocity, even for 
heavenly bodies. It was calculated that the 
comet ot 1843, when nearest the sun, moved at 
the velocity of 22,000 miles a minute, while 
the earth moves only about 1,100 miles a min- 
ute. 

What We Don't Know about Them— Chances of 
Collision with the Earth. 
It is estimated that there must be at least a 
million of comets, and probably several mil- 
lions, which revisit our solar system; but of all 
this vast number not over 1,500 ever come 
within the earth's orbit, and of course the 
chances of collision are restricted to this small 
number only. And when we reflect that only 
150 visit us in a century, and that the i' come 
in upon us from such an infinite diversity of 
directions, we must become aware that the 
chances of collision are so infinitely small that 
the mind can scarcely comprehend the fraction 
of danger. It is safe to say that the chances 
of any given individual being killed by light- 
ning, even here in California, are as many 
hundreds of millions to one of the probability 
of danger of injury from any collision of the 
earth with s comet. Moreover, it is very defi- 



nitely known that much of the largest portion 
of those which do reach the earth's orbit are 
of such extremely gaseous consistency, that 
even were they to come in contact with the 
earth they could no more penetrate the atmo- 
sphere, so as to reach anything upon the earth's 
surface, than could a dry s ponge, if thrown 
upon the surface of the water, reach and crush 
a lobster or other slow crawling object which 
might at the moment be upon the earth at the 
bottom of that water. 

Again, there is only one comet known whose 
orbit crosses the earth's plane at any point in 
the earth's orbit; and the only chance of col- 
lision is that both should reach the same point 
at the same time. The chances of a collision 
even with that body are enormously large 
against such an occurrence. The chances of 
collision with any other known comet are about 
as great as would be the chances of a street car 
on Montgomery street, in this city, colliding 
with unother on Broadway, New York. The idea 
that comets are dangerous visitors to our sys- 
tem has its only support from superstition and 
nervousness, and not from reason or science. 

The lack of danger from the approach of a 
comet near a planet was remarkably illustrated 
by the approach of Lexell's comet to the planet 
Jupiter in 1779. That comet evidently became 
entangled with Jupiter's moons, or came so 
completely within the influence of the attrac- 



this deflection does not exist, or the tail is so 

E resented to our vision that it is not peroepti- 
le. That such may be the case can be illustra- 
ted by holding up to the vision, some consider- 
able distance from the eye, a curved stick. 
When held in the proper position the curve is 
distinctly seen; but when turned one-quarter 
round, the stick appears perfectly straight. 

The tails of comets vary immensely in length 
— that of 1680 was not less than ninety-six 
millions of miles in length — a length repre- 
senting the entire distance of the earth from 
the sun. The free movements of these im- 
mense streamers through space, and the fact 
that though many millions of miles in thick- 
ness, the faintest stars may be seen through 
them, afford abundant evidence that whatever 
may be their nature, they do not consist of 
matter of any kind. Hence, no sensible effect 
can be produced by their contact with the 
earth, or from the earth being actually immersed 
in them, unless it be an excess of light for the 
time. From the enormous expanse in space 
which they occupy or sweep through, it is by 
no means an improbability that these append- 
ages may often come in contact with our orb. 
Indeed there are at least one or two instances 
in which there is but little doubt that the 
earth actually passed through a comet's tail, 
and without any perceptible eflect whatever. 
Among the most siogalar phenomena connect- 




Wild Coffee. 

We entreat our farmers in the foot-hills not 
to lose sight of the plant which is now called 
wild coffee. From information derived from 
intelligent persons familiar with coffee planta- 
tions, we understand that it is a species of the 
coffee tree. In their wild state neither the tea 
plant nor the coffee make an acceptable bev- 
erage. It is by selection and cultivation that 
such plants, like our fruits, become adapted to 
our tastes. 

Doubtless it will be found that there are 
many varieties, among which may be some of 
superior quality, which may furnish grafts for 
others that may be better for standards. We 
may find it best to import cultivated stock and 
graft on our acclimated trees. 

The buckeye which cumbers our wilderness 
is a species of horse chestnut, which it is 
equally unwise to overlook. Herr Schmitt, 
who made efforts to raise the tea plant on a 
large scale in El Dorado county, had also young 
chestnut trees from Japan. He engrafted sev- 
eral cuttings on buckeye trees with success. 
The grafts found a congenial home with the 
new foster mother. An unexpected calamity 
destroyed the tea plants, and the enterprising 
Prussian abandoned the place. Probably the 
engrafted chestnuts met the 
fate of all young shoots when 
exposed to roving cattle. 

But if the fine chestnut of 
Japan gives such a record, we 
may hope that the coffee tree 
of Guatemala will do equally 
well when grafted on our wild 
mountain coffee. 




tion of that planet, as to be entirely held from 
its course for several months, and yet not 
the slightest disturbance could be observed in 
the equanimity of even the smallest of those 
satellites. 

Comets' Tails. 

We endeavored last week to illustrate the phi- 
losophy of the tails or trains of comets, showing 
that they, in . all probability, consisted simply 
of reflected light, nothing more. There are 
various and diverse phenomena accompanying 
these appendages, for which it is difficult to 
account upon this or any other theory. This 
is especially the case with regard to the comet 
of 1744, shown in our illustration with six dif- 
ferent tjiils. Why they are thus divided up or 
spread out into such a fan-shape is a puzzle for 
scientists. We are told that our present visitor 
is giving symptoms of a development of two 
tails. 

The gradual development and disappearance 
of the tail of a comet is shown in the illustra- 
tion of the orbit of a comet, fig. 5. When first 
seen by a powerful telescope a comet presents 
a round, nebulous mass like that shown in fig. 
3. As they approach the sun the tail is gradu- 
ally developed, as shown by the approaching 
comet, in fig. 5, and disappears in the same way 
as is seen by the same body on its retrocession, 
as indicated by the arrow in same figure. 

Another peculiarity is the remarkable deflec- 
tion or curvature of the tail, which is often 
presented, and which deflection, when seen, is 
greater when the comet is near the sun. The 
tail when near the sun is sometimes seen much 
more deflected than herewith shown. Cases 
have occurred where the tail was almost at 
right angles with a lino passing from the center 
of the sun through the center of the comet. 
This incline is greatest when the comet is ap- 
proaching the sun, cs shown in fig. 5, and is 
always toward that region of space from which 
the comet is moving. In some comets either 



ed with comets' tails is the remarkable trem- 
bling or pulsating motion often observable in 
them — something like the wave motions some- 
times observed in the aurora. These pulsa- 
tions seem to start from the nucleus, and run 
slowly along the whole length of the tail. 
Distance of the Present Comet from the Sun and 
Earth- 
According to the observations of Prof. Park- 
hurst, who is making the present comet a 
special study, that body reached its nearest 
point to the sun— its perihelion — on Wednes- 
day of last week, and will make its nearest ap- 
proach to the earth on Monday next, July 
20th, when it will be 25,000,000 of miles dis- 
tant. This distance is about 3,000,000 of 
miles less than that of Venus when that planet 
is at its nearest approach to us. Twenty-five 
millions of miles is quite a respectable distance, 
and little danger need be apprehended as our 
celestial visitor thus flits past us on flight to 
the regions of space beyond our solar system. 
Timorous and superstitious people are an 
unhappy race of mortals under any circum- 
stances, and the appearance of comets and all 
other unusual natural phenomena, are well cal- 
culated to sorely plague them; but it is to be 
hoped that such important discoveries may be 
made during the continuance of the present 
comet within our vision, that the old supersti- 
tious notions which still linger in the minds of 
many, may be entirely done away with. 

Keported Attempt at Compbomisk in Coda. 
It is stated that two gentlemen from Vene- 
zuela arrived in New York, who have a commis- 
sion from the President pro tern, of Cuba, to 
treat with Captain-General Concha about a 
compromise between the Cubans and Span- 
iards. They have alrnaay had suveral inter- 
views with Concha, and have seen General 
Alent, of Cuba, in New York. 



Straw-Burning Engines. 

Editobs Pbess : — I notice an 
article in your valuable paper 
of the 10th instant, headed 
' ' Straw-bnrning Engines. ' ' I 
beg leave to announce through 
your columns that I hold let- 
ters patent on two straw burn- 
ing devices. The patents I 
obtained through your agency, 
one being dated February 11th, 
1873, and the other May 20th, 
1873. These devices can not 
be excelled for simplicity and 
efficiency, when applied to the 
return flue boiler patented by 
H. W. Kice, of Haywood, Ala- 
meda county, which patent 
was also obtained through 
your agency. My straw- 
burner consists of a simple 
attachment to the aperture of 
the furnace door, to prevent 
the cold draft of air from pars- 
ing into the furnace, as the straw 
fuel is introduced. This device 
requires no belt to run it, and no one to turn 
it by crank when the engine is not running, in 
order to get up steam. A twelve-year-old boy 
can fire with perfect ease any return flue, 
steam threshing engine with dry straw, hay or 
weeds of any description, instead of using 
machinery to place this fuel in the furnace. I 
use an ordinary bay fork. One ton of straw 
will thresh one thousand sacks of grain. 
These devices can now be seen at work in the 
valleys of San Joaquin, Livermore, Alameda, 
Santa Clara, Santa Maria, and many other 
places. Messrs. Treadwell & Co., corner Mar- 
ket and Fremont streets, San Francisco, are 
the sole agents for the Pacific Coast. 

D. MOBEY. 

Watson ville, Cal., July 12th, 1874. 



Plucky but Pbudent. — A contributor to the 
Weekly Sutter Banner congratulates the citizens 
of Levee District No. 1, of Sutter county, on 
the success which has crowned their efforts to 
protect themselves from the melting of the 
vast accumulation of snow in the mountains. 
The residents of that locality realize that they 
have received substantial rewards for the labor 
and expense bestowed upon their levee; for 
they can at present show hundreds of thousands 
of acres of as fine wheat and barley as can 
anywhere be seen, while they have reason to 
believe that without the protection of their 
land the water would have swept away this 
with all the rest of their po.isessions. But the 
writer, who evidently represents the spirit of 
the neighborhood, is not disposed to settle 
down into supposed safety. After meting out 
the full complement of praise and congratula- 
tions to his fellow citizens, for the work per- 
formed and the rewards secured, be closes as 
follows : Now, we by our earthworks, have 
been able to keep the threatening waters at 
bay, but wo must not remain idle in the future; 
because, while the enemy has been surging at 
our gates, it has been busy bringing down ma- 
terial from the mountains, and building 
counter-works on our front, from which, in the 
future, it can more successfully assail us; and. 
unless we are more vigilant, we may be yet 
overcome, and our fall will only be the more 
terrible the longer it shall be delayed. 

A Ventubesome Teip. — A Colorado man pur- 
poses to soon attempt the trip from Pueblo to 
New Orleans, down the Arkansas and Missia- 
sippi, in a light canoe. .,„„ j g., , 



42 



MWMS.% WU^BB. 



[July 18, 1874- 



|Ml8CELLi\flEOlJs. 



An Architectural Infliction. 

A few years ago the monotonous style of roof 
used in architecture was agreeably varied by 
the introduction of what is known as the Man- 
sard roof, sometimes called the French attic. 
The splendid architectural piles in Paris re- 
ceived some of their best graces of expression 
from the handsome sky-lines the Mansard roof 
gave them, and almost every American traveling 
abroad wondered why so graceful a roof could 
not be adopted in our American cities, where 
the large buildings usually terminated with an 
abrupt, sharp, and unpicturesque skj'-line. 
The Mansard roof after a time was introduced, 
and its peculiar beauty soon made it very po- 
pular. But, like all fashions which become 
the rage, and which are adopted by people 
imitatively, without perception of the principle 
thatgoverns them, the French attic has become 
with us an architectural infliction. The Man- 
sard roof was designed for tall buildings. Its 
special purpose is to break the monotony of 
a massive pile, and to reduce in appearance its 
real hight. A structure that would seem awk- 
wardly tall, with an unvaried succession of 
stories, has not only, by meabs of the Mansard 
roof, a more graceful caption, but attains more 
agreeable proportions. The specific purpose of 
this roof being recognized, the absurdity of its 
uee in small buildings becomes at once appar- 
ent. Our builders, however, seem to lack all 
power of perception, and to have reduced the 
art of architecture to iodiscriminate imitations. 
Everywhere now the Mansard roof confronts 
us. Every new cottage on the roadside, new 
cheap villas in those extemporized villages that 
line our metropolitan railways, new public 
buildings of every sort and degree, railroad 
station-houses all over the country — everything 
of the kind now, no matter if only a story high, 
must have its Mansard roof, with entire disre- 
gard of fitness or propriety. It is exasperating 
to see a good idea thus dragged into absurd and 
ignoble uses. As we at first hailed with 
pleasure the appearance of the Mansard roof, 
we shall now look with hope for the signs that 
will indicate the termination of its career. And 
f yet whatever may follow will have to undergo 
the same experience. It is our natural way to 
try and appropriate every big thing for every 
little purpose. — .American Builder. 

Pbotbctino Varnish. — A simple invention 
for the preservation of cards, photographs, and, 
in fact, of anything likely to be injured by 
moisture or dirt, has just been announced. It 
consists of a preparation of gutta-percha in 
solution. This liquid is thrown in a very fine 
spray over the article to be protected, by an 
atomizer. By this process a thin film is pro- 
duced, and when the liquid part has evaporated, 
as is very speedily done, the object is coated 
with a translucent sub.stanco, impervious to 
water. Gutta-percha, in its pure state, is of a 
semi-transparent grayish color. But its trans- 
parency, as a covering for pictures, depends ou 
the thinness of the film. The gum first needs 
to be purified, and then, if it has not been 
treated with alcbohol, it is soluble in chloro- 
form or ether. The process of dissolving it is in 
itself a purifying one. The ether, being highly 
volatile, very soon disappear.) when the spray 
is deposited on any object. A drawing or 
photograph thus protected can be washed, the 
gum not being permeable by water, and resist- 
ing any amount of hoat so long as it is wet. 
It begins to soften, however, at a temperature 
of 150^ Fahrenheit. But this is a temperature 
to which our climate naturally subjects no- 
thing. This simple invention might come into 
very practical and general use; and if it did no 
more than to give additional security to the 
work of the camera, it would be a highly val- 
uable invention. 

NiTBo-OLTCEBiNE. — Nitro-glyccrine is an ex- 
plosive oil, in many respects analogous to gun- 
cotton. It is produced by the action of nitric 
acid, mixed with oil of vitriol, upon glycerine, 
the sweet substance obtained when oils and fat 
are steamed. It is one of the most treacher- 
ous explosive substances known to chemists, 
and frightful accidents have been caused by in- 
cautiously using it in its crude state. In the 
course of many endeavors to counteract or re- 
duce the sources of lianger attending the use 
of nitro-glycerine, M. Nobel made the import- 
ant observation that its explosive properties 
were not reduced; but, on the contrary, some- 
what favored, by mixing the liquid with solid 
substances, in themselves thoroughly inert. 
This led to the production of dynamite, which 
constitutes one of the safest, most powerful, 
and most convenient explosive agents applica- 
ble to industrial purposes, although it is not, in 
our opinion, equally applicable to military pur- 
poses. Dynamite is made by mixing nitro- 
glycerine with a porous, infusorial earth, known 
in German as "Kiesselguhr." The earth ab- 
sorbs the oil, and the result is a plastic, putty- 
like substance of a brick-dust color, containing 
about 75 per cent, of nitro-glycerine and 25 of 
absorbent earth. — Jour, of Chemistry. 

AiB. — In air containing not more than 
0.0006 of its volume of carbonic acid, the odor 
from presence of organic matter is impercep- 
tible. Pure air contains a proportion of about 
0.0005 of carbonic acid. 

Fruit contains germs of decay, which must 
first be destroyed, otherwise the formation of a 
vacuum about them will not suffice to preserve 
the fruit. 



Aerolites. 

In modern times it has been conjectured that 
aerolites came from the sun, and also from the 
moon. Many have supposed them to be of ter- 
restrial origin, the material being taken up in 
the form of dust by whirlwinds, and condensed 
into a solid by some unknown chemical or phy- 
sical process. This view is disproved by all 
reliable investigations which have ever been 
made. About a hundred years ago, the emin- 
ent mathematicians of the time took up the 
subject, and by a course of elaborate calcula- 
tions proved, that meteoric stones could not 
come from the moon, as by careful measure- 
ments of their velocity they were found to move, 
when near the earth, at the rate of 114,000 feet, 
or about 21J/^ miles, per second; whereas, if 
they came from the moon, they would start 
with an initial velocity of 8,292 feet per second, 
and reach the earth with a velocity of only 
35,000 feet per second. It was clear, therefore, 
that they came from a more distant region in 
space than that occupied by the moon. Biot, 
Laplace and Poisson, three of the most emin- 
ent mathematicians that have ever lived, en- 
gaged independently in these investigations, 
and after 12 years of labor reached results very 
nearly alike. These investigations alone are 
quite sufficient to prove the celestial origin of 
meteoric stones. 

The metal iron enters largely into the compo- 
sition of aerolites. In some specimens it has 
been proved to be present to the extent of 92 
per cent. Seven other metals — copper, chro- 
mium, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, manganese 
and tin — have been found, and the earthy sub- 
stances, augite and hornblende; also carbon, 
sulphur and alumina. Altogether, out of the 
63 elements recognized by chemists, 20 have 
been found in meteoric masses. It is to be 
observed that no iieio elements have been de- 
tected, a fact which is significant and interest- 
ing. Begarding aerolites as of celestial origin, 
the only diflference we have to note between 
them and terrestrial substances is in the res- 
pective methods in which the component parts 
are admixed. The minerals are the same as 
those which are distributed throughout the 
rocks of this earth, but we have none in which 
they are held in similar proportions. Aerolites 
differ widely in chemical con .titution, but in 
one characteristic there is remarkable uniform- 
ity. They are all of them covered with a black 
fused crust, or rind, which extends into the 
substance no more than a few tenths of an inch. 
This peculiar physical condition is due to the 
circumstance that when they strike the oxygen 
of our atmosphere, in their descent, they in- 
stantly ignite, but they do not remain long 
enough in contact with the air to become fused 
deep into the mass. If they traversed 300 or 
SOU miles of atmosphere, the small portions of 
the largest masses that might reach the earth 
would be but scoria or cinders. It is probable 
that millions of small stones, those weighing 
but a fraction of an ounce, are burned in the 
atmosphere every year, and nothing but an im- 
palpable dust remains, which is scattered by 
the winds. 

It is certain that meteoric stones are not of 
terrestrial origin, and that they do not come 
from the sun, moon, or visible planets. Mod- 
ern science has quite satisfactorily proved that 
these bodies are little planets, so to speak, 
traveling around the sun in orbits of greater or 
less eccentricity; and that our earth in plung- 
ing through space encounters them, and they 
become entangled in our atmosphere and are 
rapidly drawn to the earth's surface. The 
larger masses, though probably very numerous, 
are yet relatively few in number, compared 
with the minute meteorites which flash out 
upon the darkness of night, as fire-balls or 
shooting-stars. If but six or seven falling 
stars are seen in an hour, it must be that the 
earth is passing through clusters of meteors, 
containing more than one hundred thousand 
in a region of space equal to her own volume. 
It cannot be otherwise than that the interplan- 
etary spaces are thronged with these fragments, 
and it is probable that the stellar regions are 
likewise tilled with them. They constitute the 
material oL which worlds are made, and it is 
possible that the sun's heat is due to the inces- 
sant rain of these projectiles upon his incande- 
scent mass. — Boston Journal of ChemUtry. 

An Otsteb Patent. — One of the great troubles 
which oystermen have to contend with is the 
starfish. This rapacious enemy destroys thou- 
sands of bushels of oysters every year, and no 
device has heretofore proved effective as a pro- 
tection. But the ingenuity of a Connecticut 
Yankee has at last triumphed. Mr. Oliver 
Cook, of Darien, Conn., has lately obtained a 
patent on the subject. His invention consists 
in spreading a net. under water, on the ground 
composing the oyster bed. Mr. Starfish 
puckers his fingers together, squeezes himself 
up through the meshes of the net, and then 
extends his digits again. Being now upon the 
upper side of the net, he will be infallibly cap- 
tured whenever the oysterman raises the net 
to the surface. This ia to be frequently done 
until the enemy is cleared from the coast, when 
the oysters at once begin to laugh and grow 
fat. — Scientific American. 

Combined Sail and Dbao foe Boats. — This 
invention consists in a novel construction of 
drag or drag-sheet, which not only has an im- 
proved hold upon the water to keep the boat's 
or other vessel's head to the sea, or act as a 
floating anchor to a life raft, as the case may 
he, but which is readily convertible into a sail 
when its use as a drag is unnecessary, and may 
otherwise be used to advantage in saving life 
and property. 



Making Match Sticks. 

[Coucluded.J 
The quantity seems enormous, and almost 
staggerers belief, but such is the velocity with 
which the machines are driven, and the multi- 
plication of the sticks so rapid, that there is no 
difficulty in producing the number stated. 
When the wheels are in motion, the sticks fall 
from the cutters in a regular shower, and are 
caught in a trough below, through which passes 
a belt or elevator, which carries them to a se- 
ries of machines, called shakers, with small 
latticed bottoms, in which they are subjected to 
a violent shaking as they pass through. This 
operation is for the purpose of removing all im- 
perfect sticks and pieces of shavings. As they 
pass through, they are deposited in large cases 
ready to be carried to the drying rooms. These 
rooms are three in number, each fourteen by 
fourteen feet, the flooirs of which are covered 
with a series of steam-pipes. The boxes con- 
taining the sticks have latticed bottoms, and are 
placed upon these pipes in tiers, one above the 
other, four or five deep, when the heat is forced 
through the entire mass. Here they are allow- 
ed to remain for a day and a night, subjected to 
a temperature of 120 degrees, which effectually 
dries the wood, rendering it almost as light as a 
feather. As great care must be used to guard 
against fire in these rooms, perforated pipes, 
with an independent connection, are liberally 
provided, through which a sufficiency of steam 
can be forced in a moment to extinguish fire in 
case of combustion. After going through the 
drying process, the sticks are carried to another 
series of shakers. Here, by an ingenious ar- 
rangement, the sticks, as the}' .are shaken up 
by a lively motion, are straightened, when they 
are deposited in metal boxes at the lower 
end of each machine, with circular bottoms. 
These boxes are made to hold as many sticks 
as can be grasped by the hand, from whence 
they are taken, and packed in cases ready for 
shipment to the finishers, who apply the com- 
pound to the tips. After tipping, the matches 
are placed in boxes for sale. The plain match- 
stick may be looked upon as an insignificant 
item at first sight, but a moment's reflection 
will convince th'e reader that an enormous 
quantity is required to supply the daily con- 
sumption. The making of these match-sticks 
ia a distinct manufacture, the match-makers in 
large cities purchasing the sticks for tipping. 
The American Match-Stick Company, at Wil- 
liamsport. Pa., employ the process described 
above, and when fairly under way, expect to 
make and ship a full carload of match-sticks 
per day to their various customers. It is esti- 
mated that in Europe and the United States, 
the amount of wood annually consumed in the 
manufacture of match -sticks is, at the lowest 
calculation, four hundred thousand cubic yards. 
One of De Bowens' machines, requiring three 
horse-power to drive it, will, it is claimed, cut 
in ten hours fifty-two millions of match-sticks. 
This machine is also claimed to consume less 
lumber by one half than that consumed for the 
same number of sticks by any other machine 
yet invented. — Journal of Applied >Scie7u;e. 

Another Caloulatino Machine. — A useful 
contrivance is the "computing telegraph" in- 
troduced by J. E. Fuller, of Boston, who first 
produced it some 30 years ago, and who since 
that time has been continually improving it, so 
that at the present moment it is a most com- 
plete instrument. It consists of a square board 
made of old tarred rope, a material which is 
not given to expansion or warping; upon this 
is posted an engraved card, which has a gra- 
duated circle of the diameter of 8^ in. Within 
this circle there is an inner circle, which re- 
volves, and is gr.'iduated in the same manner 
as the outer circle. The divisions are from 
to 10, completing the circle, and are the sanje 
for both; the divisions are similar to those of 
the ordinary slide rule, and decrease iu a per- 
fectly regular logarithmic order. In fact, the 
instrument is a circular slide rule. It pos- 
sesses a great advantage over the ordinary 
straight slide rule, in consequence of its length 
(the actual length of the rule being 26.7 in.); 
this advantage is further increased from the 
circular arrangement being endless, only one 
scale of to 10 ia required, whilt-t in the or- 
dinary rule, one wants to 10 aud 10 to 100. 
The instrument forms a slide rule of a very 
perfect character, and enables one to work out 
the simplest and most complicated arithmetical 
questions. In calculations where the same 
factor has to be used many times, the saving of 
time is enormous. For engineers of whatever 
kind, such a calculating machine must prove 
useful. 

Ice Manutactube. — A Scotch inventor claims 
improvements in apparatus for the manufacture 
of ice. In these hollow partitions are made ot 
cast iron; the passages are oblong in cross- 
section, and bars of wood are placed along 
their middles to reduce the actual passages for 
the freezing fluid to very narrow spaces along 
the sides. The hollow partitions which hold 
the brine are fixed with their bottom edges 
some distance above the bottom of the tank, 
and bars of wood are placed along the bottom 
edges to prevent the formation of ice' round 
those edges. Steel, malleable iron, brass or 
zinc may be used instead of cast iron for form- 
ing the partitions. Brushes or flexible wipers 
are made to reciprocate over the surfaces of the 
ice whilst it is forming, to remove air bubbles. 

Native Silver Amalgams. — Some researches, 
by M. Pisuni, on the amalgams of silver occur- 
ring at Konigsberg, iu Norway, show that two 
distinct amalgams are found. 



A Natubal Htgeombtkb.— An instrument for 
measuring the humidity of the atmosphere, and 
one which, combined with the thermometer 
and barometer, might be of great use to farm- 
ers, in prognostigating the weather, may be 
made, according to M. H. De La Blonchere, as 
follows : The grain of the common oat of ag- 
riculture, and also of the wild oat, is sur- 
mounted by a barb, which is terminated by a 
right-angled elbow. Let one of these grains at 
maturity be cut in half, and the upper half be 
attached by means of glue to the center of a 
circle marked upon the plane surface on a piece 
of wood or metal. To the extremity of the 
barb may be attached a fine piece of straw 
which will serve as a needle, and will amplify 
the indications. To graduate this simple nttl'e 
instrument, place it in very hot air, and mark 
at the point indicated by the needle; then 
place it in an atmosphere saturated with 
humidity by means of wet cloths, and mark 
the point indicated by the needle 100, and 
divide the interval between and 100 into one 
hundred equal parts. The straw needle may 
be made of considerable length, so as to give 
its indications clearly. Such a hygrometer 
costs but little, and is always comparable with 
itself. 

Incombdstiblb Wood. — Several attempts 
have been made at different times to render 
timber uninflammable. A new and apparently 
successful method has recently been tested, of 
which, perhaps, the most convincing of the 
first series of experiments was that in which a 
large heap of the prepared timber, about two 
feet high and seven or eight feet in circumfer- 
ence, placed on large iron sheets, was saturated 
with paraffin and set on fire. As soon as the 
paraffin was consumed the fire spontaneously 
went out. The timber was then examined, and 
found to be scarcely injured. The pieces of 
wood were of various sizes, the majority being 
about eighteen inches long by two and three 
inches square. Not only does the process ren- 
der limber uninflammable, but it has the not less 
important property of making the softer kinds 
of timber (such as white and yellow pine) 
throughout, both in appearance and hird- 
ness, like teak or oak. What adds immensely 
to the value of the discovery is that the system 
can be applied by a simple method to ships 
already buUt, so as to render those coniaining 
incipient dry-rot almost as good as new, and 
absolutely arresting any further damage from 
these destructive fungi. 

Blistebs in Veneebino.— Cut out the blis- 
tered part with a very sharp, thin-edged cutting 
instrument, and glue it on again, after soaking 
the piece thoroughly in hot water, and then 
flattening it out between two flat hard-wood 
surfaces brought together firmly by heavy 
presiJure. Before gluing, its under side should 
be again moistened with hot water, and, after 
wiping off the water which stands on the sur- 
face, the glue, which should be hot and not be 
too thick, shonld be applied ; then replace the 
piece, and hold it down firmly to place in the 
usual way till it is dry. The spot where the 
piece is to be replaced ought also to be sponged 
with hot water before applying the patch. If 
this be done carefully, the defect will be reme- 
died; and the joining will only be seen on the 
closest inspection. — Artisan. 

Testing Belting Leather. — M. Eilner pro- 
poses the following simple method of determin- 
ing the value of leather employed on belting. 
A cutting of the material about 0.03 of an inch 
in thickness is placed in strong vinegar. If the 
leather has been thoroughly acted upon by the 
tanning, and ia hence of good quality, it will 
remain, for months even, immersed* without 
alteration, simply becoming a little darker in 
color. But, on the contrary, if not well im- 
pregnated by the tannin, the fibers will quickly 
swell, and, after a short period, become trans- 
formed into a gelatinous mass. 

Cement pob Glass and Pobcelain.— Two 
parts of isinglass are soaked in water until well 
swollen; the water is then poured off, and 
isinglass is dissolved in alcohol by the aid of 
heat. One part of mastic is then dissolved in 
three parts of alcohol and added to the above 
solution; then one part of gum ammoniacum. 
The solution is well shaken, and evaporated to 
the consistency of strong glue, when it solidi- 
fies on cooling. For use, the cement and the 
articles themselves must be warmed. 

The American Clumist states that a water- 
proof paper, transparent and impervious to 
grease, is obtained by soaking good paper in 
an aqueous solution of shellac and borax. It 
resembles parchment paper in some respects; 
if the aqueous solution is colored with aniline 
colors, very handsome paper, of use for artifi- 
cial flowers, is prepared. 

To Soften Skins. — ^Soak the skins in a mix- 
ture of two quarts bran and one gallon of water, 
for three days; take them oat and rub them 
with a handful of salt (if they have hair or wool 
on, add powdered alum with the salt) and hang 
up to dry. When done in this manner they 
become as soft as kid. —Jour, of Chem. 

One-half to one per cent, of fusel oil may be 
detected in ordinary alcohol by introducing 
into it, in a long test tube, a few fragments of 
potassic iodide, agitating gently. If fusel oil 
is present, a light yellow coloration makes its 
appearance in a few minutes. Heating devel- 
ops this color more rapidly. 

Gas fbom Clay.— Rev. Henry Motile, after a 
series of experiments extending over 20 years, 
has devised a process of luai.ufacturiug an 
illuminating gas from clay found at Kinuner- 
idge, England. 



July i8, 1874.] 



^3 




RANCHOS 
FOR SALE ON A LONG TIME. 



The "JURUPA KANOHO," sUusted on both sides of 
the Santa Ana Biver, between Anaheim (Los Angeles 
county) and the town of San Bernardino, containing 
35,717 acres, of which a large proportion is level and 
adapted to grain, general agriculture, grapes, semi- 
tropical fruits, etc. The famous "Riverside Colony," 
founded by Judge North, embraces a portion of tho 
east end of this Rancho. 

Also, for sale, the Bancho "LA SIERRA 8EPUL- 
VIDA," adjoining on the southeast, and containing 
17,76a acres. 

The Southern Overland Railroad w 11 necessarily pass 
through or very near the Jurupa Rancho. Apply to 
ALFRED ROBINSON, Trustee. 
642 MARKET STREET, 

»p25-tf N. E. Cor. Montgomery. 



FOR SALE. 

A splendid HOPR*NOH, in one af the best valleys 
in the State: good dry-house and machinery; about 
thirty acres of hops in good condition. Wilt be sold 
at a bargain; terms to suit. 

P. H. SUMNER, 

aplS-tf 329 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 

FOR SALE. 
100 -A-cres of GS-oocl I^and, 

ONE-FOURTH MILE FROM ST. HELENA. 

A portion of the land suitable for Hops; the remainder 
good for grain or fruit. All fenced and in cultiva- 
tion. Cheap and on reasonable terms. 
14T7-tf P. H. SUMNER. 



DAIRY RANCH FOR SALE, 

Near San Luis Obispo, well stocked and fenced, with 
fine improvements. Plenty of wood and water. 

Apply to T. H. HATCH & CO., 

320 Front street, San Francisco. 

Or, B. M. PRESTON, Old Creek, San Luis Obispo. 

20v7-8m 

FARMING LAND, 

TO LEA-SE OIV SiSM:A.IlESi. 

1 ,000 ACRES, 

Or any part of same, being levied and of similar char- 
acter to that of SHERMAN ISLAND. Apply to 
W. T. S. RYER, 
No. 330 Pine street San Francisco, Cal. 



TI PTOIV Ad JBXJK,XT'.-» 

MEDICINAL 
SHEEP PREPARATION, 

WARRANTED FREE FROM ALL POISON. 

A sure and positive cure for Scab, Ticks and Lice, 
and a sure promotive of the growth of the wool. It has 
been used in Tehama County for the past two years, 
with most gratifying results, and we have the pleasiire 
of referring to the following gentlemen as to its merits, 
viz.: H. A. Rawson, Jas. Gooch & Bro., J. W. Mont- 
gomery, .1. Eby, Ourtiss & Brown, H. Bosauka, Jos. 
Cone, J. W. Gate k Sons. 

It is a liquid and put up ready for use in 2!^ gallon 
tins, four tins in a case. 

WHITTIER, FULLER & CO., Solo Agi;'s, 

21 Front street SAN FRANCISCO. 

28 K street SACRAMENTO. 

26v7-tf 

TO WINE & BRANDY MANUFACTURERS. 

Improved Grape Orusher and Stemmer. 

In these machines the grapes are fed in at one end 
and the cleaned stems are discharged at the opposite 
end, the pomace falling into a tank placed below, 
crushing the grapes without bruising the seeds. 

Run by steam, water, wind or horse-power. Guaran- 
teed to crush and stem, in a satisfactory manner, from 
ten to sixty tons per day, according to size and power 
used, or no sale. 

Send for Circular . Address, 

GEORGE JOHNSTON, 

Sacramento. 

Or, W. F. JOHNSON, Folsom, Sacramento County, 
California. Beler to Lachman k Co., San Francisco, 
and Johnston Brandy and Wine Manufacturing Co., 
Sacramento and Marysville. 2v8-12w 




PSICR, SSO. 



The New Wilson 

SEWING MACHINE 

Has points of superiority over 
all others. A reliable warran- 
ty is given with each machine 
for 

FIVE YEARS. 
It is unequaled for light and 
heavy work. Examine and 
compare it with the highest 
priced machine in the market 
G. A. NORTON, Gen. Ag't 
for the Pacific Coast. 

337 Kearny St., 8. F. 
ap2,%tf 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

PETALUMA, OAL. 

Having increased our facilities for growing Trees and 
Plants, and permanently located our Greenhouses and 
Tree Depot comer Washington and Liberty streets, we 
are prepared to furnish Fruit and Shade Trees, Small 
Fruits, Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, Flowering Shrubs, 
Greenhouse and Bedding Plants, etc. Send for De- 
scriptive Catalogue and list of prices. 

Address, W. H. k Q. B. PEPPER, 

!Uv6-ly Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Oal. 

FABKEBa write for yoar paper. 



DOWN WITH MONOPOLY. 



Tlie Grrangers' £^^avorite 



A.N r> 



CHAMPION OF THE WORLD 




IMPROVED 

DEAW-FEED SEWING MACHINE! 

IS THE ONLY LOCK-STITCH WITHOUT A SHUTTLE. 



IS NOISELESS, SEWS FASTER, RUNS LIGHTER, AND HAS GREATER MECHANICAL 
SIMPLICITY THAN ANY OTHER MACHINE IN THE WORLD. 



LONDON, 

1862 



THE WINNER AT 

PARIS, 

1867 



VIENNA, 

1873 



DISTIIVOXJISHED HOTVORS. 

World's Exposition, 1 

Vienna, Nov. 1, 1873. ( 
" The Emperor of Austria has conferred the Imperial Order of Francis Joseph on the Hon. Nathaniel 
Wheeler, President of the celebrated Wheeler k Wilson Sewing Machine Company of New York." 



The BEST is the chkapbst. Buy no Machine until you have seen the New " DRAW-FEED 
WHEELER & WILSON." It will last a lifetime. Every Purchaser made a perfect operator. 

ALL MACHINES GUARANTEED. 

SOLD ON EASY TERMS. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO ORDERS SENT TO 

E. W. HARRAL, General Agent, 

427 Montgomery Street, - - - • SAN FRANCISCO. 

20T;-lBm-4m-llp 



Shipping — Vessels Up. 



FARMERS' LINE. 

FOR LONDO^N DIRECT 

THE MAGNIFICENT A 1 CLIPPER SHIP, 
IMCOIV JET A., 

621 Tons, 
W.SINCLAIR Master. 

FOR LIVERPOOL DIRECT. 
The magnificent A 1 Clipper Ship, 

SE.A^ "WITCH, 

1288 Tons, 

BAKER Master ■ 

These fine vessels have nearly full cargoes engaged 
and will have very quick dispatch. Freights taken In 
lots to suit shippers. 
Will be followed by tho splendid A 1 Iron Ship 
GLJENOA-RKY, 
1769 Tons, 
Due here in May; or by other first.class vessels. 

Liberal advances made on shipments of produce con- 
signed to our Liverpool house, Messrs. Robert Rodgers 
& Co. RODGERS, MEYER k CO. 

19v7-3m 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS! 

X Line to Liverpool. 

DIRECT. 
The New A 1 Clipper Ship 

FRIEDLANDER 1,C38 tons registe 

Is intended to sail with dispatch. 

Freight taken in lots to suit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 

SAN JOSE INSTITUTE 

— AND — 

Business Collegre. 

The Twenty-Fifth Session commences July 
20th, 1874. 

A day and Boarding School for both sexes; the only 
Institute on the Pacific Coast where a thorough Aca- 
demic and business education can be obtained. 

The Business Oolleg:e Department 

Is under the supervision of James Vlnsonhaller, who 
for many years was at the head of Business Colleges of 
San Francisco. 

For circulars address 

26v7-3m JAMES VINSONHALLER. 



Napa Ladies' Seminary. 

The lext term will commence on TUESDAY, AUGUST 
4th, 1874, and continue for twenty-two weelts. This insti- 
tution offers thorough iuBtruotion in a ijulet, healthful 
location, easy of access fr(jm any part of the Stnte. 

Instructions in Piano forte, (iuit-ar and Vt)cal music by a 
superior teacher. French tauKht by a compHlent teacher. 

It is very desirable that pupils should be present at the 
opening of school, although they can enter at any time, 
and be charged from the time of entrance. For particu- 
lars of school apply to 

MISS. S. F. McDonald, Principal, 

Napa City, Cal. 

BEFERENCE8. 

Rev. R. Wylie, Napa; Hon. C. Hartson, Nana; R. T. 
Monigomery, Esq., Napa; G. E Goodman, Esq., Napa; D. 
MoiJlure, Esq., Napa: Rev. Dr. Goodbridge, San Francisco; 
Rev. P. V. Veeder, Yokohama, Japan; Geo, K. Gluya^, 
EsqL, San Francisco; James A. I'row, Esq., Stockton: R. 
O. Baldwin, Esq., Sao Ramon ; J. R. McDonald, B«q., Grnj - 
son; J. B. Crow, Esq.. Hills Ferry ; Rev. O. M. Blake, San 
Francisco; Maior Snyder, Sonoma: 8. Alstrom, Esq., 
White Sulphur Springs; Geo. L. Kenny, Esq., San Fran- 
cisco; Hon. R. O. Clark, baoramento. l\8-2in 



FEED-CUTTER ROLLERS 

Covered and made new in the best manner at nsnal 
rates, at H. ROTER'8 Belt Factory, 437 Brannan St. 



San Francisco Employment Office, 

NO. 606 CLAY STREET, 
CJrosett Ac Co., Proprietors. 

(Successors to Wm. Vail & Co.) 

COUNTRY ORDERS FOB MEN almost invariably 
filled with FIRST-CLASS HELP. 

F.xrmers can always procure men in any number de- 
sirable by giving a little timely notice. Hotels csn 
always get the BEST OF MALE OR FEMALE HELP, 
on short notice. We have the BEST OF FACILITIES 
FOR PROCURING HELP, Have an Agent on the im- 
mifiraut trains distributing circulars, upon the arrival 
of every train. Give us your orders and we will en- 
deavor to give you the fullest satisfaction. apl8-t( 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBARA, OAL. 

A Boarding School for Boys and Oirl«. olTertng_all the 
advantages of a thorough modern education. French 
German, Spanish, Latin, Greek, Drawinn, the Natural 
Sciences, Gymnastics and DanoinK tauBht without extra 
charge Vocal and Instrumental Muaio ruooive particular 
attention. Pupils furnish imli/ a pair of heavy blankets 
Naxt term opens January fith, 1S74. 

Write for Uatalogae to ELWOOD COOPER. 

22v6-1t President Board of Directors. 



41 



[July 18, 1874- 



^q^icdLTiiR^^i* H^T^s* 



COLUSA. 

Youjio CoTTOK. — Oolnsa Sun, July 11 : We 
visited the field of Andrew llutland latel}-, who 
put in fifty acres, but some of it was on niknii, 
or salt crasB land, and ia not doing well. About 
forty acres look fine, and it is from fifteen to 
twenty-four inches high. It is blowing out 
very nicely. The color of all of it, even on 
the poorest land, is good; and he may get an 
average of half a bale— 250 pounds— to the 
acre, on the whole crop. The experiment looks 
at the present writing very much like a success. 
We hope he will make it profitable, as he is the 
pioneer cotton planter in this valley. Much 
will depend on his good management of this 
crop; for, if ho makes it profitable, we think 
there will be thousands of acres planted another 
year. 
OONTKA COSTA. 

Habvest Timk.— Contra Costa Gazette, July 
11 : The farmers in the central sections of the 
county have now fairly engaged in their har- 
vest work, though there are still many late 
sown pieces of wheat that are not yet ripe for 
the reaper. The yield of the Bection will 
average well to the acre sown, and the aggre- 
gate result will be equal to that of any previous 
season, though the area sown was not as large 
as last year. 
EL DOBADO. 

Steanoe Nesting Place. — Mountain Demo- 
crat, July 11 : A. F. Redemeyer tells us he 
found a hen's nest on his premises, iu an oak 
tree, about forty feet from the ground. The 
hen had spotted a place where a limb forked, 
and had deposited .several eggs in an enclosure 
of young oak sprouts, which made, we sup- 
pose, a sort of rustic basket. Chickens 
hatched there would almost assuredly tumble 
to the ground. What the hen was thinking of 
cannot be told, but .she certainly aimed high. 

FBESKO. 

Corn.— Fresno Expositor, July 11: A. Y. Eas- 
terby informs us that a patch of corn was 
planted on his farm this year, with a view of 
ti'sting bis ability to grow it without irrigation. 
The experiment he says has culminated suc- 
cessfully. The stalks are about eight feet in 
higbt, and are full of good sized ears of corn. 
He informed lis also that about fifty men were 
engaged in harvesting the grain crop on his 
farm. The grain is turning out well. 
INYO. 

Bishop Cbeek. — Cor. Inyo Independent, July 
4: I am happy to report that our destructive 
visitants, the army worms, have "ordered an 
armistice," having ceased depredations. Much 
of the corn that was supposed ruined is coming 
out fairly. Many have replanted. Potatoes 
and other vegetables are some injured. I 
heard that about the 3d instant frost killed 
many of the vegetables in Bound valley. 
K£BN. , 

Crops. — Southern Calif ornian, July 9: Per- 
sons who have been passing through the west- 
ern portion of our valley during the past week 
or two report us that the grain fields are look- 
ing splendidly. There will be a large yield of 
corn in the valley this season — many farmers 
trying it this year who heretofore entertained 
doubts about it being a safe crop to plant. And 
to see the amount of hay — wheat, barley, and 
alfalfa — cocked up all over the valley, one 
would think Kern Island had the contract to 
supply the entire State. The price of hay 
ranges from $8 to $14 per ton, according to 
kind, and whether baled or loose. 

Vine Colture and fruit growing is not now 
an experiment with us. A few days ago we 
were iu the orchard and vineyard on Mr. 
Reeder's place and found the trees loaded to 
distress with apricots and apples, and the vines 
one solid cluster of grapes. Mr. Stine also has 
a fine orchard and vineyard, and has this sea- 
son an abundance of fmit. This week we have 
had the pleasure of eating just as fine black- 
berries, cultivated on Kern Island, as we ever 
saw. 
LAK£. 

Alfalfa, Etc.— £ee, July 6: Wm. Stone- 
breaker, whose ranch is situated in Big valley, 
has 18 acres of alfalfa in a flourishing condi- 
tion. In this field he has 20 head of cattle 
grazing the year round. He speaks in high 
terms of the success of his alfalfa crop. There 
are on his place 36 almond trees, which are 
loaded with fruit. 
UABIN. 

ToMALGs Itxms. — Marin Journal, July 9: The 
hay crop, which is being generally cut, is very 
heavy. A large piece on Warren Dutton's 
ranch is said to be cutting seven tons to the 
acre. The potato crop is not quite so thrifty 
as we hoped, owing to a lack of fogs. Rust 
is appearing in the grain on many places. 
Grasshoppers are more plentiful than we need. 
NAPA. 

Hops.— Calistoga Press, July 11: The number 
of acres planted in hops in this county the 
present season is considerably larger than ever 
before. The crops are looking finely. 
KEVADA. 

Tall OKXa.—FijoUEill Tidings, July 11: P. 
L. Stull sent to our office a sample of oats 
from a field in Penn valley, which stands fully 
five feet ten inches high. H. B. Nichols has a 
field which will average five and a half feet 
high. These fields have only such water as 
nature gives them. Why is it that so many 
fields will hardly pay to cut? 

Tkolific. — A. Delano of this place has in 



his garden a Siberian crab-apple that is now 
iu bloom for the second time. It has apples 
of the first and second growth, all thrifty. He 
has also a young fig tree, planted in March, 
which is now about an inch in diameter and 
five feet high and has upon it two perfect figs. 
Our red mountain soil cannot be beaten for 
growing fruits of all kinds. The fact is now 
conceded on all hands. 

PLACBB. 

Grapes. — "Placer Argus, July 11: There 
never was a finer prospect for grapes in Auburn 
than the present season. The vines are loaded 
with bunches of unusual size. 

Mb. Bebnhabd's silk worms are doing re- 
markably well, and are beginning to spin. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Italian Rye Geass. — Gilroy Advocate, July 
11: It will be remembered that early in the 
spring we noticed some of the puculiarities of 
the above grass, and stated that Mr. D. C. 
Riddell, of this city, had a small quantity of 
seed to dispose of to those wishing to experi- 
ment in its growth. Mr. George Somers se- 
cured some seed and planted a small patch the 
latter part of March. This week we saw some 
of the grass grown from it, which is about three 
feet high, and is a fair sample of the whole 
patch. It is a fine, delicate looking grass, and 
grows very thick. The heads are fully a foot 
in length, and tilled with seed. There is but 
little root, so it requires a moist soil to grow in. 
On the proper ground, three or four crops a 
year may harvested, and it is said to be very 
nutritious. It is a perennial plant, and grows 
thicker every year, like alfalfa, possessing this 
advantage over that grass, that gophers or 
squirrels will not molest it. It appears to us 
that farmers possessing low, moist land would 
do well to give it a fair trial. 
SAN JOAaXTIN. 

The Harvest. — Stockton Independent, July 
10 : Generally throughout the valley the farmers 
are putting in their best licks on the harvest 
field. In the course of a week or 10 days 
threshing will be general, and wheat will be 
brought forward more freely for shipment. 
Our wharves should be cleared and ready to 
meet the demand for their use. 
SISKIYOU. 

CoMMENciso. — Yreka Union, July 11: The 
farmers of Scott valley are commencing to cut 
their hay. It is said some meadows will turn 
out splendid crops and others but indiflferent 
ones. Some have been injured by the high 
water in Scott river, which, getting out of its 
banks, has overflowed them. The river has 
been much higher this summer than usual, 
caused by the melting of the vast, almost un- 
precedented, banks of snow in the Salmon 
mountains. The remarkable coldness and back- 
wardness of the season prevented the melting 
of this snow till a much later period than usual. 
The eflfect has been to injure more seriously 
than in ordinary seasons the overflowed lands. 
SOLANO. 

FiGiccLTUBE. — Benicia TnTmne, July 11: Mr. 
William Blake has shown us three figs, fully 
ripe, of this year's growth, from a tree scarcely 
three years old. One of them measured eight 
inches in its smallest circumference, and ten in 
its larger. 

Fruit. —Ripe peaches and apricots in abun- 
dance, and samples of second crop strawber- 
ries have been for sale during the past week. 
STANISLAUS. 

Selk-Feedee. — Stanislaus News, July 11: J. 
M. Bohannon, who has had a practical experi- 
ence of over 20 years in this State, as a farmer 
and thresher of grain, has now eucot-eded, after 
several years close application, and by practical 
tests, in producing a self-feeding apparatus, that 
can be attached to any of the threshers now in 
use, by placing it beside the derrick table. In 
company with Mr. Ross, himself a practical 
farmer of 20 years' experience, we visited Mr. 
Maze's machine last Wednesday, to witness the 
work of the self-feeder attached to his Russell 
thresher. It was, when we witnessed its oper- 
ations, doing good work. The advantage it 
possesses is, that it feeds the entire length of 
the cylinder with a continual supply. It regu- 
lates and scatters without help by hand; admits 
the shelled wheat to pass on to the^rain-carrier 
under the cylinder, without coming in contact 
with the teeth; thus protecting the grain from 
breaking. By arranging the stacks, the feeder 
can be supplied from either side. Mr. Ross 
gave it as his opinion that it was a perfect suc- 
cess, possessing many advantages over hand- 
feeding. One of which is, that the heat of the 
sun has no efi'ect on it, that it never complains 
of being tired or unwell, and that it soon will 
be in as general u.-^e as is the derrick fork, of 
which eight years ago there was such a general 
complaint because it reduced the labor force 
employed in the harvest field. 

TUOLUMNE. 

Froit. — Tuolumne Independent, Jn\y 11: The 
fruit crop promises to be immense in this 
county. Many in this vicinity have to shake 
off the fruit to prevent their trees breaking 
down. That which remains will be much finer 
by this thinning out process. 

TULABE. 

Cotton GEOwiNO.^Visalia DeWa, July 9: We 
recently called attention to the enterprise of 
Jackson & Co., in attempting the cultivation 
of cotton in this county. It was our privilege, 
on Sunday last, to inspect the growing crop. 
One field, of sixty acres, presents a splendid 
stand, and will soon be in blossom. The other 
field having in a great measure failed to come 
up, owing to the lumpy character of the 
ground, and much of what did come up having 



been destroyed by grasshoppers, the crop was 
not deemed worth caltivating; and the land 
being of the driest kind of plain land, we were 
astonished to find that where the cotton appears 
it seems to show but little need of moisture, 
though it has had no irrigation or rain since it 
was planted, and is, in some cases, putting 
forth the blossom. Enough will be demon- 
strated by this experiment to show that large 
bodies of land in this valley are well adapted to 
the cultivation of this textile fiber, and that it 
will bear the cost of transportation, and will 
become an important crop, by enabling us to 
diversify our industries and thereby give the 
farmer employment during the whole year. 
VENTURA. 

Something Nkw. — Ventura Signal, July 4: 
Hon. L. C. Granger has introduced into this 
country what we hope may develop into a 
great industry. While traveling in Mexico, 
he procured some of the seed of the cotton tree, 
which he has distributed to some of his friends. 
He informs us that in Mexico the tree grows to 
about the size of a peach tree, and at six years 
of age will produce 100 pounds of cotton 
almost equal in texture to the celebrated Sea 
Island cotton. We hope that more of the seed 
may be secured, as from what Mr. G. informs 
us, we have no doubt that it will succeed. If 
so, it will prove to be a most valuable acquisi- 
tion to onr many sources of wealth. 
YOLO. 

Aemt Wobm and BiiAckbibds. — Yolo Mail, 
July 11: N. Wyckoflf, of "Alfalfa Ranch," in- 
forms us that the army worm has been des- 
troying the alfalfa for some time, and that the 
probabilities are that seed will be short on ac- 
count of their depredations. He also informs 
us that for the past few days thousands of 
blackbirds visit his fields every morning and 
feast upon these worms until the heat of the day, 
when they fly away to where there is water. 
He thinks that if the water ditch was on his 
ranch the birds wonld stay there all day. As it 
is they make sad havoc of the worms, and save 
much that would otherwise be destroyed. 

Wheat Movements. — A considerable amount 
of wheat is coming into town for storage iu 
warehouses, but transactions are light. The 
past week has been very dull, owing to the fact 
that the farmers are busily engaged in cutting 
and threshing. The Grangers' Warehouse As- 
sociation of this place have purchased a lot, 
west of the railroad and south of Lincoln ave- 
nue, but there has been no work done in the 
building line. The wheat crop is turning out 
beyond the expectations of the farmers, and 
the grain is very large and plump. It would 
seem from present movements that the farmers 
are not willing to part with their marketable 
crop in a hurry. They are preparing for a siege 
of waiting for a market to suit them, which, 
we take it, says: We are organized for protec- 
tion, and you, Mr. Buyer, must pay for what 
you get. This is the correct principle. Too 
many of them have been compelled by the pres- 
sure of debts, heretofore, to sell at a disadvan- 
tage. 



Severe Affliction. — Our long time agent 
in this city, and carrier of both the Rural and 
Scientific Press, Mr. A. C. Knox, has been 
suddenly struck down by a disease which, for 
the present, at least, must render him utterly 
incapable of transacting any business. In fact, 
he has been unable to make to us a complete 
report of how his business as a carrier stands; 
hence subscribers in this city must bear with 
us, should any irregularity occur in the de- 
livery of their papers, or their accounts. Mr. 
Enox has been connected with us, in one capa> 
city and another, for some eight or nine years, 
and has ever proven himself a most faithful 
and honest agent. We trust that he may ere 
long be once more restored to full health and 
reason, and long continue to enjoy the society 
of his now afflicted family and many friends. 

J. H. Ashley has handed the Castroville 
.AryiAS a bunch of "White Australian" wheat, 
some of whose heads measure seven inches in 
length, and are all very full and heavy. ThA 
berries are very large, plump and bright. 

The San Joaq uin Valley Sportsmen's Club 
off'er a reward of $25 to the informer for each 
conviction for violation of the game law in that 
valley. The State also gives the informer one- 
half of the fine imposed. 

Fbancis Bateman had his left leg terribly 
mangled by a threshing machine, on a ranc$ 

near Grayson, Stanislaus count}', on Friday 
last. The limb was successfully amputated. 

Geoboe Hoag, of the Glenn ranch, is run- 
ning a thresher with a 25-inch cylinder, at thp 
rate of 216 sacks per hour, or a little more 
than 5,000 bushels per day. 



There never was a finer prospect for grapes 
in Auburn than the present season. 'The 
vines are loaded with bunches of unusu al size. 



JoK Ballou, of Colusa county, recently 
threshed 258 sacks of wheat from twelve acres 
of land— over fifty bushels per acre. 

Thbee irrigation ditches are to be shortly 
opened near Bakerafield, Kern county, con- 
necting with Buena Vista lake. 

In Butte county the prices of land vary from 
$10 to $7.') per acre. 

Ub. £. J. Fbaseb, Homoepathic PliyHioian and 8<ir- 
geon, has removed bis office and residence from 102 
gtockton street to Mo 305 Kearny street, northwest 
corner of Bush. 6v7-3m \ 






ATENTs & Inventions 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(Fbom Official RurOBTg fob the Minino aud Scusn- 
TiFic PBEsa, DEWEY & CO., PuBLisHcaa a»d 

U. 8. AND FOBEIOM PATENT AOENTS.] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated 'WashinB'ton. 
D. C, July 14th, 1874. 

Fob Week Endino June 30th, 1874. " 
Animal Tbai'. —Richard S. Pardee, San Diego, 
Cal. 

Apparatus fob Conveyinq and Cooling 
Washed Obks.— Robert Teats, Central City, 
Colorado Ter. 

Car Couplino. — Gabriel Thomas, Reno, 
Nevada. 

Plate Rack.— John J. Collins, Lodi, Cal. 

Indexing. — Walter Knight, San Andreas, Cal. 

Process or Taking Photographic Pictures. — 
Nathaniel Weston, S. F., Cal. 
Rb-issuk. 

Shoe and Die for Grinding and Amalga- 
mating Machines. — Francillo G. Belknap, 
Washoe, Nevada. 

*The patents are not ready for delivery by the 

Patent Office until some 14 days after the date of Issue. 
Note.— Copies of U. 8. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewet tt Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
bnsiness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
perfect secnrity and in the shortest time possible. 



Industrial Fairs for 1874. 

CALIFORNIA. 

The Annaal Fair of the State A«rlcaltural Society for 
1874 wilt be held at Sacramento, to commence on Septem- 
ber 21st and clo^tnK September 26th. R. S. Cary, President, 
Robert Beck, Secretary. 

The Ninth Inlastrial Elhibitlon of the Mechanics' In- 
stitute, San Francisco, opening AuRust I8th, cnntinupA 
thirty days. Perf^ons de^irinx to exliibit will pr* Hent their 
applications for space at as early a day as possible, addres^- 
mi; iheir aptilications or inquiries to the Secret&rv of *he 
Board of Managers, Mechinics' Institnte, No. U7 Post 
street, San Francisco, r'aliforiiia. In order to secure si>ace 
applications must be in before the 20th day of July, 1874. 

The Fifteenth Annual Fair of the Santa Clara Valley 
Ai;ncultaral Society will be held al San -lose October 6th. 
f>th,7th, 8th, 9tta and lUth. William 0. Nelson, President, 
D. J. Porter, Secretary. 

The San Joaquin Valley Afrricultural Society's Fair, at 
Stockton, commences September 29th, and will continue 
four days. H. T. Oompton, Seo'y. 

The Napa * Solano Aericultural and Mechanical Arts 
Society's annual tair commences on September 6th, and 
continues four dayx. . I. li. Hovt, President; J. E. Willia- 
ton. Secretary: J. B. Frisbie, Treasurer. 



Our A-^ents. 

OuK Fbiends can do much in aid of oar paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

L. P. McCarty— General Agent. 

A. 0. Knox, City Solicitlni; and Oolleotlng Agent. 

W. H. Rattenbebey— California. 

Chas. W. Otis— Solano County. 

C. M. Daly— Colusa County. 

Chas. r. Bell— Alameda, Santa Clara and Santa Oriu 
Counties. 

J. D. Cari;y— Sonoma County. 

J . W. And ebson— Orange and Santa Ana.in Loa Angelas 
County, Cal. 

Hood Als-toii— San Lois Obispo, San Bemardioo and 
SanDiego Counties. 

The Eot)-Shake Thkesheb.— The following letter is 
from Wm. P. Harkey, Esq., Sheriff of Sutter county, 
referring to the value of the Lanfenberg End-Shake 
Shoe for threshing machines: 

Yuba City, Cal.. March 25, 1874. 

MEa6B8.TBEAnwELi,ftCo.,San Francisca.— ffoiUemoi. 
In regard to the Lanfenberg End-Shake Shoe, which I 
bought of you last season. I will say I have given it a 
thorough trial, and if I could not get another I would 
not take One Thousand Dollars for it. I used it 
throughout the season on a Russell Separator, which I 
had run previously with a side-shake, and it saved me 
a great deal of trouble and much loss. It saves all the 
grain. I t^nsider it the best and most valuable im- 
provement on the tiiresbing machine yet brought out. 
It is absolutely indispensable to the economical working 
of a good thresher. Wm. P. Habuy. 

13v7.3m 

Campo, San Dieoo Co., Cal., July 3d, 1874. 
Messbs. Dewky k Co.— Gentlemen: To-day I received 
the patent and other papers o( my animal trap, that you 
so successfully worked through the patent office for me, 
for which please accept my best wishes. The chances 
are that I will have another application for you to 
make for me before long. I am well satisfied with your 
manner of doing business, and I think inventors of 
this coast stand in their own light when they do not 
put their business into your hands. 

I remain yours truly, A. M. OASS. 

OsK of our most valued exchanges Is the Pacific 
Rttbal Pbess, published by Dewey ii Co., ban Francisco, 
California. Every number contains a vast amount of 
general news from the far west, besides much valuable 
information in the way of Grange nevi».—Tht farther' t 
Friend, Mechanictburg, Pa. 



PLAisrraLD. July lib, 1874. 
Messbs. Dewtti & Co.— Dear Sirt. I acknowledge re- 
ceipt of yours of 2d Inst., inclosing my Letters Patent. 
I thank you for the interest yon have taken In obtain 
Ing the same. Yours truly, M. W. OOON. 

The little anecdote of "How It saved a man's lite" is 
a very funny story told about the Blanchard Chum. 
Send to any dealer in fibst class dairy implements for 
a circular containing it. 



For the very best Fhotographa go to BRAD 
LEY & RCLOFSON'd GALLERY, with an " Elevator- 
429 Montgomery street. San Francisco. 2v7.6m 



TO PRINTERS! 
Fair Haven 

For Sale at a bargain. Size, 28x42. New. Apply to 
BLAKE, ROBBINS & CO., Sacramento street, 8. F. 
Jyl8-bp-tf 



July i8, 1074.] 



S. F- pi^l\KET R^Ef»©l\T. 



At Wholesale when not Otherwise Indicated. 



1^ 



Weekly Market Review. 

[By our o-wn Eeporter.] 



favorable for a good crop. Should a sufficient amount 
of rain fall in Europe, the Wheat crop is expected to be 
fully up to the average. 

Wool — Is steady. Receipts are larger. Eastern 
markets show a favorable state of trade. 



j ^ DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

San Fbancisco, Wednesday, -July 1.5th, 1874. 
With few exceptions, the general Produce market has 
remained stationary during the week under review. 
What fluctuations have occurred, however, have been 
for the better in nearly every instance. The course of 
the Eastern and foreign Grain markets is not yet to be 
determined with any degree of accuracy, though all 
interested are busily engaged in forecasting the chan- 
ces. 

Receipts ol Produce are daily increasing, and the 
handling of the incoming crops gives some appearance 
of activity to this market. The summer Fruits and 
Vegetables alon? make a good showing, while the 
Wheat, Barley, Potatoes, etc., are being already re- 
ceived in quantities which speak well for the season's 
crops. If Grain growers were decided upon selling at 
present rates, shipments to this city would now largely 
increase. As regards the export of Grain, the prevailing 
views of farmers are well expressed in a communication 
on another page. 

Jiarley.— An improvement is noted. New is doing 
better; while old Feed is in demand, stocks having run 
short. 

Beans-— The demand is fair. Prices are a little 
stiffer, and Small White have been advanced He If* ft. 
Beeswax. — An advance is noted. 
Broom Corn..— Nothing new to report. There have 
been no sales of Importance for a long while. The 
present state of the market is expected to continue 
through August, when the new crop will cause a 
change. 

Buckwheat.— There is very little in the market. 
Latest transactions were at an advance. 

Dairy Produce.— Butter is firm at unchanged quo- 
tations. The tendency to-day is buoyant. California 
Cheese is inactive and stocks accumulate. Eastern 
Cheese is now selling at about 75 per cent, of its price 
last January, and cannot be disposed of at a profit. 
Factory prices at the East, as we see by exchanges, 
are quite as high, or higher than, rates for the same ar- 
ticle here, after freight, etc., has been paid. 

Eggs.— The price of fresh California has been ad- 
vanced 2c. I* dozen. Oregon and Eastern are not effected 
by the change. Ducks' Eggs are selling at 17)4@20c. ^t^ 
dozen, and Farallones at 20c. 

Peed.— Quotations remain as before, with the excep- 
tion of Hay and Straw, which are weaker. Corn Meal 
is very firm. 

Flour.— The Flour market is very dull; and, at pres- 
ent prices for Wheat, Flour can not be a very profitable 
article— at least to the millers. A slight movement in 
Superfine has occurred, caused by low freights to China, 
which have influenced orders. 

Fresh Meat.— Mutton has advanced Ic ^ ft, and 
Pork He Beef is quiet. 

Game.- There is little in the market. No change in 
quotations. 
Hides.— Kates have been advanced Ic. 
Honey .-Beceipts are full, and prices unchanged. 
Hops.— A small shipment was received .last week. 
There is very little activity in the market. The new 
crop will soon be in, and create some business. 

Nuts.— Peanuts have fallen again Ic t^ ft. Other 
kinds remain as before. 

Oats.— Supplies are coming forward freely. No 
change. 

Onions — Have advanced considerably during the 
week. 

Potatoes.— A large advance has taken place. Half 
Moon Bay are 50c '^ cental higher than last week. 
Mission, which are not so good at this season, advanced 
15c ^ cental. Santa Barbara are also up. Sherman 
Island (Sacramento River) are not of sufficiently good 
keeping quality for this market. Old crop Potatoes 
can hardly be sold at any figure. 

Poultry. — Turkeys are again higher and buoyant. 
Chickens and other Poultry are steady. 
Provisions.— Hams and Bacon are firmer. 
Hye — Is inactive, and 10c. lower, as per last sales. 
Seeds.— Business slack, without change. When the 
fall demand is made we will give a fuller list. 

Wheat. — The appearance of the Wheat market is 
rather better. Receipts for the week amounted to 40,- 
120 centals. Business was not active until yesterday, 
when a more firm feeling was shown. Exports are as 
yet small. From the report of the National Bureau of 
Statistics we learn that the breadth of Wheat, both Win- 
ter and Spring, has been increased. The indicated 
aggregate increase is 107 per cent. Combining Fall 
and Spring sown, the area in comparison with last year 
in each State is thus indicated: Maine, 90; New Hamp- 
shire, 92; Vermont, 95; Massachusetts, 89; Connecticut, 
100; New York, 100; New Jersey, 99; Pennsylvania, 
103; Delaware, 101; Maryland, 103; Virginia, 103; North 
Carolina, 106; South Carolina, 108; Georgia, 115; Ala- 
bama, 107; Mississippi, 150; Texas, 135; Arkansas, 149; 
Tennessee, 120; West Virginia, 102; Kentucky, 109; Ohio, 
103; Michigan, 103; Indiana, 106; Illinois, 109; Wiscon- 
sin, 103; Minnesota, 100; Iowa, 110; Missouri, 111; Kan- 
sas, 123; Nebraska; 116; California, 110; Oregon, 115. 
Reports from Great Britain are to the effect that there 
was danger of a scarcity before the harvesting of the 
new crop was accomplished. Wheat crop prospects In 
France up to the middle of last month were favorable; 
also good in Germany. In Austro-Hungary prospects had 
brightened and It was thought an average crop would 
be gathered. It has been said, heretofore, that about 
T5 per cent, of an average would be the yield in that 
lountry. In the south of Russia prospects still held 



5?4 



i'A 



Beans, sm'l wh. lb 5J^( 

do, butter 6 { 

do, large, do... 6 ( 

do. bayo 2%i 

ao, pink ^%W - 

do, pea 5i^& 5: 

do, Lima 6 @ 7 

BKOOM COKN. 

Perton $80(3)200 

DAIKX rKODircK 
Butter, Oal. choice 

lt> 30 Q 

do, good '27 @ 

do, inferior ti/iit^ 

do, firkin 25 (<u 

do, pickled — 30 ® 

Cheese, Cal. new 8 (^ 

do. Eastern ... 13 ((t 

£608. 

Eggs, Cal. fresh 28 @ 

do. Oregon 22 ® 

do. Eastern — 19 m 

do, Duc!.s' n>^@ 

FEED. 
Bran, per toi.. . . . 16 00,ai7 00 

Middlings 26 00@27 60 

Hay 9 JO'Sli 00 

Straw 8 OOiS 

do* oale 7.5® 1 00 

Oil cake meal. . . ■ — (<$32 .50 

Corn Meal 42 OftSiS JO 

FJLUDK.— Superfine <fc 

Alviao Mills. bbllM 

California 4 25 

City Mills 4 26 

Comme'l Mills.. 4 25 

Golden Gate 4 25 

Golden Age 4 26 

National Mills.. .4 25 
SantaClaraMillB 4 25 
Genesfce Mills...4 25 _ 

Oregon 4 25 Co)5 75 

Vallejo Star 4 25 @5 75 

Venus, Oakland. .4 25 @5 75 
Stockton City... 4 25 g)5 75 
Lambard. S3C...4 25 0i5 75 

FRE^H MEA'T. 
Beef, fr quality. .& 7 (^ S 

ao, second do.. 

do, third do 

Veal 

Mutton 

Lamb 

Pork, undressed. 

do, dressed 

OKAIN 



Wednesday m., July 8, 1874. 
10- 



@5 75 
@5 75 
@5 75 
@5 75 
@5 7.5 

Ca)6 75 
@5 75 



4 10 

4>2@ 

5 & 

a'A® 

9M® 
Li^ • E'X'C 
Wh'tOal. c'at.cl.l 70 

do new 1 62i4(^ 

do, shipping.. 1 7'2.'^; 

do, milling 1 75 f 

Barley, Feed 1 37}^j 

do new 100 

do. Brewing...! 55 (^1 70 
Oats, good to 

chi ice 1 60 @1 75 

do common .. 1 45 (g)l 50 
Corn, While - ®2 00 

do. Yellow — ®2 06 

Buckwheat — @3 26 

Rye 1 40 ®1 50 

HOPS. 
California,187.t. 35 @ 37!^ 
Eai<t'rn.'73,ch'lce 37;-2fa 45 

MISCELLANEUi'S. 
Beeswax.per lb.. '27r?(g) 30 
Honev, choice 22'^>(g) 271^ 

do Dark 8 (B) 10 

do Strained 8 @ 12t« 

Pulu — ® 9 

Onions I 00 (d)l 10 

NUTS -JOBBING. 



Cal. Walnuts .... 13 

Peanuts per lb... 6 ^ 

Chile Walnuts.. 10 @ 

Pecan nuts 13 (di 

Brazil do I'iii® 



Coc'anuts,'^ 100.. 9 00 
Alm'dsh'rd shell 10 (a li'A 

do, soft 18 @ 24 

Filberts 18 S — 

POTATOES. 
Sweet.per 100 lbs — m — 
Cutfee O ove — @ — 
H. M. Bay..l 69 @1 75 
PiKcon Pi... — @ — 
Humboldt.. — @ — 
Pelaluma . . — to — 
Mission ....1 15 (Si 37!^ 

Salinas — @ — 

Bodegii — S — 

bac. River.. 60 @ 90 
S'taBarbaral 10 @1 15 
Old Po tatoe s.... 50 @ 75 
I>OUl.TKlf <te QAME. 
Live Turkeys, 

hens per lb 10 @ 21 

do gobblers... 17 @ 19 
Hens, peridz....7 00 g!8 00 
Roosters, young. 

large 6 50 @8 50 

Br. liters, 3 00 ,§6 00 

Ducks, tame,d024 50 @6 50 
Geese, per pair.l 50 @2 00 
Hare, per doz. . . 2 50 @3 60 
Snipe, Eng., doz — @ — 
(^uall, per doz — — ^ — 
.Mallard Ducks.. — @ — 

do small - 'ffl — 

Wild Geese, gray — @ ~ 

do white — @ — 

Doves, per dozen! 00 (oil 25 
Prairie Chickens — @ — 

Grouse — @ — 

Rabbits 1 00 m 50 

do tame 4 00 @5 OO 

Venison, per lb.. — Col — 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal.Bacon.Light 14 p 
do Medium — — @ 

do Heavy — @ 

Eastern do WAt") 

Hams, Cal 13. @ 

do Whittakers — m 
do Duffield, ch — @ 
do Plankton A 

AriiKJUr — (51 

do Boyd's .... — @ 

do Stewart's .. — @ 

il.a3ternSh()Uld's 9 'ai 

do new hams — @ 

Cal. Smoked Beet 10 @ 

l.ard.Cal 13 @ 

do Eastern 13 @ 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 13 @ 

Canary 6 (^ 

Flaxseed 5 (S 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 40 @ 

Millet 12 ® 

Mustard, white. 2 @ 

do. Brown 3 ^ 

Italian Rye 25 @ 

Perennial do 30 @ 

Timothy 13 ® 

Swf'et V Grass. . 60 @ 
Orchard do.... 30 ® 
Red Top do... 30 @ 
Hungarian do 10 m 

Lawn do 50 m 

Glover Red — m 

do White 60 @ 

Alsike 

Esparto Grass in 

Packets — (Si — 

■WOOI,, ETC-. 

Spring, short.lb. 22.'-^® 25 

do cnoice Nort 24 m 28 

Medium grades.. 18 ® 22 

Fall clip — @ — 

Burry 14 & 18 

Hides, diy 17 W 19 

do wet salted 8 ® 9 

Tallow. Crude.. 6'^® 7 

do Refined... 'ii4<B 9 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

.Wednesday m., July 15, 1874. 
Bags and Bagging are firm at noted rates. Australian 
Coal is now selling at $10^ ton. Lehigh and West Hart- 
ley are also lower. Oils continue low. A large stock was 
lost by the fire in the warehouse of Allync & White. The 
demand for Salt is light; Liverpool Fine will go no higher 
than $23 ift ton. Changes in Spices have been downwards. 
Hawaiian Molasses has declined from last week s rates, 
falling back to old prices. 



6 
6 
50 
15 
3 
4 

30 
35 
15 
75 
35 
40 
13 
60 
20 
75 

'1 00 



BAGS. 

Eng. Stand Wht..- 
Detrick's Machine 
Sewed. 22x3fi E..- 
do22x:i6, do E W- 
do20x40, do A....— 
Flour Sacks ^*^s.. 10 

" Ms. 6% 
Stand. Gunnies., 
double seam.. . — 15 

sin^e seam —13 

" Wool Sacks. 65 

Barley Bags 24x35 — 

do 23x40 - 

do 24x40 — 

do 2Si36 



-@13^ 
-®14M 

— aie 

-(g,13 
— 'aj — 

-(Si 16 '4 
— (U1I61-.; 
-ia'Ui'A 
-(mU 




FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

Wednesday m., July 15, 1874. 

Sicily Lemons have been received, and are selling at $15® 
16"^ box. Apples are much cheaper. Really choice Cher- 
ries command high rates. The first of the Black Currants 
are in market, and are held at 20®22^o ^ B). Watermelons 
are coming in more freely, and have been reduced m 
price from $50 to $32@36 ")? 100. Canteleups sell at $10® 
62.50 ^ 100. Sweetwater Grapes have made their appear- 
ance. There are no changes in Dried Fruit. 

Asparagus is becoming scarce. Shell Beans are selling 
at from 2o to 6c f* B) for Cranberry and Windsor. The first 
Cranberry Beans came in to-day, and sold for 3c ?1 lb 
Peppers have declined 5c ^ lb. Green Okra is much more* 
plentiful, and the price has been reduced. 



Oat Bags, 24x40.... 16 fa 16' 

do 28x36.... — ®17 

Hessian iO-in.gds 9J^— ■3)10 

do 45 10(4-@11 

do 60 — (0)15 

CA^TNES GOODS. 
Asst'dPie Fruits 

in 2^ 0> cans. 2 75 

do 'rable do... — 
Jams & Jellies 3 
Pickles >^ gl.. — 
Sardines. qr boxl 75 

do hf boxes.3 00 
COAI>— Jobhlne:, 

AustraUan.^ton 10 00 (S 

CooB Bay @10 00 

Bellingham Bay. @ 8 50 

Seattle ©11— 

Oumberl'd, ck3..22 00 ®23 00 
do bulk.. .18 00 ®20 UO 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 @8 ,50 

Lehigh ®19 00 

Liverpool 11 00 ®U— 

West Hartley.... 12 50® 

Scotch d M @10 110 

Scranton . ..15 00 @17 .50 
Vancouver's Isl.. 11 00 @ll 50 
Charcoal, *sk... 75 ® — 

Coke, ^bbl — @ 60 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — ® 22 
CentralAineric'n 22 ® 23 
Costa Kica per lb 'iVA<^ 24 

Guatemala 21 @ 22 

Java '28,'^(a 30 

Manilla 22 ® — 

Ground incs.... — ® 30 

Chicory 10 ® — 

FISH. 
Pac.Dry Cod, new 5 @ 6 

cases 6 (i$ 7 

do boneless 11 ® 12 

Eastern God 7 (a; 8 

Salmonin bbls..8 00 ® — 

do >i'bbls4 50 @ 

do 2>^Ib cans — &'i 00 

do 2Ib cans. ,2 65 'al2 75 

00 lib cans .1 75 ® — 
Do Col. R. )4b. . . - ® — 
Pick. Cod. bbls.'i2 00 @ — 
do a bblsll 00 @ — 
Bos . Sm'k'dHer'siO @ 50 
Maok'l.No.l.'iblsS 00 @8 .50 
Extra.... - ®9 00 

" in kits 2 00 ®2 .50 

Ex mess.. 3 UO ®3 .50 

" Exmess.>ibs-.gH2 00 
Sm'kHerr'e. bi. 5C @ 55 

NAILS. 
Assorted size, lb. \% @ 7 

OII.S. 
Pacific Olue Co. 

Neat F't No. 1. — @1 00 

Pure 1 25 ® - 

Castor Oil, No.l.. — (oil 76 

do do No.'2.. — ®1 60 

Oocoanut .. 45 @ .50 

Olive Plagniol..5 00 ® — 

do Possel 4 /5 @ — 

Palm 9 ^ _ 

do Bagicalupi. — ® — 
Linseed, raw.. . 

do boiled 

China nut in cs.. 

do bulk 70 

Sperm, crude.. 

do bleached 
Coast Whales... 35 
Polar, refined.... .50 

Sperm 1 40 ®1 .50 

Lard a5 @l 05 

Coal, refined Pet 37,'^l 

Oleophine — m 34 

Devoe'sBril't... 26 ® 29 
Long Island — — ® 34 

Eureka ZVA& 40 

Devoe's Petro'm 26 @ 29 
Barrel kerosene — ® 26 



17 



FBUIT MAKK.ET. 

Tahati, Or. %» M 35 00@40 00 

Lorita, do ® 

Oal. do ® 

Limes. ^ M.... ®16 00 

Oal. Lemons,^ M (qi40 00 

Australian do .50 00® 

do per box 7 Met) 8 00 

do Sicily fib'x. 15 00®16 00 
Bananas.^ bncb3 60 io^h 00 
Cocoanuts,$l 100.9 00 @10 00 
Pineapples, %*dz 7 00 ®9 00 



2*^® 6 
6 ® 10 
10 



10 



® 



15 



8 (S 12 



Apples... 
Cherries 

do choice .... 
Blackberries.... 

do wild 

Strawberries^ lb 
Gooseberries.... — (« — 

Raspberries 10 ® II 

Currants ^ •'$ ^ 

do black 20 ® 22) 

Apricots 1/^W 2 

Plums 2 @ 15 

Peaches, ^ lb. . 3 @ 10 
Pears, Eating ... 1 00 ®2 50 

do Cooking — — @ — 

do, Bartlett... - (a) — 

Crab Apples — ® — 

Nectarines ~ Jf^ 7:. 

Wat'rmel'slftlOO 32 00®36 00 
Cantelo's^l00...40 00^62 50 
Pomegran's,^ dz — (^ — 

Figs 12.'2® 

Grape3,Bl'k H'g 

do Muscat.. 

do Malttvo'e.. 

do Sweetw'r. 

ao Mission .... — 

do Rose of Peru - 

do 'lolvav — iqi 

do Morocco - (0) 

do St. Peter.. Ti'/M 



® 



10 



15 



15 



® - 



50 




DKIED FBiriT. 

Apples. * lb., 6ti(^ I 

fears, 1^ lb , '" ■• 

Peaches,^, lb... 
Apricots, |! lb... 

Plums, si lb 

Pitted, do ^ lb-. 

do Extra, fi lb 

Raisinti, ^ lb 

Black Figs, ^ lb. 

White, do ... 
Prunes 

do German 

('itron 

Zunte Currants. 

Dates 12>.„ 

VEOET ABIDES. 

Asparagus 8 @10 

Beets — (0) 1 

Cabbage, ^ 100 m^..- ® 2 00 

do new, doz .50 ®60 

Garrots.T^ 100 tt)s 1 00® t '25 

Cauliflower,, doz 50 ®60 

Celery, doz .50 (^*i5 

Garlic, J4 m 6 ® 8 

Green Peas 2>4fg; 3 

Green Corn ^ doz.. 18 @22 

Smn'rSquash, lb 4 ® 5 

Marro'lat Sil'sb.tnSO 00(01— 
Artichokes,^ doz.. 15 ®25 
Strintt Beans, 'tHlb .. — ® 5 

Lima Beans — ,a>— 

Parsnips 12'.^® 15 

Shell Beans 2 (A 6 

PeppeiB.lf* lb 12M'S20 

Okralfilb 25 10140 

Okra, Green 18 ®20 

Cucumbers, doz 10 ®15 

romatoes 3 ® 5 

Ei;x Plants* lb 12!i'<al5 

Rhubarb 2!^@ 3 

Lettuce 12^(^20 



FRUITS, 



ETC.. PRESERVED BY THE 
AI.DEIV PROCESS. 



Apricots, pared, ^ lb*.. 40 

do unpaired,^ lb t. . . 32 

Peaches, do, ^ lb f li)i 

do pared, * lb* 30 

do do Tf*lbt 30 

Bartlett Pears.pared, lb* .50 

Pears, pared (sliced) lb"* 20 

do do (ring)lS* Ibt.. 18 

Pears,10-lb boxes.family 

use. extra 22,'i 

Seckel Pears, unpar'd, Ibt 12's 

Currants, stemmed, lb*. 40 

do unstemmed,^ Ibt 3'2>i 

Royal AnnCherries. pit- 
ted, ^ B>* 2S 

KentishCherries, pitted 
•1«lb 



,55 



Apples, paied(ring) lb''T 
do do (wbule,)"^ Ib'^ 

Apples, 10-lb buxe» fam- 
ily use, extra 

Plums, piited,'^ Ibt.... 
do di> ■f. »)• 

Rhubarb, %* Ibt 

Uorn,Tp Ibt 

Beans, ^ Ibt 

Potatoes,^ Ibf 

Sweet Potatoes, '^ Ibt . . 

Onions, It* Ibt 

Beef,* mt 

romatoes, f* Ibt 



Squash, ^ 

•in cndd' 



In caddies, tin bulk. 



Olive 4 00 ®9 60 

Downer Kerose'e — @ iV/2 
Gas Liuht Oil.... — (u> 34 

PAINTS. 
Atlan. W. Lead. 'I'i'S) WA 

Whiting — ® 2" 

Putty 4K® 5 

Chalk — @ 2>j 

Paris White m® — 

Ochre — @ 3}< 

Venetian Red. .. 3}^® 5 

Red Lead 7 ® 11 

Litharge 10 (3 11 

Eng. Vermillion 1 0D@1 25 

RICE. 

ChmaNo. l,f( lb 6'.^® 6S« 

do 2, do. 5'^® .55; 

Japan 6'^® 6 

Siam Cleaned. .. 7 ® — 

Patna — M 6>! 

Hawaiian 7 ® 7?; 

Carolina 10 ® 10> 

SAI,T. 

Oal. Bay.per ton 10 00®14 00 

do Common .. 6 00(5) 7 OU 

Carmen Island.. U 00((i)l3 00 

Liverpool fine.. .20 00;al,23 00 

do coarsels 00((520 00 

SOAP. 

Castile 1^ lb 10 @ 11 

Local brands 5 ® 8 

SPICE.S. 
Allspice, per lb,. 15 @ 16 

Cloves 46 @ 47> 

Cassia 'iVA% 25 

Citron - (a) 30 

Nutmeg. 

Whole Pepper... 

Pimento 

Or'nd Alisp prdz 

do Cassia do .. 

do Cloves do.. 

do Mustard do 

do Ginger do,. 

do Pepper do.. 

Jo Mace do. . . 

SUGAR, 

Cal. Cube per lb.. 

Partz' Pro. Cube 

bblorlOOB) bxs 

do in 50 D) bxs,. 

do in 25 lb bxs. 

Circle A crushed 

Powdered 

Granulated 

Dry granulated 

Hawaiian 

California Beet. 

Golden O 

do Key'g grade 
Oal. Syrup in bis. 
d.> in )^ bis, 
do in kegs.. 
Hawaiian Molas- 
ses 

TEA. 

Uolong.Canton.fi) 19 

do Amoy... 28 

do Formosa 40 

Imperial, Canton 25 

do Pingsuey 45 

do Moyune . 60 

Gunpo'der.Cant. 30 

ao Pingsuey 50 

do Moyune. 65 

Y'ng Ely., Canton 28 

do Pingsuey W 

do Moyune.. 65 

Japan, ii chests, 

bulk 

Japan, lacquered 

bxs,4>'2and5 D>s 4S @ 67 
Japan do, 3 lb bxs 45 ® 9(3 
do pl'n bx,4'ilb 35 ® 65 
do '2&I lb paper 30 @ 55 
TOltACCO— aobblnif. 
Brii^llt Navys.... 50 ® 60 

Dark do 45 @ 55 

Dw:if Twist.... .57 ® 62>< 
12 inch do .... 57 (» 62)< 
Light Pressed... 65 @ 75 
Hard do .. 60 ® 70 
Conn. Wrap'r.... 40 ® 50 
Penn. Wrapper.. '20 ® 30 
Onio do 
Virgi'aSinok'g 
Fine ct che'g,gr..8 .50 ®9 '25 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.^ B) . .75 @ 90 
Banner fiae cut.. — ®y 00 

Eureka Gala 8 75 ®9 Oo 

TURPENTINE. 
Eastern 70 ® 75 



METALS. 

Wednesday m., July 15, 1874. 
The metal market remains quiet. Quicksilver is steady 
and firm at $1.35 if* lb. 

American Pig Iron, ^ ton ® 40 00 

Scotch Pig Iron, # ton 1 

White Pig, * ton 

Refined Bar, bad assartmeot, H lb 

Refined Bar, good assortment, ^ lb 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 

Sheet, No. 24 to '27 — 08 

Horse Shoos, per keg 

Nail Rod 

Norway Iron 

Rolled Iron 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. — — 

OOPPEK,— 

Braziers' — 31 

Copjier Tin'd — 45 

CNiel'sPat — 60 

Sheathing,* lb 

Sheathing. Yellow 

Sheathing, Old Yellow 

Composition Nails — 24 

Composition Bolts — 24 

Tin Plates.— 

Plates, Charcoal, IX ^ box : — 

Plates, lOCharooal 14 00 

Roofing Plates 12 .60 

BancaTin, Slabs, ^ lb — 33 

Seel.— English Oast, ^ lb — '20 

Anderson & Woods' American Cast 

Drill 

Flat Bar 

Plough Points...... 

Zinc .'....y.'. 

Zinc, Sheet .' 

Nails- Assorted sizes 

Lead.— 

Pig,1* lb 

Bar 

Sheet 

Pipe 

QoiCKsiLVER, per lb 



® 



10 @ 



30 



76 



m 



LEATHER. 

Wednesday m., July 15, 1874. 
The Leather trade continues dull. Jodots alone are 
buoyant, and unless the production is increased an ad- 
vance may be expected. 

City Tanned Leather, * lb 2.5@29 

Santa Ornz Leather, ?t B) 25@29 

Country Leather, ^ tt> 

Stockton Leather, ^ lb 

Jodot,8 Kil.. per doz $.50 00(, 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil., per doz 66 0I)(( 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil. Tj* doz 56 00(c 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko 57 00( 

Oomellian Females, 12 to 13 60 00( 

Cornellian Females. 14 tO' 16 Kil 66 IHK 

Beaumcrville, 15 Kil 60 OOi^ 

Simon, 18 Kil. ,» doz 61 00(g> 6:1 "0 

Simon, '20 Kil. ft doz 65 00® 67 60 

Simon. 24 Kil. ^ doz 72 00® 74 00 

Robert Calf , 7 and 9 Kil 35 00(a> 40 00 

trench Kips, ?* B) 100® M6 

Oalifomia Kip, » doz 40 00(all 6' KJ 

French Sheep, all colors, 1* doz 8 00® 15 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, % lb 100® 125 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, ^ doz. . . . 9 00® 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings,** doz 6 .50® 10 ."J) 

California Russett Sheep Linings \ 1^ 4.5(1 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, * pair 5 00® 5 26 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, #» pair 4 00(flj 4 76 

French Calf Boot Legs, It* pair 4 00® 

Harness Leather, fl lb 30(a) 37S 

Fair Bridle Leather, ^ doz 48 00® 72 Od 



Skirting Leather, ^ lb. 

Welt Leather, ?* doz 

Buff Lejither, |* foot 

Wax Side Leather, %i foot. 
Kaalern Wax Leather 



34® 37H 
30 00® .50 00 
18,J 21 
17(01 19 
-® 




® 



LUMBER. 



CARGO PRICES 
RED1VOOU. 



Wednesday m., July 15, 187 
OF PUGET SOUND PINE 

-Retail Price. 

Rough, * M 20 00 

Rough, %» M $16 001 Fencing and Stepping,M 37 .50 

Rough refuse, If* M 12 00 Fencing, 2.1 quafiiy,!;* M 30 00 

Rough clear, V M 32 .50 Fencing, "5* lineal loot.. lo 

Rough clear rafuse, M,, 22 50 Flooring and Step, ^ M 30 00 

30 00 Flooring, narrow, I* ,■«.. 32 .50 

24 OOlFlooring, U qnaUty, M. .25 00 

■26 00, Laths, ft M 3 25 

IB 00 Furring. J* lineal ft.... JK 
30 00, KED\VOOD— Retull. 

20 00:R.)UBh,'i» .M '20 00 

32 ,50RiiuKh refuse, ■^ M 16 00 

22 .50 Rough Pickets. I* M.... 18 00 




Rustic, V M 

Rustic, refuse, ^ M. ... 

Surfaced, ?* M 

Surfaced reluse, ^ M,. 

Flooring, f, M 

Flooring, refuse, IBM. 
Beaded flooring, Tf* M.. 

Beaded floor, reluse, M. -.. ..- .*„«».. . , „ - -- 

Half-inch Siding, M '22 ,50 Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

Half-inch siding, ref. M. 16 OOiFancy Pickets, * M 30 00 

Half-inch, Surlaced,M, 26 OOlsiding, * M 27.50 

Half-inch Surf, ref., .M . 18 00 Tongueo and Grooved, 

Half-iwch Battens, M... 22 .5(1 surfaced, Tf* M 32 .50 

Pickets, rough,* M.... U' './OlDodo refuse, 1* M '22 .60 

Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 OOlHalf-lnch surfaced, M.. 40 00 

Pickets, fancy, p'atd.... 25 001 Rustic, * M 3S 00 

ShlnKles,WM. 2 25<Battens, ^ Uneal foot... U 

.Shingles »M 2.50 



S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 

-i 

Wednesday m,, July 15, 1874. 
PODIATRY, GAME. FISH, MEATS. ETC. 

In the retail market there have been few changes. Far- 
allones Eggs are 5c lower. Turkeys have advanced to 30c 
^^. lb. Tame Geese are selling at $3®4. There are no 
changes in Meat. Change in Fish have been upward. 
Rock Cod sells for 15c ^ lb. Terrapin are $2. .60 higher,^ 
dozen. Young Bay Trout and Young Salmon are^both 
very scarce and command a large advance. There ai^e no 
Green Turtle in market. ' 



Spring Chickens .50 ® 76 

liens 75 (0)1 00 

Eggs — ® 35 

do Ducks' — .® 25 

do Farallones. — — 25 

Turkeys, :»«)., - @ 30 

Ducks,CanBk,pr — ® — 

do Mallard, pr — @ — 

Tame, do 1 .50 @2 00 

Teal, ^ doz.... — @ — 

Geese, wild, pair. — ® — 

Tame, ^ pair.. 3 00 @4 00 

Snipe, ^ doz — ® — 

Quail, per dozen — @ — 

Prairie Ch'k's,ea — @ -- 

Pigeons, dom. dz — ®4 00 

Wild, do — ®2 00 

Squabs - @4 50 

Hares, each ... 37 'j® 50 

Rabbits, tame, pr 75 ®1 00 

Wild, do, %* dz.2 00 @ - 

Squirrels do 10 ® 16 

Beet, tend, ¥ Il>- ' ©20 

Corned, ^ lb.. 6 (ffl 8 

Smoked,^ lb.. — ® 15 

PorterHouseSt'k — ® '20 

Sirloin do 12 ® 15 

Round do 8 ® 10 

Pork, rib, etc., lb — @ 15 

Chops, do, # lb 15 O — 

Veal, %* lb 10 ® 15 

Cutlet, do I2K<3 15 

Mutton-chops,* 12 ® 15 

LegMuttjn, $ lb 10 ® 12 

Lamb, 1 lb 10 @ 15 

Venison — ® — 

Tongues, beef, . . 75 ® — 

do, do, smoked — (01 00 

Tongues, pig, lb 10 ® — 

Bacon, Cal., ^ lb - @ 18 

Hams, Cal, 1j« B). 16 @ — 

Hams, Cross' s c — ® — 

Choice D'ffield 18 a> — 

Whittaker's.. 18 a '20 



- ® 15 
12;^® 15 

- ® 10 

- ® 6 
18 

® 36 

m 16 



10 



'0) 15 

26 ® 30 

— (O) 10 

12'ia — 



8 ® 



Flounder^ lb. 
Salmon, % lb... 

Smoked 

Pickled. ■» lb. 

do Spr'gp'kl'd 15 ■a 

Salmon bellies 30 ® 
Rock Cod, ^ lb.. — 
Cod Fish, dry, lb 8 

do fresh — 

Perch, s water, lb 

Fresh water, lb 
Lake Big, 'frout* 
Smelts, large ^B) 
Small Smelts.. . . 
Herring, Sm'kd. 

do fresh 

Pilchards,^ lb.. 
Tomcod, jf* lb.... 
Terrapin, %* doz. — (46 00 
Mackerel, p'k.ea l2>i® — 

Fresh, do lb ... — (o) 
SeaBass, !|» lb... - " 

Halibut 50 

Sturgeon, ^ lb.. — ® 
Oysters, |* IOO...I 00 ® 

Chesp. %* doz.. 60 O 

Clams ^100 — (3 

Mussels do - 

Turbot - 

Crabs Tt* doz....l UO „ 

do Soft Shell. 35 ® 

Shrimps 10 (g) 

Sardines 10 ® 

Anchovies 8 ® 10 

Soles 26 (Ol 25 

Vouiig'frout.bayl 00 ®1 60 
Young Salino:i.,l 61 ®2 00 
Salmon Trout eal 00 (fl)i 50 

Skate, each 10 ® 30 

Whitebait,'}* lb. ' " 

Crawfish ^ lb . . 
Green Turtle,. . 

do 1* lb 



® 20 
75 
5 



50 

(ai 25 



I& 



40 



@ 15 



® 15 
® lo 



a 



FRUITS. VEGETABLES. ETC. 

Apples are retailing at 5(g8c Grapes are more plenty, and 
now are held at 16®20c ^ lb. Canteleups and Watermel- 
ons sell at .50®7-5c each. Black Cherries are sold at retail 
for 3t'c ^ lb. Vegetables ore plenty, with few variations 111 
price. Horseradish is out of market at present. Fresh 
Pickles sell at 4®5c 

CauliUower. t . . 10 i;i8 15 
abbage, per lb. 



16 ® 20 

SO SI W 

.5(1 m 75 

60 @ 76 

16 ® 20 

- ® - 

- m 25 

16 ® 20 

.50 (0/ 76 

- (all 00 
60 @ 60 

lO m '20 



Lady Apples %* lb- (01 

Apples, pr lb 5 ® 

Pears, per lb 6 ® 

Apricots, lb 8 (ol 

Peaches, lb 8 @ 

Plums liJagj 

PineApples.each 75 (OJl 00 

Crab Apples — ® — 

Grapes 

Bananas, ^ doz. 

Canteleups .5(1 & 

Watermelons... 
Blackberries 

do wild 

Oal. Walnuts, lb. 
Green Almonds. 
Cranber'es. Or,,g 

do Eastern 
Huckleberries.. 
Strawberries, lb 
Chili St.ra'berries 40 (ai 50 
Raspberries, lb.. \2% ^ 16 
Gooseberries*.-. 5 
Currants 6 

do Black — 

Cherries, |i "b.. 
Nectarines.. . 
Oranges,^* doz, 

(.Juincen 

Lemons 

Limes, per doz 

Figs.dried Cal. • W-i® 25 

Figs, fresh '20 ® 26 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 26 ® 3.5 
Asparagus, lb.* 
Artichokes, doz. 

do .leru.salem. 

Beets, |« doz '20 ® 

Potatoes, * lb 2 ® o 

Potatoes, sweet,' — ® — 
Broccoli, each.. 10 (o) 15 



8 

8 jOvsteiPlaut,bcli - (« 

12 '2 Carrots, H doz. .. '20 M — 

■' Celery, "Sdz 75 (g» - 

Cucumbers, doz. 16 ® 20 

Tomatoes, ^ lb.. 5 ® (i 

Green Peas 3 (^ .5 

.String Beans 4 ® 10 

Egg Plant, lb.... 15 ® 20 

Cress, ^ doz bun 20 ® — 

Onions 3 @ .6 

Turnips, ^ doz 
bunches . 



Garlic V lb 



Green Corn, doz. 20 ® 30 



Lettuce, |4doz. 
Mint, f. lb. 



10 



® 8 
■ ' 8 
30 
■S 30 



— (5> 
30 ®1 00 

- ® - 
,60 all 00 
26 (gl — 



10 ® 12'.^ 
25 ja '35 

6 & 



20 ® 25 
Brussels Sprouts — (.oi ~ 



Eschalots.. 



20 



Dried Herbs, doz 25 (<v 



8 (<# 10 



Mushrooms,!^ lb 
Horse radish,lj*Ib 
Okra, dried, '^ lb 
do frush, V, lb 
Pumpkins, I* lb. 
Parsnips, uoz — 16 ® 

Parsley 16 

Pickle8,fr8h.%ilb 4 
Radishes, doz.. 

Sawe ■„■ • 

Summer Squash 

Marrowfat, do 

Hubbard, do 
Dry Lima, sh. . 
Spmage, v> bskt. 25 ® 

Rhubarb 4 ® 

Green Chilies. . 15 

Dry do '15 

Butter Beans ... 10 
Italian Chestnuts 




RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 

Wednesday m., July 15, 
Butter,Oal.cli'ioe 27>i® 36 Oan'dOyster8.dz.2 o" 
docomnion... ri'-i® 27li Svruo,S F.Gol'n. 35 



Choeso, i.'al.. lb.. 15 (g) 19 
Lard. Cal.. B).,.. 12'!.(a) 15 
Flour, ei.fam. bl 5 76 (a6 00 

Corn .Vital, lb 2*4® ^Xi 

Sugar, wo. orsh'd — 

do lt.brown,lb 7 
Oort'ee.Sbarboro's 

family gr'nd, lb — 
Cotlee, green, lb.. 24 
Tea, fine blk, .60, 65, 76 
Tea,fiQStJap,.55,76, 90 
Candles, Admant'en 
Soap, Cal., D) 



Dried Apples. 
Dr'd Gur.Prunes 15 
Dr'd Kigs, Oal... 9 

Dr'd Peaches 10 

Oils. Kerosene .. 30 

Wines. Old Port 3 .50 

do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 

do Cal .dz.bot 8 00 

Whisky,O.B,gal.3 60 

Fr. Brandy 4 00 

Rice, lb 10 

Yeast Powders, dz.l I 



1874. 

m 50 
(01 40 
@ 10 

n 17 

(81 10 
® 12 

® 35 

;g)5 00 

(g)l 26 
®4 .50 
(gi.5 00 
®I0 00 

J2 0«^ 



Per lb t Per dozen. 1 Per gallon 



46 






[July i8, 1874 



o 

M 

Eh 
Eh 







o 

&^ 

iz; 

Eh 

< 



^V^EED. 



THE BEST 



W^EED 



IMPROVED SEWING MACHINE. 




SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS WITH THE ORDER THROUGH MR. I. G. GARDNER, AGENT OF THE STATE GRANGE. 

THE MANUFACTURING INTERESTS ARE IDENTICAL WITH THOSE OF THE PEOPLE. 

-T H E- 



All purchaser have the privilege of returning their machines at any time within thirty days and having their money refunded if the machine should not prove in 
every way as recommended, provided only that thev will first notify us of any tanlt tney may find and give us an opportunity to set them right by explaining the cause 
of the difficulty. 



A. MEAD & CO., General Agents, 



No. 152 New Montgomery Street, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



O 

M 

N 

t?d 

h3 

W 

o 

W 

o 

d 
w 

l> 

M 

!z| 
O 

d 



22v7-l«m-4m 



GEO. H. TAY & CO., 
614, 616 and 618 Battery St., S. F., 

OFF£B FOK SAX.E 

IRON PIPE, 

ULA.CIC and Gil^X^VA-lVIZEO. 

PUMPS— LIFT AND FORCE. 

RUBBER HOSE, ETC 

STOVES and ieA.IVO£:S, 

THE BICHMOND RANGE, 

THE HENRT CLAY, 

THE EUPIBB CITY, 

THE ALVABADO. 

THE MONITOR, -wroaght Iron body, cast iron top 
and hearth, will cook for 50 to 600 men; an excellent 
stove for large ranchea during harvesting season. 

AND A OKEAT VAKIETT OF 

COOKING STOVES AND RANGES, FARMERS' 
BOILERS AND CALDRON KETTLES. 

Ralph's Patent Oneida Cheese Vats. 

DAIKYMEN'S GOODS, 

MILK PAILS, PANS, CHEESE HOOPS, ETC. 

BA.BBIT raiETA-ILi. 

Wire for Fencing and Baling. 

AI-SO, METALS. HOUSE FURNI8HINQ HARDWARE 

JAPANNED GOODS, ETC., ETC. 

22TT-3m 




LOOK.! 

ALBERT E. BURBANK, Impor- 
ter and Brufder of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. Also Eggs 
for hatching from the flneft of im- 
ported stock. Eggs and Fowls at 
reduced prices. Send for Price 
List. 

ALBERT E. BURBANK, 
l?8-3ai 43 Ji 44 Cal. Market, 8.F. 



THE BEST IS THE CHEAPEST. 




The S e '%v i n e M. a. c h i n e 

— FOR THE — 

GRANGERS. 

NO COMBINATION! NO MONOPOLY! 



S; 



The New laprored FLtlREKCr, 



THREE SIZES— Warranted to Clean from 
60 to 200 Bushels per Hour, Perfectly. 

PBICES-$40. $50 AND $75. 

The Nash k Cutis' Machine is the only machine that 
has taken the First Premium at California State Fairs 
in 1870, 1871. 1872 and 1873. 

NHsh k Cutts' Machine will thoroughly separate 
Mustard Seed, Cheat, Barley, Oats, Cracked Wheat, etc., 
from Wheat in a rapid and satisfactory manner. 

No zinc sieves used In the Nash k Cutts' Grain Sepa- 
rator and Fan Mill; therefore we can 
Clean Faster, Better, and with Less Work 
and Troable, 
Than any other machine now in use. 
The Nash k Cutts' machine is the only one that will 
clean Alfalfa Seed. All we ask of any one in want of 
a Grain Separator is to give the Nash & Cutts' a trial. 
EVERY MACHINE FULLY WARRANTED. 
The Nash k Cutts' Machine Is for sale by all Agri- 
cultural Implement Dealers In California. 
For further particulars addr ess 

NASH, UILLEB & CO., 

No. 264 K street. Sacramento, Oal. 
Only manufacturers of the Nash & Cutis' Grain Sepa- 
rator for the Pacific Coast. Iv8-3m 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OP EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHAItD, ITALIAN RYE, 
BED TOP, TIMOTHY, MESQUIT, SWEliT VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
RED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TliEE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA GIGAN- 
TEA. PINI8 INSIONIS, Etc. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 



(Successor to E. E. Moore) . 
435 WaehlDgtoD St., San Francisco. 'i2v7-ly 



ide Feed and Back Feed. 

Agrenry established on the Pacific 
Const In 1S6«. The llf;hto«t rnn- 
iiiiitf. inoHt wimple, nii<i inont eMwily 
0|M-rnt<-d Scwinif IMnchine In the 
-MHi-kt't. Alw ays lu order and iK-acly 
lor Mork. If there in n Flon-uce 
Sewin;; Mnehine within one thou- 
sand uilleM or San rriinelxeo not 
uorkinKT well I nill Bx it Mlihmit 
an.v ex|>enHe to the owner. .SauineJ 
Hill, A^ent, 19 Kew Montironaery 
^ Street, Urand Hotel BuildiUK, 

Man Francisco. 

// 



jilr. I. O. Gardner, Stnto ARent for the California 
Granges, is authorized to make liberal terms to all 
Grangers who purchase the FLORENCE. No combina- 
tion against favoring the Grangers has ever been Joined 
by Florence Agents. 



18v7.3m 



SAMTTEL EXLL, Qeneral Age 



at. 



I-.EA. «jfc I»ERIIII*8» 



-CELEBRATED- 



Worcestershire Sauce. 



»16 California Street, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 





Declared by Connois- 
seurs to be the only good 
SAUCE. 

Caution Against Fraud. 

The success of this most 
delicious and unrivalled 
Condiment having caused certain dealers to 
apply the name of '• Worcestershire Sauce" 
to their own inferior compounds, the pub- 
ic is hereby Informed that the only way 
til Bccure the genuine is to ask for LEA jt 
PEURINS' SAUCE, and see that their names 
are upon the wrapper, labels, stopper and 

bottle. 

Home of the foreign markets haying been 
supplied with a spurious Worcestershire 
Sauce, upon the wrapper and labels of which the names 
of Lea & Perrins have been forged, L. ft P. give notice 
that they have fiuTiiehed their correspondents with 
power of attorney to. take Instant proceedings against 
manufacturers aud vendors of such, or any other imi- 
tations by which their right may be Infringed. 

Ask for LEA & PERKINS' Sauce, and see name on 
wrapper, label, bottle and stopper. 

Wholesale and for export by the Proprietors, Worces- 
ter; Cros.se ti Blackwell, London, &c., kc, and by 
Grocers and Oilmen universally. 
Iv8-ly 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 

TO IlAIflE UlROE CROPS 

Y O XJ M TJ S 1? X IRTt J. G A.rr El, 

To irrigate sacoeBtfally, yon mnttt ha /a the power that 
does not givo out when the wind fails. 



Laufkotter Bios. & Ghurohman's Horse-Power, 




[Patented Febrpaby 18th, 1^2.1 
Never fails to supply more water than four «r five Wind- 
millij, even supposing voti had all the wind yoa want. It is 
uIho suitable for running I'ght machinery, such as Bailey 
Crackers. Com Shc-Uer.-*. Kannink' Mills. Grain Separators, 
or. for Sawing Wood. They are never failing, cannot c«t 
out of order, easily worked, substantial, and always give 
satisfaction wherever they have been used. One hor'-e caa 
easily work two 6-inch pumps, with a continuous Itow of 
water. Force Pumps, ir.-m 3.000 to lO.tOO ^'allons per hour. 

"WINDMILLS of all kinds nianutaotured to order. Wellt 
Bored, Windmills and Ilorse-f'owers sot in any part of th« 
State, and repairing of all kinds done. 

Manufactured and for sale by 

IiAT7FKOTTEK BBOS.. 

v7-tm-3m Oor. J and 10th 8ts., Baomm^nto. 



Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

Stoves and Metals. Tlnnen' Goods. Tor U and Machines. 
Ill and lU Oaltfornia* 17 and 19 Davis atreeU, Sau Fran- 
cisco, and 17tl J itreet, Hacrawento. 



DAIRY PRODUCE 

I>IC P A-RTItfEIVT 

or mi 

CAUFORNIA STATE GRANGE, 

r». OF ir., 

414 &416 Sansome St., Cor. Commeroial, 

BAN FR.1NCIS00, CALIFOEMU. 

J. H. HEGLER, Manager. 



We are now prepared to handle and dlapon of all 

Dairy Produce, Eggs and Poultry. 

This house Is under the Immediate control of the 
California State Orange: the Bniines* Manager a thor- 
oughly practical farmer and dairyman, Hatter of Bodega 
Orange and General Deputy for California for the orga- 
nlzation of Oranges in any pai*t of California. Special 
rates to members of the Order; though any one may 
sell through our houae and avail himself of our 
mode of doinK business. 

In shipments give plainly the name and P. O. address. 
Any persons wishing legitimate Information concerning 
our buainess should write to the hoiue, and an cau- 
tioned against accepting for facta many rumors now 
current. All sales guaranteed. Ja.11-tf 

CHINESE EMPLOVMENT OOUPANT. 

We are prepared to famish at abort ootioe, Domeetio 
ServautB. Hotel Conks, Laundrymen. Wait<*ra, Co'.urooQ 
Labi>r<*r.s. Fiirm Hands, iiardeners. Mechanics, Factory 
Uaods, Wood Cboppera, eto. special aitentiou gifeu to 
(urniahing Domi-siic Servants. 

PIERCK i CO., «Z1 Sacrameoto St., 

UvT-Sm bat. Mout^mery aud Kearny Bta.. 8. i*, 



July i8, 1074.] 




f.C^ILMOI\E 

IMPORTE^j BREEDER 




STJJLTAJV SECOND. 

See description in Pacific Kural Press January 4^1873. 
Address 



eow 



N. GILMORE, 
El Dorado, El Dorado County, Cal. 




300 Head Pure Blooded French Merino 
Rams and Ewes, 

For sale by MRS. EOBEBT BLACOW, of Oeatreville, 
Alameda County, Oal., near Niles Station, on the West- 
ern and Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Kambouillet. 

And are equal, if not superior, to any of this breed 
in size and quality of wool, and are proved to be the 
heaviest shearers in the woild. 12v6-3m 

B. W. Owens, San Francisco. | E. Moobe, Stockton, Cal. 




fe'ijp 



OWENS &> M:OOIfcE, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

DEiLEKS IN 

WOOL, HIDES, PELTS AND GRAIN. 

Office— 405 Pront street, S. F. 14v7-3m 





We respectfully invite the attention of wool growers 
to our fine stock of Cotswool Sheep and Angora Goats. 
We have 200 head of Pure Breed Angoras to select from; 
we have some of the finest Goats in America; we 
guarantee everything we sell to be as represented; our 
prices are as low as any in America for the same grade 
of stock. Call and see, or address, 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, 

13v7-eow-tf Watsonville, Cal. 



Thoroughbred Jersey Bull Calves for Sale. 



I have now on hand twelve Thoroughbred Jersey 
Bull Calves, bred by me from my last importation to 
California, and will sell them cheaper than they could 
be brought from the East. 

A. MAILLIARD, 



17v7-3m 



San Bafael, Marin Co., Cal. 



FOR THE HARVEST OF 1874. 
^^ 'PrTgINAL^^iRELI ABLE 



STA]vr>A.itr> SOA.I* co.'s^ 

CARBOLIC SOAP 

FOB 

SHEEP WASH! 



A.. G. SXOIVESIFER, 

BREEDER OF 

Pure Blooded French Merino Sheep, 

Has for sale a choice lot of Rams and Ewes, on the 
Oristimba Ranch, six miles west of Hill's Ferry, Stanis- 
laus Connty, Cal. 22v7-3m 



Cotswold Bucks For Sale. 



About three hundred Bucks, half and three-quarter 
bred Cotswold, and a few Thoroughbreds, for sale at 
Low Prices. 

REFERENCES: 
1400DY & PARISH, San Francisco. 
SHIPFEE, McKEE & CO., Stockton. 

Orders left with the latter firm will receive prompt 
attention. 



i2v7-4t 



A. VROMAN, 

Jenny Lind, Calaveras Co., Cal. 



JERSEY OATTLE. 

A few head of very choice Jersey Cows— Heifers and 
and BnU OalTes- for gale. Apply to 
levT-Sm R a. SNEATH, Menlo Park. 




COMPOSITION— OLEIC ACID, NICOTINE, 
SULPHUR, CARBOLIC ACID & ALKALI. 

It destroyes and removes Scab, Ticks, Fleas, Mange, 
Scratches, Insects on Plants and Trees, Foot.Rot, etc., 
etc. Being strongly impregnated with CARBOLIC 
ACID, it is one of the best disinfectants known. Its 
healing, cleansing and disinfecting qualities are unsur- 



The STANDARD SOAP COMPANY also manufactures 
Laundry Soap, Family Soap, Hard Soap, Soft Soap, 
Marine Soap, Kane's Condensed Soap, Washing Powder, 
Washing Fluid, Liquid Laundry Blueing, Harness Soap, 
Thomas' Cool Water Bleaching Soap, Thomas' Patent 
Glycerine Soap, Mottled and White Castile Soap, Silica- 
ted Saponia, Bay Rum, Florida Water, Hair Oils, Ex- 
tracts, Perfumes, Colognes, Cosmetics, etc., etc. 
204, 206 and 208 Sacramento Street, 

16v7-3m SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



NOTICE TO FARMERS. 
Sometliiiifi: Entirely IVe>Y- 

HOME SEWING MACHINE. 

This machine is manufacttu:ed after an experience of 
twenty years. It contains within itself every known 
improvement. It is the best because the simplest, 
easiest to understand and by lar the lightest to 
run, and the equitable adjustment of all lis parts makes 
it the most durable Machine in the market. Take 
the INTERESTED STATEMENTS OF NONE, but 

exa-imcine: for your»5e:IjF. 

SEND FOR A CIRCULAR. 
It uses a Shuttle, Straight Needle, Two 
Threads, and makes a stitch alike on both sides. 

E. W. HAINES, Agent, 
17 New Montgomery St., Grand HotelBuild'g, S. F. 

We also continue to sell another machine, the 

HOME SHUTTLE SEWING MACHINE. 
Price, ^4=5. 
Mme. Demorest's Reliable Paper Cut Pat- 
terns. Send for a Catalogue. 15v7-eow-()ra 



THE OELEBKATED NEW DKAW-FEED 

Wheeler & Wilson 

SERVING MA-CmiVES 

Are withou exception the most desirable for family 
use. They are the LIQHTE81' RUNNING Machine 
in the market, and sew'from the thinest to the 
thickest material with equal facility. 
These machines have, since their invention, stood at 
the head of the list in public favor, and the recent im- 
provements to them have increased their supeiiority 
still more. Buy no Sewing Machine until you have 
tried these. 

WHEELER k WILSON MANF'G CO. 

E. W. HARRAIi, Agent, 

20v7-<m-16p 427 Montgomery street, S. P. 




?1^5s^'» 







(^Hoadley Engines, Russell End-Shake Thresh 
ers, Pitts' Powers, Treadwell's Single-Gear Head, 
ers, Whitewater 'Wagons, etc., etc. Send (or our II- 
ustrated Price List, to Tbkadwell & Co., San Francisco. 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




8. 0. BOWLBI 



Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired In the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. SufBcient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 
Uy2-3m MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton. Cal. 



THE 



CELEBRATED MITCHELL WAGON 




^MiLLS& Evans 

508 IVIftRKET ST."" 

1.5T"-3m 



WATERHOUSE & LESTER, 



WHALE OIL WOAI?, 

—FOR— 

ii(>.struction of Bugs on Plants, Etc. 

PHCENIX OIL WORKS. 

617 Front street SAN FRANCISCO, 

air7-lai 



lUPOETEBS OF 

WAGON AND CARRIAGE MATERIAL, 

BODIES, OAEEIAaE PAET3, 
Wheels, Axles, Springs & Carriage Hardware 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE PACIFIC COAST FOR 

Clarke's Adjustable Phaeton Sunshades. 

B^" Send for price list. 

ALSO AGENTS FOR 

"Woolsey's Patent Wlieels, 

The best and handsomest Wheel made, having great 
strength and a fine finish. There is no other wheel 
that has the metallic-shouldered band; and it can be 
repaired as easily as the common wood wheel. 
USf Send for illustrated circular. Adddresg 

WATERHOUSE & LESTER, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



122 and 124 Market street, and 1 
19 and 21 California street,) 
17, 19 and 21 Seventh street, - - SACRAMENTO. 

21v7-3m 

BYJaOJV JACltSOIV, 

MANtlFACTnBER OF 

Patent Self- Feeder & Elevator Attachment 

For Separators, at the Yolo Planing Mill and Ma. 
chine Shop, Woodland, Yolo County, Cal. 

This improvement was patented In 1867 and In 1870. 
For the past two years I have been Introducing it to the 
public with great success. It is pronounced by all that 
have tried it to bo the greatest labor saving invention 
of the age. No Threshor will be without it after wit- 
nessing its operation. It saves all the hard work of 
feeding and injury to health, and one-half the labor re- 
quired to supply the grain Iroin the stacks. It will pay 
,lor Itself in less than thirty days, besides doing better 
'work. For particulars send for circular; it gives all 
necf.asary information, besides the best plan for usin^ 
the Horse Forks ever adopted. Entire satisfaction 
guaranteed if properly used. 21v7-!lm 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importers and BfanuAicturers 

—OF— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Merchant's Exchange, 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO 



Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to our fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles S. Coffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfield & JackSon, Rahway, New Jersey, 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 

And the first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double F"r- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

C. Graham, New York; J. B. Hill, Concord; Pittkln 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

24v6-3m San Francisco. 

H . C 8 H A. l?r , 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

Agricultural Implements, 

201 and 203 El Dorado St., Sign of "Webster Bros." 
General Agent for the San Joaquin Valley for the 
Vibrator Threshers, Studebaker Farm Wagons 
and Improved Single Geared Headers. 
The Baxter & Webster Single Gear Headers are built 
only at my establishment. Address, H. C. SHAW, 
14v7-3m Box 95. Stockton, Oal. 



Ryder's American Fruit Drier. 




This DRIER Is a perfect success in the East, and will 
be on this Coast when its merits are known. Its cheap- 
ness brings it within the means of every Fruit Grower. 
The uniformity and perfection of its work challenge 
comparison. The principle claimed for this Drier 
(and violated in all other Driers in use) , is, that no 
moisture shall come in contact with the fruit after the 
cut surfaces are once sealed by the heat, to open the 
cells and allow the aroma and fine qualities of the fruit to 
escape, which makes it undeniably the most perfect, as 
it is the most simple mechanical niethoJ fc* cureing 
Fruits, Vegetables, Meats and Grains ever invented. 
This Drier can make Raisins and the most beautiful 
crystalized fruit confection, equal to any imported. 
Can any other Drier do this? The fruit cured on this 
Drier last season, in this State, took the premium at 
the State Fair. Our Factory Drier will cure 60 bushels 
of peaches in a day. Send for Circulars. Farm, County 
and State Rights, and Driers with Heaters, sold by 

J. M. KEEIjER, General A^ent, 

30fl California street, San Francisco 

THE CELEBRATED 




Now munufactured in the East, in the most perfeo 
mauncr. Ouarauteed In every particular, surpusslng 
any other in the market, for Fiirni, Ship, Irrigating 
and Mining purposes. Our large Force, properly 
mounted, makes a most (fffectite Fire Engine. 

KIPP'S UPRIGHT P;NGINE, the cheapest and best 
we couUi find in the EiiHt. 

CHASE PIPE CUTTING AND THEEADINO MA. 
CHINE, a most perfect hand or power machine. One 
boy against two men with any other in use. Has the 
highest testimonials. It ruts a thread and makes nip- 
ples for all sizes of pipes from !,; to 2 inches, and only 
$150. Also, Metal Ornamental Goods, Fountains, 
Vases, Statuary, etc. Send for Circulars, 

J. M. KEELER & CO.. 
Comniisston and Forwarding Merchants. 

Agents for Eastern Manufacturers, 306 OalifOTDla 
street, San Francisco. 

Magnetic Spring House at Vine Hill, 

EIGHT MILES FROM SANTA CRUZ, ON THE SAN 
JOSE ROAD. 

The above house has been built for the benefit of 
Invalids, Hunters, Pleiisure Seekers and those seeking 
recreation generally. The spring water is heavily 
charged with magnetism, charging knives at tlnies 
HO as to pick up a needle. Water has affected wonder- 
ful cures in Neuralgia, Kidney Disease and afl'cctious of 
the optic nerve. A splendid ylow of Monterey Bay 
can bo had from the house. Guest • giving me a call 
can rely upon it that no pains will be spared to make 
their stay an agreeable one. Board, $2 a day or $10 a 
weak. Hot and cold baths, 26c each. 

26v7-3m 0. G. FI9K, Proprietor. 



48 



mBM, 



[July i8, 1874 



A-gency for the Decker and. Eraerson Pianos. 



Matchless in Tone 
y-i- and Finish. 

SEND FOR 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

— ANP — 

Artists' Testlrrvonlals. 



THE KING OF PIANOS IS 




THE ''DECKER." 




THE ONLY 

FIRST-CLASS PIANO 
SOLD 

—AT A— 

LOW PRICE. 



^300 



Z^OXXXaDBfLy GlEX^A.tSnSl dB3 OO., Groxxox*^;! .^^.^oxxts. 



633 CLAY STREET, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



TREADWELL & CO. | 

We certify that the partnership of Treaiiwell k Co., 
doing boslnesa in San Francisco, California, Is composod 
of Leonard L. Treadwell and James F. Place, who both 
reside in the city and county of San Francisco, and 
William O. U. Berry, who resides in Oakland, Almeda 
county, California. 

San Francisco, Cal., May 26th, 1874. 

Leon-ahd L. Tkeadweix, 

Ja". F. PtACE, 

Wm. O. M. Berbt. 
STATE OF CALIFOKNIA, 1 

Crrr and ConNTT of San Fbancmco. ( 

On this May 27th, 1871, before me Henry 0. Blake, a 
Notary Public, In and for said city and county, person- 
ally appeared Leonard L. Treadwell, James F. Place 
and William 0. M. Berry, known to me to be the per- 
sons whose names are subscribed to the within instru- 
ment, and acknowledged to me that they executed the 
same. 

In witneBS whereof, I have hereunto set my band 
and atfixed my official seal, the day and year in this 
certificate first above written. 

HENEY C. BLAKE, Notary Public. 
FiledMay 1st, 1874. 

WM. HARNEY, County Clerk, 
jy4-4w By 8. C. ELLIS, Deputy. 

PACIFIC POTTERY, 

Depot— No. 3 California St., Ban Francisco. 

N. CLARK & CO. 

Manufacturers of 

EARTHEN AND STONEWARE, 




WATEB AND SEWEEAGE PIPE. 



Our Vitrified Iron Stone Pipe has been thoroughly 
tested on private estates and public works, and its mer- 
rlts ate fully endorsed by the leading Architects of 
the State. 



B. 



0"WE1VS^, -A-gent. 

m9-bp-3m 



THE .A.11.0E1N- 

Fruit Preserving Company 

OF CAI.IFOKXIA, 

Is now prepared to sell rights and furnish the necessary 
machinery for using the "ALDEN PROCESS," ac- 
knowledged to be the best method known for 
preserving Fruits, Vegetables, Meats, etc. 

For full particulars call at the company's 

Office— Room 5, 402 Montgomery St., S. F. 

G. W. DEITZLER, President. 
^ W. M. WHERRY, Vice President. 
FRANK PYLE, Sec'y and Sup't. 
BANK OF CALIFORNIA, Treasurer. 



CHBAP HOBSE CORN-PLAXTEB. 

Inventor's Description. — I am aware that a quadruped has heretofore been used in combination with an 
agricultural implement, and consequently I do not claim such a combination broadly; but what I claim, and 
desire to secure by Letters Patent, is — 

1. The planters B B, in combination with the beast A, constructed and operated as described. 

2. The bands 1 1, and pulley c c, in combination with bind legs of a cheap-horse A, to operate the planters 
and prevent kicking, substantially as set forth. 

3. I claim the cheap-horse A, clipped, as shown, in combination with a corpulent driver D, to prevent his 
traveling too fast, as described. 

4. I claim the guide 0, in combination with the " tail of a cheap-horse," when said tail is put on in a verti- 
cal position, as shown and described. 

5. In a cheap-horse corn-planter I claim the tail b, when arranged vertically, to frighten the crows, a a, as 
set forth. 

6. I claim the worms (not shown) in combination with the "early birds" a a, for the purpose set forth. 
The yellow dog, with few friends, being an old device and somewhat at a discount in these days, we do not 

let anyOiing on him, but merely throw him in to accompany the driver D, to give general effect to the patent alter 
it is granted . 

The above is dedicated to despairing inventors. It goes to prove that the field of invention has not yet been 
{ exhausted. We have not bad the pleasure of reading the specification of the inventor, but we con easily con- 
ceive of the beantiful pen pictures which its writer might indulge in. The cheap horse made useful, the neat 
mechanism and its splendid adaptability to the construction of the horse. The advantage of "arranging'' 
the tall " vertically." The benefit of the exercise upon the •■ corpulent driver," and to end the whole, a disser- 
tation upon the "worms" and the " early birds," not to say anything of the "yellow dog." These points of 
advantage ought to satisfy the mechanical appetite of even a cheap Patent Agent ; but jesting aside, the above 
comical representation is but little inferior to many inventions which have been made the subjects of letters 
patent, as a glance through the Patent Reports will show. If any inventors are able to improve upon the above 
invention we will be most happy to send them one of our Patent Circulars with full instructions " How to 
apply for a patent." — Mining and Scientific Press, S. F. 



IMPROVE YOUR POULTRY. 

It Oosta No Uore to Keep Oood Fowls than 
Poor Ones 1 




OAKLAND PUULTRY YARDS, 



COK. 16TH AND CASTRO STREETS, OAKLAND, OAL. 

A few trios of imported Dark Brahmaa, of the cele- 
brated Black Prince strain, for sale at tSO per trio. 
Also, one trio imported Golden Polish, at $30. 

For further information send stamp for niTistrated 
Circular, containing a full description of all the best 
known and most profitable Fowls in the world, to 
GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

P. 0. Box 659, Ban Francisco. 
9»7tf 



POISON ! 

WAKELEES 



POISON ! 
PATENTED 



T^SS^ I Slg'g^s ! 1S,ff(C» ! 



For hatching, from reliable breeding stock 

one of the oldest and best yards of pure 

bred poultry in the United States. 



m: 



F A L L O TV =r 




W. M, BItANDON. 



JACOB W. HOOEBB 



, K. ovnaamas. 



B. a. BALSTON. 



1858. 1R73. 

HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast corner of Washing 
ton, San Francisco. 

Our buslnsss being exclusively Commission, we havr 

o interests that will conflict with those of the prodnoei 

4TM-lr 



MOUNT DIABLO VINEYARD— FOR SALE. 

Consists of 40 acres; can make 11,000 gallons of 
wine this year. Climate mild. Situated at the northern 
base of Mount Diablo. Good Brandy Distillery; Wine 
Barrels; Wine Press; Large Concrete Wine Cellar. Good 
Spring of liviug water handy. Good reasons given for 
selling. Age of Vines from eight to ten years. A choice 
variety of Vines. A large quantity of fine grape land 
can be bought adjoining the above. The whole to be 
sold at a great bargain. Apply to 

B. F. CLAYTON. San Jose. 
Or C.J.CLAYTON, 

10V;-6m Clayton. Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANXEI. & CO., 
Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

4'il Pine street, between Montgomery and 1 

Ke«my. Sas Fbaboisoo. 

aiva-ly 



SEVENTH AND OAK 8TS., OAKLAND. 

Offers for sale Eggs from the following varieties of fowls: 
Xiig-ht and Dark Brahmas, 
Buff, Partridge and White Cochins, 
Spang-led. Oolden and Silver Polish, 
Spangled, Oolden and Silver Hamburgrs, 
Pure Whitefaced Black Spanish, 
Silkies, G-ame, Leghorns, White & Brown, 
Silver Gray Borkins and Houdans, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks, 
Bronze Turkeys, the largest in California 

Also, CHESTER COUNTY WHITE PIGS, CHINA PIGS. 

7v6-tf-16p2 

U. S. LIVE STOCK EXCHANGE, 

S. E. Cor. 5th & Bryant Sts. , 



^B. 



SAM FBAKCI8C0. 



m 



Fresh Milch Cows and Cattle 
Saddle, Work and Carriage Horses; Thoroughbred 
DurhaniB and Devons; Pure Blooded Berksbiri' I'igs; 
Thoroughbred Cotswold, Southdown and French and 
Spanish Merino Sheep, sold on commission or bought 
on farm for cash. Address, DAWSON & BANCROFT. 
P. S. — Special rates to members of the Orange, 

A Beautiful Brass Mounted Pocket 

MICROSCOPE, said by a celebrated physician TO be 

I FULLY EQUAL IS POWEIl TO ONE HE PAID KIUUT HtrNDBEO 

coiX-Uts ($800) FOB. Just the thing to look at mites on 
trees, shrubs, grain, or on sheep and calves. A look 
through it will astonish you. Every Granger should have 
one. Sent free to any address on receipt of ($1) one dol- 
lar green backs or postage stamps. Address, CHAS. P. 
KIMBALL, 513 Hayes street. Son Francisco, California. 
3v28-lm 

Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Kruit.s: also for tlie sale of Butter, Eggs, 
l.'heeao, Hop^. tiroen and Dried Fruit-*, etc.. 7.^ Warren 
street. New York. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank. N. Y. ; Ellwanirer A Barrv, 
Rochester. N. Y. ; C. W. Rcod. Sacramenlo, Cal.; A. 
Lusk <!t Co., Pacific Fruit Markc t, San Francisco, Cal. 
3v8-ly 



BRANDON & ROGERS, 

California Land Agency, 

110 KEARNY STREET, HAN FRANCISCO, 

Hay and sell nnimprnved lands, farms and city property 
throughout the Slate of California. Farms to exchange 
lor city property and city preperty for farms. Eastern 
property to exchange for California property. Tracts 
fayo' ably located, furnished fur Colonies. A large list of 
property to select Irom. Money invested for other iiarties 
ON tttlvantageous terras. Long experience in ihe bu.-iness 
and exicQsiTc acquaintance in California ojid the Eastern 
States, enable ns to efTect speedy and satisfactory soles and 
exchanges. 2Vrli-ly-16p 



SEEDSMAN, 

IMPORTEB AND DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

VEGETABLE, FLOWER, FIELD, FRUIT 
A-ud Tree See<l«i, 

GAEDEN TOOLS, TEEES, PLANTS, Etc. 

No. 317 Washinglion Street, San Francisco, 

Between Battery and Front. 



Granulated Squirrel Exterminator. 

A NEW AND MOST DESTRUCTIVE POISON FOR 
THE WORST PEST OF CALIFORNIA. 

For years the farmers of the Pacific Coast have been 
spending money in experimenting to find a safe, cheap 
and eflicient way of ridding their grain-fields of their 
worst enemy, the SQUiBKELe, which destroy Millions of 
Dollars' worth of grain every year; and unless a strong 
and combined effort is made to kill them off, they will 
become more numerous every year. 

Wakelee's Granulated Squirrel Exterminator 

Is Just the thing the farmers of California have been 
looking for. It is sure death . One or two grains of 
It will kill a Squirrel so quick that if it is five feet 
from his hole it dies before it gets there. The Poison 
is put up DKY and in granular form, and easily han- 
dled; in one pound tins, at $1 per pound. It rocs a 
great way, as 10 to 16 grains of it are sufficient to 
place at each hole. Also successfully used for killing 
Ciuphars and Rats. It has been thoroughly tested in 
different parts of the country, and gave tiniversal satis- 
faction. It is kept and sold by druggists and dealers 
generally through the country. The following ore 
tome of my testimonials, viz. : 

Santa Clara, April ajth. luTi. 
H. P. WaS£LBE, Esq :— Your Squirrel Exterminator was 
used according to your directions, on my QfiUi farm with 
excellent lacoess, and in my estimation is Just the Uubc 
the farmers want to kill their Squirrels. 

J. R. Abquello. 

San LEAMDao, Cal., April M, 1874. 
H. P. Waeilke, Esq.— iJ'nr .SO: I have given your 
Squirrel Exterminator a lair trial and lind it to be an 
economical and very destructive pripanition, and I can 
safely recommend it to our farmers. '^ ours. 

J. M. ESTCDILLO. 

Douceertt Station, Alameda Co., Oal. 
Mb. H. p. Wakelee. San Francisco: I have used yoor 
Squirrel Poison and found it to be just what you claim for 
It. It Is sure death. Yours, C. M. Dodshibtt. 

H. p. "WAKSIiXE, Dmgr^t, 
Cor. Montgomery and Bush streets, 8. F, 



WOTICE. 



Fabmebs write for your paper, 



To Farmers and Grangers. 



LAIRD'S PATENT SEAMLESS BAG. 

WtA. IjAI»r» Si CO., Itfanulttcturors 

EliLIS READ, Arent. 
lUT7-3m B04 Oalirorala Street. 




Volume VIII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1874. 



[Number 4. 



A New Phase of Irrigation. 

In' fbe Valleys where irrigation has been most 
extensively introduced, a noticeable change has 
occurred in the atmosphere; greatly modifying 
the discomforts of the heattd term in those 
localities. The oppressive heat of midsummer 
in some of the most favored valleys in the 
State ban heretofore been an objection in the 
minds of many to locaticg there; but by a 
liberal supply of water in these localities, acid 
by the growth of grasses, fruit trees and other 
vegetation, that this irrigation has promoted, 
the summer atmospTiere has become much 
more bearable. In Kern coun- 
ty, especially, where probably 
more has been done in the 
matter of irrigation than in any 
other portion of the State, this 
climatic change is quite per- 
ceptible. Still more extensive 
schemes of irrigation are about 
to be inaugurated there; and 
with the probable increased 
improvement in the atmos- 
phere which this will produce, 
will add areatly to the attrac- 
tions of San Joaquin valley. 
The probability is that the 
irrigating enterprises of Cali- 
fornia will result in something 
more permanent than an in- 
crease of the crops to which it 
is applied. For the moisture 
that is thus artificially brovight 
to these dry, languishing places 
encourages permanent vegeta- 
tion there; and this vegetation 
in its turn promotes moisture 
and tempers the severity of the 
heat; thereby reducing the 
necessity of irrigation, and 
making these fruitful regions 
far more desirable as perma- 
nent homes. 

A Kern county exchange 
credits the growing alfalfa 
crop with aiding materially in 
modifying the heat and dry- 
ness of former suinmers. The 
increased acreage given to this 
crop in Kern county is quite 
extensive, and the breezes that 
come across these rich, green, 
almost matted fields, if they are 
not equal in their fragrance 
those that come from "Araby 
the blest" are good enough for 
"all practical purposes;" and 
if those who breathe this alfalfan breeze do not 
go into poetic ecstasies at its approach, they 
will at leust feel inclined to take off their hats 
to it respectfully, and even thankfully. 

That these climatic changes are being ef- 
fected by irrigation, satisfactory evidence 
proves, and science affords ample illustration 
of the mode by which it is done; but, while we 
are considering the climatic benefits derived 
from a limited system of irrigation, in an ex- 
tremely dry region, we would call the attention 
of those living in places surrounded with a 
damp atmosphere, to the danger of excessive 
irrigation. San Franciscins, especially, would 
do well to cousider whether their profuse irri- 
gation is not really injurious to the health of 
the city. When, to the cold fog which hangs 
about our dwellings morning aod evening, a 
copious watering is added to everything sur- 
rounding the bouse, a condition f the atmos- 
phere is produced which does not offer a safe 
retreat to persons afflicted with pulmonary 
diseases. It is believed that diseases of this 
class are on the increase in San Francisco ; and 
it is remarked that while some are coming here 
to escape consumption, others are leaving for 
the same prudential reasons. 

This artificial dampness is undoubtedly even 
worse than that which is caused by excessive 
rain; and if people possessing weak, or par- 
tially diseased lungs, can not safi-ly remain in 
an atmosphere naturally damp and chilly, it 
ie, we think, at a still greater risk that they 

gass their time in neighborhoods where the 
are earth, the grass, shrubs, walks and streets 
even, are very day, and in many cases twice a 
day, drenched with cold water that has not been 
properly prepared for this purpose by passing 



through the air that surrounds us. A delicate 
person would probibly incur less risk in going 
abroad on a regular damp day than on a dry 
one, when the warm, dusty streets and side- 
walks are intersperse I with crossings and other 
spaces that are as wet as they can be made, and 
that, too, with the coldost of water. 

Do we not use more water about our houses 
than accords with good health or even with 
comfort ? While our friends in other portions 
of the State are panting and languishing during 
midday, and in the morning and eveoiug hours 
are tempted into out-door strolling, and are 
justified in the use of any means for "cooling 
off," we are only comfortably warm at midday; 
rather preferring the sunny side of the street; 
while the semi-daily fogs drive uj indoors 



Mr. Wadsworth Demurs. 

The readers of the Pbess are hereby informed 
that Mr. Wad&worth has not entered a formal 
demurrer against the statement made in our last 
week's issue; but he entered our office on Tues- 
day of this week, his face beaming with the 
old-time smile, and exhibiting other manifesta- 
tions of improved health. The extremely dis- 
couraging statement in the Press of last week, 
in regard to the health of Mr. Wadsworth, was 
dissented to by some members of our office; 
still it was allowed to be put in print as the 
foreboding of one of his nearest and dearest 
friends. But the writer ate his words with a 




THE SHOKT-HORN COW, " LOTTAN 44TH. 



moruiog and evening, throwir.g a wet blanket 
over all out-door enjoyments. Is every house 
in the city, no matter what the condition of its 
inmates may be as to comfort and healthful- 
ness, to be drenched, with all its surroundings, 
just for "the fashion of the thing," or because 
California feenerally is to be recogoized as an ex- 
ceedingly dry climate ? Those who are con- 
cerned for their own health or that of their 
families, and those also who are sensitive about 
the reputation of California for healthfulness, 
would do well to give a thought to this matter. 



De. Hdbbabd, of Lagoon valley, near Vaca- 
ville, Solano county, is an unlucky man. A 
few days bince three horses were stolen from 
him. He expected to raise about $2,000 from 
his cucumber crop this season, but the bugs 
got a corner on them, and not one is left. 
During this season he sent 10,000 choice fruit 
trees to the East, but the vessel which they 
were upon was wrecked on the passage. 

SoMK years ago Kobert E. Smith, a son of the 
late Jacob Smith, found a grain of wheat in a 
lot of coffee purchased from W. M. Williamson, 
at that time a grocer in Santa Ro-a. From this 
grain sprung the variety of wheat now univer- 
sally grown throughout Sonoma county, known 
as the Smith Club. It is, as its name indicates, 
a club wheat, large heads, hardy, white and of 
superior flouring qualities. 

The SchuBsler vineyard, in Yuba City, pre- 
sents this season a healthy and prolific appear- 
ance. The crop will be one of the largest ever 
raised. It is estimated to produce about 15,- 
000 gallons of wine. 



very good grace; in fact, seemed to rather rel- 
ish the feast; while the subject of the notice, 
with other friends present, had a good laugh 
over the affair. A change of medical treatment, 
with the aid of a few weeks' enjoyment of 
mountain air and exercise, have produced a 
marked improvement in the condition of Mr. 
Wadsworth's health, and we know that the 
readers of the Rukai. Press will rejoice with 
us at the gratifying intelligence. 

He returned to Sacramento on Tuesday of 
this week, with the avowed determination of 
affording himself ample time for rest and re- 
creation. 

The Alden Fruit and Vegetable Preserving 
Company, of San Jose, has commenced the 
erection of a four-story building on the lot 
near the Blacjj Bridge, east side of the Guada- 
loupe creek. It is expect) d that the factory 
will be in operation in two or three weeks. 

The grasshoppers made n clean sweep in 
Sheridan valley, Montana, this year. The val- 
ley is usually one of the most fertile and pro- 
lific in the Territory, but the pests have eaten 
" every green thing " this season. 

Middle B.ib, Amador county, last week had 
a sensation, in the shttpe of a four legged gos- 
ling. The two extra legs, which were probably 
intended for a twin gosling, came out near the 
root of the tail. 



The title of the famous Santa Ana ranch, 
Ventura county, has been perfected, and it is 
the intention of the owners to immediately ofler 
it for sale in small parcels to actual settlers. 



Short-horn Cow "Louan 44th." 

We give in the present issue of the Press the 
portrait of another member of the celebrated 
Gabilan herd of Short-horns, the property of 
J. D. Carr and W. S. Chapman, of Gabilan, 
Monterey county. This is another of the cuts 
executed by the Rubai, Press artist, and its 
publishers feel a pride in the artistical and me- 
chanical production, akin to that which the 
owners of the herd feel in the valuable subject 
of the sketch. Our portraits of stock have met 
with marked favor from stock-breeders and fan- 
ciers, and we have the satisfaction of annonnc 
ing that we have on hand 
several cuts of animals belong- 
ing to the Gabilan herd, which 
we propose to give in succes- 
sion in the pages of the Rubal 
Press. 

The subject of the accom- 
panying portrait and sketch, 
Louan 44th, is of a red color; 
every other point in her per- 
sonal appearance is faithfully 
portrayed by our artist. She 
was calved January 31st, 1867, 
and was bred by Mr. Jeremiah 
Duncan, of Purir, Kentucky; 
sire, Duke of Airdrie; dam, 
Louan 24th, by Duke of Air- 
drie, 2743. The record of her 
previous pedigree is as follows: 
2d dam, Louan, 2d, by Gold 
Dust, 534; 3d dam, Lor.an by 
Otley, 4632; 4th dam, Cam- 
bria by Bertram, 2d, 3144; 5th 
dam, Virginia, 2d, bv Bertram, 
1716; 6th dnm. Lucilla, 2d, bv 
Memnon, 1223; 7th dam, Vir- 
ginia, by General, 272; 8th 
dam, Rosemary, by Flash, 261; 
9th dam. Red" Rose, bv Pet- 
rarch, 488; 10th dam. Bright 
Eyes, by Alexander, 20; J 1th 
dam. Red Acomb, by Traveller, 
655; 12th dam, by a son of 
Bolingbroke, 86. 

Duke of Airdrie, 2743, by 
the old Duke of Airdrie, and 
from the fine cow, Nannie 
Williams, (portrait in vol. 2, A. 
H. B., p. 492,) was one of the 
bestbullsof hisdayin America, 
and won many prizes. 

Otley, bred by Mr. Fawkcs, 
was by Norfolk, 2377. 

The Louan tribe is highly 
valued in the United States. 
Rosemary was imported about 1820; Vir- 
ginia became the propeity of Col. Powel, 
from whose hands the family went to 
Mr. Williamson, the breeder of Louan, who 
was sold to Mr. Duncan, and from whom he 
has bred the present famous tribe. 

Louan, 2d, is portrayed in vol. 2, A. H. B., 
p. 448, and her brother, d'Otloy, 432 in the 
same volume, p. 132. 

The army worms are rapidly disappearing 
from the vicinity of Sacramento. Although 
they have created much trouble, it does not 
appear that they have done much damage. 

Mb. Storey, in the Mission valley, San Diego 
county, had a yield on his place of 40 tons of 
hav from seven acres, sowed at the rate of 100 
pounds to the acre. 

In the valley of San Pasqual, San BerDardo, 
Poway and vicinity, San Diego county, there 
will be between 30,000 and 35,000 sacks of 
grain put up this year. 

There arrived, lati ly, from Wisconsin, 127 
thoroughbred Merino sheep, consigned to Ma- 
jor Beck, of Sacramento. 

Very little wheat and barley are arriving in 
Marysville, the farmers being too busy with 
their harvesting to briug their crops in. 

William Ball, of Orescent City is trying the 
experiment of raising tobacco. He has 400 
plants in a most thriving condition. 

Merced shipped 1,350 tons of new wheat up 
to 18th inst. 



50 



[July 25, 1874 



'ORRESPONDENCE. 



[The RUKAI, Presb, in openinK the calnmns of this de- 
partment to its corresoondents. does not desire to lay be- 
fore its readers anything which is not in keeping /with its 
character and position as an agricultural and family paper 
Facts are always thankfully received ; and snggeetions and 
matlers of opinion on subjects connected with agiicolture 
are also acceptable : though correspondents are 1 o be un- 
derstood as speaking for themselves and not for the Pbess. 1 



External or Skin Poisoning. 

Editobs Prbss: -- Having noticed several 
oommnnications in your paper within a few 
months past upon external poisoning and its 
remedies, and being at this time somewhat 
afflioted, it occurred to me that I might add 
something that would be beneficial to others 
thus unfortianately afflicted. I assume to claim 
that I have had as long and severe experience 
in external poisoning as any person in Califor- 
nia. If I have not, may God pity the greater I 
sufferer. 

My first experience commenced in the spring 
of 1856— was poisoned two or three times that 
season — I suppose by poison oak, From that 
time, in the summer season, for twelve years, 
I was very frequently poisoned, and seldom 
entirely free from it until late in the fall. I 
never dreamed that there was any other shrub 
or weed except the oak that would poison 
badly, although I would frequently and most 
usually get poisoned so badly that I could 
hardly see, my eyes becoming completely 
closed; when positively I had not been within 
half a mile of poison oak; but supposed that I 
was 6u£Sciently sensitive to take it from others 
who bad been handling it, and chanced to come 
near me. But, to my surprise, I accidentally 
discovered that the blame was chargeable to 
another (to me) accursed weed, though a very 
valuable and popular medicinal herb; being no 
less than the vermifuge of commerce, from 
which the liquid is extracted. The herb or 
weed grows extensively throughout California ; 
especially in and near country villages and 
farm houses. 

About six years ago, while one day at work 
at a certain place among the shrubbery and 
flowers in my garden, I got badly poisoned. 
Being positive that I was not mistaken, I had a 
curiosity to investigate carefully next day, and 
see if anything of a suspicious character could 
be found in that locality. To my surprise, 
found that I had the previous day tramped 
down a large and vigorous weed of the vermi- 
fuge persuasion. 

Then I then and there withdrew the oft re- 
peated curses I had been wont to bestow upon 
the character of poison oak, and transferred 
them en viasse upon the whole vermifuge fam- 
ily. To confirm my suspicions more positively, 
in relation to the newly discovered poison, by 
touching it to the back of my hand it invaria- 
bly left a satisfactory index of it* character. 
Vermifuge has a long tapering root similar to a 
carrot. The leaves and stalk are dark green, 
and when small the leaf resembles peppermint. 
It grows in rich, moist land, four or five feet 
high, with numerous branches from top to bot- 
tom; break or bruise the stalk and it emits a 
strong odor; I can smell it as far as I could 
smell a skunk, and it poisons me as far as lean 
smell it. Am not sure I was ever poisoned by 
oak. Have never yet seen or heard of another 
person having been poisoned by the weed. If 
there are such in California I would like to have 
him or her publish the fact in the Pbess. There 
are a great many remedies for external or skin 
poisoning. Some are easily cured, while oth- 
ers require strong applications. A remedy 
that will cure a Frenchman will not always 
cure the Dutchman. I think from observation, 
that there are not more than one person in four 
that will poison — even by handling poison oak. 
Some it will but slightly affect, while others 
cannot go near it without getting badly pois- 
oned. Mild cases are frequently cured by 
washing in a strong solution of salt or salera- 
tus in water, which would have no perceptible 
effect upon a severe case. The most effectual 
remedies within my experience are the follow- 
ing, to wit: Solution of sulphate of zinc, sul- 
phate of copper, (blue-stone,) sugar of lead, 
alcohol, Kadway's ready relief — and other prep- 
arations of a similar character, put up in 90 
per cert, alcohol; strong camphor, and wild 
sun flower blossoms steeped strong. After the 
swelling has somewhat abated, and the skin 
has become rough and sore, it is very soothing 
to wash in water as hot as can be borne; then 
apply a coating of glycerine, saturated with a 
few drops of carbolic acid; or if not at hand, 
use the sun flower wash, or any other glutin- 
ous substance that will close the pores of the 
skin and exclude the air, which greatly 
alleviates the usual annoyance of severe itch- 
ing. There is no certain preventive to surface 
poisoning within my knowledge. Washing in 
strong salt and water after being exposed is the 
best I have tried. Many persons have told me 
that they had established a lasting preventive 
to poisoning oak by eating the leaves. I ate 
some once or twice; they did not poison me, 
nor prevent my being poisoned by vermifuge. 
I have never heard of a person being internally 
injured by eating the leaves of poison oak. 
I knew one man whose lips were slightly pois- 
oned. C. S. S. H. 
Knight's Feny, July 10th, 1874. 



Items from Santa Clara. 

Editobs Pbess: — Believing a collection of 
items and the experience of practical farmers 
make your paper one of the best in the State, 
I venture to send a few lines on — "Does it pay 
to harrow grain." It certainly does if done 
when the grain is well rooted. I tried it 
on a field of 30 or 40 acres for the purpose of 
killing mustard, and the result was death to 
the mustard and an increased vigor to the 
wheat. The weather happened to be very fa- 
vorable — a few dry days, then a shower. 

Large quantities of hay have been cut in this 
valley, and hay presses are in demand. Many 
fine looking fields of wheat were cut for hay, 
which will help reduce the wheat crop. Al- 
though the wheat fields look fine, the yield will 
not be as great as anticipated, from the fact 
that the meshes on wheat contain only two 
kernels instead of three and four — occasionally 
three can be found. With few exceptions the 
berry is fine and plump. Last week heading 
commenced in earnest, and this week threshing 
machines will be humming lively, creating a 
demand for men and muscle. Prices for heading 
are from $1.25 to $2.00 an acre; threshing per 
bushel, three to four cents; wages for feeders 
and engineers, $4 per day; field hands, $2.00. 
Santa Clara Grange still flourishes, and consid- 
ering the work to be done by farmers, it is well 
attended. 

The excitement over Local Option is subsid- 
ing into a conviction that good will result from 
the action of the License men at San Jose. 
The California Agricidlurlst advocates water 
fountains — certainly a practical method to help 
close some of the many rum holes that are 
scattered over the country. How many tem- 
perance people have by necessity been com- 
pelled to patronize them because they were the 
only places where water could be found. . Why 
cannot our town and county roads be furnished 
with fountains for man and beast, such as the 
enclosed print represents ? A. R. W. 

Santa Clara, July 13th. 

[If fountains such as the cut alluded to rep- 
resents could be put along our country roads, 
and supplied with water, they would undoubt- 
edly become blessings in many respects; but 
we hardly think the farmers would be willing 
to pay for their erection. But it does seem as 
though some provision ought to be made against 
the liability of hor.?es and cattle suffering while 
on the road for want of water. — Ed. Pbkss.J 



Q^YJLE Bl^EEDEf^S. 



Products of Arizona. 

EnrroBs Pbess: — To give you a few more 
notes about the Colorado bottom land here, 
near Yuma, I send you .enclosed a sample of 
opium which I have raised. The poppy seed 
must have been of inferior variety, as the heads 
were only as large as cherries. I have a few 
cotton plants on strong alkali soil growing very 
fine. I planted in February 100 fruit trees; 
some of them, where slightly alkali, are un- 
healthy, but the others on strong adobe land 
without alkali, perhaps 60, are splendid, strong 
and healthy as possible; apples, peaches, 
almonds and walnuts have already branches 
4 to 5 feet long; some peaches even had fruits. 
Hemp is ten or twelve feet high. But for 
other things this strong adobe land is not 
adapted; strawberries, raspberries and goose- 
berries do not grow, and hop roots and grape 
cuttings are an entire failure; not one hop root 
came, and of 600 grapeVuttings only 30 lived, 
and even these did not grow, but dried up after 
a short time. P. E. Arnold. 

Yuma, Colorado, July 7th, 1874. 

[The sample of opium sent by our corres- 
pondent has been shown to parties competent 
to judge its merits, and is pronounced by them 
a fair article; containing a good percentage of 
morphine. If it were properly prepared for 
market it would probably be worth $8 per B). 
People, however, before embarking in opium 
culture, should consider that experience, as well 
as cheap labor, are essential to success. It is 
not by any means enough that the soil and 
climate are favorable to the growth of the 
poppy; it is very important that the opium 
should be prepared after the approved method, 
and be put upon the market as a standard ar- 
ticle. — Eds. Press.] 



From Riverside. 

Editobs Press:— Our settlement commenced 
in the fall of '70, has proved a suoceRS. Most 
of ns came here intending to raise semi-tropi- 
cal fruits. Many thousands of orange, lemon 
and lime trees are now set otit in orchards, 
also many almonds and English walnuts, and 
tens of thousands of the raisin grape. Quite a 
quantity of raisins will be manufactured here 
this year. A few limes and lemons will also 
be raised. A few orange trees are nearly large 
enough to bear. People are still setting out 
orange trees from our own nurseries. Some 
will continue setting out until September. This 
locality seems well suited to their growth. Our 
hay and barley crops are good. Threshing 
will soon commence. We shall have a large 
surplus of barley, consequently there is not a 
very active market for it. Before another crop 
is harvested we hope and expect an extension 
of the S.P. Railroad to give us a market in the 
mining regions beyond us. 

Yours respectfully, O. Traveb. 

Riverside, July 12th, 1874. 



Colonel Younger on Pedigrees. 

Editors Pbess: — In reply to certain queries 
put by Colonel Younger through the June issue 
of the California AgricuUuinst, I beg to make 
the following statement: The cattle exhibited 
by Page brothers in 1872 at the Bay District 
and Sonoma and Marin fairs (excepting Maggie 
and Eittie shown at the latter as grades) were 
thoroughbred Short-horns. Their pedigrees 
were then, and do now remain unknown, for 
reasons herein after stated. Page brothers, on 
being requested by the officers of the Bay Dis- 
trict Agricultural Society to exhibit said cattle, 
declined to do so, owing to the lack of pedi- 
grees; but these gentlemen said the latter would 
be unnecessary, if satisfactory evidence could 
be given that the blood had been kept pure. 
The officers of the Sonoma and Marin society 
made similar statements, and on this under- 
standing, the cattle in question were exhibited 
at both fairs. Strange to say, this evidence 
was not called for at the first mentioned fair, 
when Colonel Younger was an exhibitor, but 
was exacted at the second, where Colonel Youn- 
ger was not represented. I need scarcely add 
ihat the officers of the latter society expressed 
themselves as thoroughly satisfied with the evi- 
dence adduced. It may appear a little odd 
that Colonel Younger, who at the time he was 
competing with Page brothers' cattle was so in- 
different as to their breeding and pedigree, 
should now become so solicitous in that very 
respect; this, however, is very easily accounted 
for; people living in glasshouses are not much 
given to throwing stones; at least, not until 
their own have been badly smashed. 

"But," asks Younger, "if they have no 
Short-horn pedigree, what excuse have yon to 
offer for showing them as thoroughbred cattle ? 
I have failed to find them in the ' American 
Herd Book.' " The writer has yet to learn that 
an animal must have a written and known pedi- 
gree, and that the latter must be recorded in 
the " American Herd Book," (or any other, for 
that matter,) to entitle the subject thereof to 
its claim as a thoroughbred. Many a head of 
thoroughbred cattle was brought to this State 
in early days, when no value was placed on a 
pedigree, which was therefore laid carelessly 
aside and lost, and such was the case with those 
of the cattle in question. As Page brothers 
did not come to this country until some years 
after the pedigrees were lost, and on inquiry 
found that the cattle had changed hands some 
three or four times after they started across the 
plains, and before they came into their hands, 
and as moreover one of the parties could not 
be found at all, they came to the conclusion 
that what information they might acquire 
would be open to doubts, and therefore relin- 
guished the search. The pedigrees and bills of 
sale, however, had been there, and the purity 
of blood was always appreciated, and care had 
been taken to perpetuate it. The only differ- 
ence between Colonel Yonnger's and Page 
brothers' exhibitionis this: The former exhib- 
ited certain cattle as thoroughbrf d, which had 
spurious pedigrees, whilst the latter showed 
thoroughbred cattle for which they neither 
then, nor have since, claimed to possess pedi- 
grees. The loss of the pedigree, however, has 
surely not affected the purity of blood, although 
it may have the pecuniary value of the animal. 
And if the blood bo pure, what is lacking to 
make the animal a thoroughbred ? " Registra- 
tion in the ' American Herd Book,' " says Colo- 
nel Younger, if I misinterpret him not. But 
is that proof of purity of blood, or non-spur- 
iousness of pedigree ? Let me refer him to his 
own cattle as recorded in the herd book, and 
let the Dublic draw its own inference therefrom. 

The i2th volume of the A. H. B. admits that 
the pedigrees of Colonel Younger's cattle, as 
recorded in the 11th volume, are partly charged 
as being spurious, or forgeries, and that others 
are probably incorrect. In other words, Mr. 
Allen admits that he is as liable to error as any 
other man; and therefore, that record in bis 
book is neither proof of purity of blood nor of 
autlaentioity of pedigree. When the Cattle 
Breeders' Association protested against Colonel 
Younger's cattle at the State fair of '73, and 
this gentleman stood up to make his defence, 
he admitted to the judges that one of the male 
ancestors in the Lou Talbott pedigree was un- 
known. Why, then, did he have it recorded in 
the 11th volume A. H. B. ? 

Now that I have got on the " Younger pedi- 
grees" again, I may as well ventilate them a 
little further. As published in the Rubal 
Press, by Colonel Younger himself, bis pedigree 
for Lucky Lass runs oack to Old Pink, by 
Goldfinder, (20C0), and there stops. As re- 
corded in the A. H. B., it traces through Pink, 
by imp Goldfinder, (2066), to imp Young 
Mary, by Jupiter, (2170), etc., one of the most 
popular pedigrees in the country. When 
asked how this change came about, Colonel 
Younger answered : "Mr. Sweezy will give 
his reasons, if he has not already done so — why. 
Young Mary was attached to the Vanmeter 
pedigree;" i. e., the pedigree traced only as far 
as Old Pink, by Goldfinder (2066). I am not 
awure that Mr. Sweezy ever did publish his 
reasons; (Mr. Sweezy. by-the-by, is the gen- 
tleman who, to use the Colonel's own words, 
"arranged his pedigrees for him;") bat, he 
did state to the writer, at Sacramento, that a 
San Francisco copyist was employed to trans- 
cribe Colonel Younger's numerous pedigrees 
after they had been arranged, and that having 



copied that of Lvicky Lass as far as Old Pink, 
by Goldfinder, (2066), he inadvertently skipped 
to another |)edigree, and continued to copy 
from that. At the time these pedigrees were 
being arranged there was not, to my knowl- 
edge, a bull or cow in the State whose record 
traced to Young Mary by Jupiter: but, even 
supposing there had been a thousand of them, 
I cannot but wonder what such a pedigree was 
doing in a San Francisco copyist's table. 
Surely, neither Colonel Younger nor Air. 
Sweezy sent it there, for the pedigrees in ques- 
tion had no call for its use. 

Colonel Younger, in his letter to the Califor- 
nia Agriculturisl, dated April, 1873, predicts 
that Lucky Lass will be as celebrated in her 
posterity as Duchess Ist; he also states that 
Kate Hughes had produced a calf every year 
from 1862 to 1871, and was still stout and 
looked as if she would produce 10 more calves. 
I will close this epistle by offering Colonel 
Younger my sincere sympathies, inasmuch as 
the A. H. B., Vol. 13, does not contain a single 
pedigree which traces, on the side of the dam, 
to the California Duchess, alias Lucky Lass, 
or to her sister in affliction, Lou Talbott. 
It is true that he always keeps those strains 
through Gleucoe. Jeff. Davis and others; 
but unless the old volumes of the A. H. B. are 
looked back to, which persons but slightly ac- 
quainted with his pedigrees are unlikely to do, 
these valuable crosses are liable to pass unde- 
tected and unappreciated. Please inform us 
what has become of them. Colonel, or what 
has happened to them. Have they, in their 
prime, ceased to breed, or have you, out of 
pure love for our neighbors across the water, 
"sold" them, even as you did Glencoe, to go 
to Japan ? Wilteed Faoe. 

San Francisco, July 15th, 1874. 
P. S. — Since writing the above, I have re- 
ceived the July number of the National Live 
Slock Journal, which has something to say on 
the Colonel's letter to the California Agricul- 
luiisl. I quote as follows : 

We have received from the editor of the 
California Agriculturist a leaf of his paper, con- 
taining a long letter from Colonel Younger " " " 
We presume the object of sending this was, 
that we should comment upon it. We will say, 
therefore, that we consider the letter in very 
bad taste. It appears to be merely personal 
attacks upon the members of the Breeders' 
Association. (The Journal might have added 
and a free puff and advertisement of his own 
cattle.— W. P.) "'<■'<■ 

" He next pays his respects to Mr. Page, for 
exhibiting a lot of grades, so called, because he 
cannot find their pedigrees in the Herd Book. 
The animals are named, and we believe we re- 
cognize among them some of the cattle pni- 
chased by Mr. Page when in this section, a 
year or two ago." (The Journal is mistaken. 
None of the cattle which were purchased bv 
me, in 1873, have been attacked by Colonel 
Younger through the press. — W. P.) "It is 
interesting to read Colonel Younger's diction, 
Ihat animals recorded in the Herd Book are 
thoroughbred, and those not recorded are 
grades. By this rule, previous to the pub- 
lication of the eleventh volume of the Herd 
Book, his herd was a herd of grades — a 
proposition which few people will have the 
hardihood to dispute — but after the publi- 
cation of the eleventh volume they were thor- 
oughbreds. It is true, we believe, that the 
publication of the pedigrees in the eleventh 
volume furnishes the only claim Colonel 
Younger can advance in favor of the cattle 
being thoroughbred. But we must insist that 
the admission of the pedigree to the Herd Book 
does not make an animal one whit more or 
less a thoroughbred than it was before. It 
may enable a person to impose an animal upon 
those who know nothing about pedigrees, but 
that is all. It was a grade before it was re- 
corded; it will be a grade afterwards. 

Colonel Younger claims that his cattle are 
the finest and best in the State, and that he 
believes them to be thoroughbred . 

[The Journal here credits the Colonel with 
too much modesty. These are the Colonel's 
own words : " They are the noblest race of 
cattle in the world; and I believe mine to be 
such (the noblest race ? W. P.) ; and as far as 
color, symmetrical form and high finish are an 
indication of high breeding, they (his own 
cattle, of course, not the race in general — W. 
P.) have no superiors in this or any other 
country." W. P.] "This may be true; we 
have not seen the cattle. But some of the 
pedigrees recorded in the eleventh volume are 
so ridiculous and absurd, and some of the 
others go so^ar beyond the authority of the 
gentleman who bred their ancestors, that Colo- 
nel Younger could never pass them as thorough- 
breds outside of California. W. P." 



A SuLPHUB Bath.— A recent visitor to the 
celebrated stock ranch of E. W. Chapman, 
Merced county, thus describes, in the Resources 
of California, the manner in which the sheep 
are treated for the prevention of a disease ex- 
tremely troublesome in the sheep-fold : The 
day we were there Mr. Smith had the flock in 
the corral, and was engaged putting the sheep 
through a bath highly charged with sulphur 
and lime. There was a long, narrow vat that 
contained the liquid, which was heated to a 
certain temperature by the introduction of 
steam through the bottom of the vat. By a 
nice arrangement of fences, each sheep was 
forced to enter the vat at one end, and work its 
way through the liquid to the other end, where 
it passed out. This bathing process is required 
to be done twice a year as a preventive and cure 
for a skin disease called "scab." 



July as, 1874] 



51 



J\\E Dj^iF\y. 



European Varieties of Cheese Made in 
America. 

The manufacture of Swiss and Limburger 
cheese is now quite extensively carried on in 
this country, and it is said to be of excellent 
quality — quite equal to any that is imported. 
The Limburger variety, when in its prime con- 
dition, according to the German taste, requires 
to go into consumption at once, as it is liable 
to deteriorate if kept long after it is fully ripe. 
On this account there is consider&ble risk in 
its importation; and, besides, the cost is more 
than for the cheese made in America. Pro- 
bably the largest quantity of Limbvirger made 
in one locality is in Northern New York — 
Jefiferson county taking the lead. In previous 
numbers of the Rural we gave a pretty full 
account of the Limburger factories of Jefferson 
county, some of which are very elaborate and 
expensive structures. They are modeled after 
European plans, though of course much larger 
than the (jerman establishments. There is 
quite a number of factories manufacturing 
Swiss cheese in New York, and a good article 
is produced. We do not know to what extent 
Limburger and Swiss cheese is manufactured 
at the West, but a considerable quantity is 
made in Wisconsin. In Greene county alone 
more than half a million pounds were produced 
during the year 1873— the milk of 1,880 cows 
being used for the purpose. For the present 
year it is estimated that the milk of 2,310 cows 
will be employed in making Limburger cheese 
in the county of Greene. A number of fac- 
tories in the vicinity of Oshkosh, Wis., are en- 
gaged also in the manufacture of Limburger 
and Swiss cheese. These varieties of cheese 
command a larger price than the ordinary style 
of American cheese, they being mostly retailed 
at from 23 cents to 25 cents per pound. 

Where experienced and skilled German 
manufacturers are employed to take charge of 
manufactories, the net returns to dairymen de- 
livering milk at these factories are much 
better than at the ordinary factories for making 
American cheese. There are several other 
European varieties of cheese that could be 
made in this country with profit, and we hope 
to see some of our dairymen engage in the pro- 
duction. There is a demand for Edam cheese 
in our large cities, especially in New York, and 
a considerable quantity of this variety, we 
understand, is imported from abi-oad. We 
ought to be able to make all the cheese needed 
in the country and we ought to make it of as 
flue flavor and qnality as that which is pro- 
duced abroad. It would be well if some of our 
factories should turn their attention to some of 
the varieties of European cheese for which 
there is a demand in this country, but which 
have not heretofore been produced by us. — 
Rural New Yorker. 



The Prices Obtained for Young Bulls. 

The following extract from a correspondence 
in the Country Gentleman was written by one 
of the most successful breeders of Short-horn 
cattle in the country: 

The sales of a few weeks past have demon- 
strated that the Short-horn interest is covering 
a large amount of territory, and that it is losing 
nothing in the vicinity where the sales are 
held, as at each one a new set of local bidders 
are seen and many purchases are made by them. 
The great difference in the price of bulls and 
cows is commented on by some as a bad omen 
— as ruinous to breeders, with the remark that 
there are too many of them, and that they 
' should be castrated, etc. I think quite the re- 
verse, because where the animal is well enough 
bred with form, color, etc., sufficient to ma>a 
him good enough to go to the head of a Short- 
horn herd, it is the exception for him to bring 
prices that cannot be afforded by his breeder. 
This is as it should be, for unless he is a com- 
bination of all that is good he should take his 
rank among the high grades and commoh cows 
of the farm. 

Almost any breeder can take a desirable cow 
or heifer with advantage into his herd at a rea- 
sonable price — hence they are customers at the 
sales, with ideas educated up to better prices 
than novices. Not so with bulls; they (the 
breeders) are sellers, not buyers. The young 
and cheaper class of bulls then find customers 
among the farmers, who can always use them 
to good advantage on their native and grade 
cows, and not being educated as to the 
real advantage in their use, do not pay at 
first what should be paid for such stock, but 
having once used a thoroughbred bull they are 
sure to be better customers forever afterwards. 

Even through Central Illinois there is 
scarcely one good Short-horn bull to a town- 
ship, while there should be one within a short 
distance of every farmer's cows, if not on every 
farm, and this will answer the question of the 
number being too large. Who can say then 
that it is not better to put the young bulls up 
at public sale and sell them, though they do 
not bring so large prices at present as we would 
like —to have them at work as missionaries, 
bringing money into the farmers' pockets who 
use them, and thereby making them better cus- 
tomers to all future sales, than to have them 
bottled up in our barns waiting bettor prices. 

Habbib Lewis says he has found as high as 
30 per cent, of cream in the last pint of milk 
drawn from a cow, when the first pint from 
the same cow had only 9% per cent. 



Grass and Hay for Milch Cows. 

A correspondent of the Utica Herald holds 
the following ground in relation to the feeding 
of milch cows on grass and hay. The impor- 
tant point to Western dairymen is one made in 
relation to cutting hay when young: 

I find that grass alone, whether green or 
cured, answers all purposes the year round (by 
grass, I include clover), with this one impor- 
tant qualification — that it be cut g-een and well 
cured. This makes about half difference; that 
is, there is about as much available substance 
in one pound of green feed dried, as in two 
pounds when ripe. I know instances where 
cows have been kept during the winter-on 25 
pounds of ripe hay per day. They were, of 
course, not in good condition. But, instead, 
double the available nutritive substance, which 
an equal weight (25 pounds) of green-dried 
hay would have furnished, and you would have 
had double the nutritive benefit, which would 
have brought your cows to a high condition. 
Or supply the deficiency by grain, sufficient to 
reach this condition, and the amount would 
have been considerably more than is usually 
fed with old ripe hay, showing thus that good 
green hay takes the precedence over the usual 
ripe hay and grain, being besides much cheaper. 

Grass, green or dried, if of a good quality, 
and fed all that is wanted, will produce a maxi- 
mum quantity of milk, ihe superior quality of 
the milk more than making up what may be 
lacking in quantity, so that so far as milk alone 
is concerned, grass (green or dried) stands first 
as a feed, surpassing all other feeds, whether 
single or combined. And it will sustain the 
animal while giving milk and while in calf, and 
fat her when free of the drain. Grain doubt- 
less would aid in the fattening process. 

The Origin OF Duchesses. — A writer in the 
Mark Lane Express gives the following history 
of the most valuable family of Short-horns. 
He says: "As the Duchess tribe is so famous, 
and sells at such enormous prices, I 
may here give a few particulars concerning it. 
The first of the family we hear of, was bought 
by Charles Colling from the Duke of North- 
umberland's agent at Stanwix, a massive, short 
legged cow, of a yellowish-red color, with the 
breast near the ground. She had a wide back 
and was a great grower. Colling called her 
"Duchess," and had often described her to 
Bates as a very superior animal, particularly 
in her handling, and told him he considered 
her the best cow he had ever seen, but that he 
could never breed so good a cow from her. 
She was descended from the old stock of Sir 
Henry Smithson, of Stanwix. Thomas Bates 
bought from Colling one ot the descendants of 
this cow in 1840, for 100 guineas, being the 
same I mentioned as being such a fine dairy 
animal, and he bought another at Colling's sale 
in 1810. For the latter he paid 183 guineas, 
and styled her "Duchess First," and from her 
all the present family descended. Bates said 
he was induced to select this tribe from having 
found that they are great growers and quick 
feeders, with fine quality of meat, consuming 
liitle food io proportion to their growth, and 
also finding that they are great milkers." 

Habd on the Cities. — One of our cotempora- 
ries, in commenting on the high prices some- 
times paid for butter in the cities, is disposed to 
consider them as no indication of the value of the 
butter, because the people in the cities see so 
little really prime butter, that they are not quali- 
fied to judge on so fine a point. Perhaps there 
may be some truth in this, but we are inclined 
to regard the city people as pretty good judges 
on this point. There is no class of people in 
the world so particular as to what they eat as 
the residents of cities, and no mode of life so 
well calculated to create and nourish fine dis- 
tinctions in the matter of flavor. Let anyone 
take a plate and make the rounds of the city 
markets, and he will travel far, as a general 
rule, before he finds butter as rank as that 
which can be found at almost every country 
store; and the commodity which the merchant 
keeps for sale is a pretty fair indication, the 
world over, of what his customers demand. 
So far from the city people lacking in a dis- 
criminating taste in the matter of butter, we 
have sometimes thought them over nice in this 
particular, displaying altogether too much 
taste. Let no one delude himself with the idea 
that he can make an inferior article of butter and 
succeed in working it off on city people under 
the impression that it is a choice article. — ^a- 
tional Live Stock Reporter. 

Causes or Odob. —Improper substances in 
the vicinity of milk and butter will taint them. 
A piece of veal on the cellar floor; a pond of 
impure, stagnant water; a kerosene lamp used 
in the milk room; a piece of soap left on a pan 
cover; coal oil in a country store; decaying 
vegetables; putrid animal matter in a cow pas- 
ture; cows drinking filthy water; partially de- 
composed milk, cream or cheese adhering to 
the dairy vessels, on the floor or shelving. 

Gabget Remedy.— Dr. Bronson of Michigan 
writes the New York Tribune: My remedy for 
garget is one tablespoonful of saltpeter every 
other day for three days, then skip a few days, 
and feed again if a cure is not effected. I think 
three doses will heal the most obstinate case. 
By-the-way, any person who keeps cows, 
should feed to each the above dose of saltpeter 
once in two weeks through the milking season, 
and there will be no complaint of garget. 

Good dairymen are the men who have the 
good cows, because they are the ones who take 
good winter care of their herds. 



^©dtJE^Y Y^^°' 



Will Greased Eggs Hatch ? 

It has long been a settled fact that eggs for 
table use may be preserved for a considerable 
time by rubbing them over with lard or butter; 
thus filling the pores of the shell and prevent- 
ing evaporation and staleness of the contents. 
These eggs, however, were supposed to be 
irremediably used up for hatching purposes. 
Indeed, this idea was so generally accepted 
that no one ever thought of questioning its 
correctness, and consequently no one attempted 
to get chickens out of greased eggs. But now 
all is changed, and we find that buttering eggs 
is not only no detriment, but a positive advan- 
tage to eggs which have to be kept a week or 
ten days before they can be put under the hen. 

Recently, a gentleman in Ireland reported to 
the Fancier's Oazette that some relatives of his 
had at one time au Aylesbury duck and drake 
which had been accidentally poisoned. They 
had at the time, however, seven of their eggs 
which had been buttered for preservation for 
the table, and these, with much fear as to the 
result, were placed under a hen, and produced 
six strong young ducklings, although the eggs 
were six weeks old at the time they were set. 
Since that time they and their neighbors have 
always set greased eggs, with the most gratify- 
ing results. 

Although this statement was received with a 
howl of incredulity, it has since been confirmed 
by the reported experiences of others. One 
gentleman states that he possessed a very choice 
strain of fowls; and, to prevent his neighbors 
from hatching Ihe surplus eggs he sold, he 
carefully buttered them. Soon, however, he 
found that his choice fowls were becoming 
quite common in the neighborhood; and, to 
satisfy himself if the thing could be done, he 
set some buttered eggs himself, and found that 
they hatched as well as the others. The theory 
is that the nest and the feathers of the hen rub 
off the grease and free the pores of the shell, 
thus admitting the air, which is doubtless es- 
sential to the vitality of the egg. — National 
Live Stock Journal. 



Ho«\T'cJljUi^e, 



Best Age of Hens. — A pullet hatched early 
in the spring begins" to lay at the approach of 
winter, and pullets hatched late in the summer 
begin to lay in the ensuing spring, and it is by 
saving a certain proportion of pullets from the 
early and late broods, that you make sure of 
winter eggs; a few early hatched chickens for 
catching the highest markets, and a numerous 
flock of chickens in the warm months, when 
rearing is less precarious. The hen continues 
in her prime for two, and at most three years 
— therefore save every year pullets equal to a 
third of your brood stock, selling off at a trifl.ng 
price tlfB same number of aged hens, or offering 
them up in a stewed dish or well-baked pie. 
However, I made no scruples about keeping a 
heavy, symmetrically-made, splendidly feathered 
"partlet" of four years, for the sake of her 
stock. Many farmers grumble about their 
poultry, from not paying attention to such a 
simple matter as looking over their brood stock 
once a year, drafting all the old dames v.known 
by the developed scales on their legs), and re- 
serving from the market basket the most prom- 
ising young pullets raised during the season. — 
Exchange, 

A coREEspoNDENT of the N. Y. Triitune is evi- 
dently not a believer in turkeys. In answer to 
the question, "Why were Job's turkeys poor ?" 
he says : " Because he had no neighbors upon 
whose crops they could get fat— and hereby 
hangs a tale; many a tale, in fact. For turkeys 
are like bees; you cannot keep them at home. 
Where grain is raised, turkeys are an intoler- 
able nuisance, and for every dollar they put 
into the pocket of a farmer's wife, they take 
five out of the farmer's or his neighbor's. 
Upon grass fields where grasshopers are plen- 
tiful, or upon tobacco fields where the frightful 
tobacco worm is abundant, turkeys may pay 
for their feed and depredations upon the grain 
fields at all seasons of the year; I do not be- 
lieve that even at $1 a pound turkeys, as usu- 
ally raised, ever pay their cost. 



Accidental Naturalization of Plants. 

It is well known that many of our most 
pernicious weeds are foreign plants, that have 
been accidentally introduced into this country, 
where they have become naturalized, and have 
spread in some cases far more rapidly than on 
their " native heath." M. Balansa relates two 
striking cases of this kind in his account of 
New Caledonia, the island to which so many 
of the French Communists have been trans- 
ported. In the first instance, about four years 
ago, a gendarme, who was transferred to this 
island from Otaheite, brought with him a bol- 
ster filled with the feathery seeds of Asclepias 
curassavica. Having occasion to wash the tick 
cover, he opened the bolster at the Pont des 
Francais, when some of the seeds were carried 
off by the wind, and the plant has since then 
increased to such an extent as to seriously in- 
terfere with cultivation, its roots running under 
ground to considerable distances, and sending 
up f'hoots in all directions, so that it is difficult 
to eradicate it. In the second case M. Balnusa 
relates that, a few years ago, some boxes arrived 
from Sjdney containing various articles packed 
in European hay. This was thrown out and 
left on the ground where the boxes were un- 
packed. In the following year a new gramina- 
ceous plant was observed growing plentifully 
where the hay packing had been left. This 
proved to be common couch grass, {Triticum 
repens) , and it has spread so rapidly that M. 
Balansa states it is already exterminating the ' 
native grasses. 

Melon Cultube. — The best soil, says Tlie 
Rural Messenger, is that which admits of ready 
drainage. Watery as the fruit is, it does not 
require much rain to produce it. In fact, the 
vines flourish and bear even on a bank of sand. 
We would then select the lightest piece of 
ground available — gray and sandy — and put it 
in good order, using plenty of rotten manure to 
each hill. Digging holes of sufficient sire, and 
depositing the manure in them during the win- 
ter, is doubtless the method to be preferred; 
but if this has not nlready been done, we must 
resort to some other plan. We would still 
make an excavation, and manure liberally, 
with a view of retaining moisture in time of 
drouth Much depends on giving the plants a 
vigorous start. Force their early growth with 
a free application of bone phosphate tothe hill. 
Keep the ground clear of grass and well stirred 
until the vinos begin to cover it, but as the 
roots run to the full length of the vines, and 
grow as fast, the working should not be more 
than two or three inches deep. With this treat- 
ment, we believe there would be few failures in 
growing water-melons, and as they are a favor- 
ite with all classes, it is well worth the trouble, 
whether for market or private use. 

Doting Figs.— Pick the figs when thor- 
oughly ripe, dry them on racks, as you would 
other fruit, in the sun, four or five days, or 
until the water they contain is thoroughly 
evaporated. If there is any dew, cover them 
nights. Then place them in a vessel perforated 
with holes, like a colander, and dip them into 
boiling water for about one minute, after which 
again expose them to the sun until the surface 
water is evaporated; then lay them in wood, 
tin, earthen or other vessels, and press closely 
so as to exclude the air and cover securely. In 
this way it is asserted figs have been preserved 
equal to the best imported. The scalding 
answers the double purpose of killing all insect 
eggs and softening the skin of the fruit so that 
the sugar will come to the surface, as may be 
seen on imported figs. — Moore's Rural New 
Yorker. 



Chicken Cholera. — This is a malady of 
which little is known. We have obtained all 
the information we could, respecting this dis- 
ease, since it first prevailed at the West a few 
years ago. There is a very malignant type 
which almost always proves fatal; and a milder 
form which appears in some localities, destroy- 
ing not more than half or one-third ol the birds 
attacked. The best medicine that has been re- 
ported is alum-water made strong, and given 
for drink, mixed with their soft feed. Many of 
the medicines advertised for the cure of the 
disorder are entirely worthless, — Live Stock 
Journal. 

Success in the breeding of fine poultry de- 
pends upon the same general principles which 
give success in any other business in life. 
Money capital alone is no more sufficient here 
than in trading or manufacturing.. Good judg- 
ment, energy and perseverance are some of the 
prime essentials, and timo and experience are 
necessary for the acquirement of a cultivated 
and enlightened judgment. 



BuoswBEAT is much liked by poultry, is 
greedily devoured, and is more productive of 
eggs, early and in abundance, than any other 
grain. 



Fumigation fob Plants.— Mr. J. C. Niven, 
of the Hull Botanical 'Garden, recommends to- 
bacco fumigation (in London Garden) for 
cleaning green flies from certain house plants 
infested by them. His plan is to lay the plant 
on its side in a wash tub, throw over it a damp 
towel, or better, "a bit of glazed calico lining, 
and then, through an opening at the bottom, 
have your husband, insert the end of a pipe, 
and through it let him blow tobacco smoke un- 
til the plant gets a good fumigation. The flies 
will be found at the bottom of the tub when 
the operation is finished. The plants should 
be perfectly dry when the operation is perform- 
ed, but, if a towel is used, it should be freely 
washed and wrung out before using, and be 
without holes. The pipe-stem should reach to 
the bottom of the tub. 



Causes of the Rotting of Fruit. — Accord- 
ing to Decaisne, the rotting of fruit is produced 
by two microscopic fungi, which develop in 
moist confined air; namely, Mucor mucedo and 
Pe7iicilliuni glaucum, infinitely minute germs of 
which are continually floating in the atmos- 
phere, and which attack more especially any 
injured or abraded portion of the surface. If 
now, the fruit be wrapped up in cotton, or with 
soft tissue-paper, or, still better, with waxed 
paper, or tin foil, the introduction of these 
germs will be prevented, and the fruit can be 
kept for a long time without any appreciable 
change. 

Asparagus Culture in Germany. — It is 
asserted that near Brauneschweig, Germany, 
25,000 acres are cultivated in asparagtis, most 
of which is canned. The variety cultivated is 
called "Rose HoUande." We have received 
and eaten samples of this German canned as- 
paragus, and it is most excellent. 



52 



[July 25, 1874 




The Callforaiia State Grange Headauartera 

are at room 9, No, B'2U California street, S. F.— General 
StuteAf;ent: I. G. Garonkr, (Member of the Execu- 
tive Ooiumittee) . State Secretary: W. H. Baxtkr. 



Patrons who are Bubscribers to the Eural Press 
should pay their subscriptions prompt'.y in order to se- 
cure club rates. 

OKOANIZINa DEPTTTIES. 

Editors Rcn.u-PBKss:— As the commlsBions of the 
Deputies of this State are only for the term of one year, 
mauvofthem will soon expire by limitation, and it 
will "be necessary for tliosewho wish to hare their com- 
missions renewed to inform me, bo that new ones may 
be issuoU to replace the old. J. M. HAMn,TOs. 



Growth of the 



Order Here 
where. 



and Else- 



•What They Say of Us. 

That the Grange is the great absorbing theme 
among politicians and all othera, as well, is be- 
coming more and more apparent. We see evi- 
dences of this (act all around us. The con- 
sideration of the question appears to effect 
people in diverse ways. Some affect to be 
immensely pleased at our wondrons growth, 
and pat us on the back in a most patronizing 
^ny — Bee the Bulletin, Chronicle, etc. Othera, 
again, appear to snap and snarl every time the 
idea of the Grange movement comes into their 
mind — eee the Cmnmercial Herald, Post, etc. 

The Bulletin of Tuesday last devotes a col- 
umn or 80 to a detail of the recent growth of 
the Order, and proceeds to analyze it, to learn 
what its portent may be — from a political 
stand-point. We quote from the article two 
paragraphs as follows : 

In the country nt large there are 20,000 
Granges. It is estimated that they number at 
least one million of voters. We have here cer- 
tainly an enormous power, especially when we 
consider the classes which are sure to unite 
with it. The Granges lead the attack in most 
of the States upon the monopolies. All other 
citizens of the same way of thinking join them. 
The Granges are the foes of high taxation. 
The ownerH of property everywhere in city and 
country strike hands with them. The Granges 
are opposed to corruption in all its forms. All 
those whom salarj'-grabs, moieties, rings and 
credit mobiliers have alarmed are likely to 
make common cause with them. The laboring 
men are also organizing in several of the States. 
Whenever they appear on the scene they frater- 
nise with the Grangers. They want to save 
their little homesteads from confiscation for 
taxes. They also know that the less taxation 
the greater the general prosperity. It is not 
too much to say that we have here, beyond 
question, at this time the strongest and most 
compact political element in the country. A 
million voters (and that estimate is low), with 
80 many and such powerful and extensive affil- 
iations, are a power which cannot be coughed 
down or thrust aside, especially in view of the 
disorder which prevails in the ranks of the old 
parties. • * • 

It is also to be noted in this connection that 
the purposes of the Grange movement are ex- 
panding with its growth. The Granges at first 
had no object but to eliminate unnecessary 
middlemen, and secure that influence for the 
farmer in the general management of the affairs 
of the country, which he considered had here- 
tofore been denied to him. By the inexorable 
logic of facts they advanced from this stage to 
an opjKJsition to monopolies, high taxation, 
and malfeasance in office. They are also grad- 
ually taking ground on the other great national 
questions of the day. The general tendency 
in the central States is to occupy a safe middle 
ground on the financial question. Of the 
soundness of the proposition, which is gaining 
popularity among them, there can be no ques- 
tion. 



A Gbakqe Disbanded. — The papers through- 
out the country, unfriendly to the Granges, 
are publishing, with an evident chuckle, the 
fact that "Good Hope Grange," McDonough 
county, Illinois, has disbanded; giving, as a 
rfason therefor, a string of resolutions charg- 
ing that the State and National organizations 
have become arbitrary and tyrannical; that they 
are collecting large sums of money from subor- 
dinate Granges; that the Order has degenera- 
ted into political partisanship, and that it has 
become burdensome and expensive to its mem- 
bers. The objections urged are quite amusing 
to those who have a knowledge of the workings 
and principles of the Order; and we opine 
there are but few members who are not fully 
satisfied from the very reading of the resolu- 
tions, that they betray a sore-head origin, and 
that the membership was mostly made up of 
disappointed politicians, who had hoped to se- 
cure through the organization some sort of in- 
dividual benefit. Whether that be so or not, 
the Order can well spare a single, discontented, 
individual organization out of the 20,000 Gran- 
ges which go to make up the present aggregate 
throughout the country. One twenty-thou- 
sandth ptrt of the Order has gone back. 
Well, as we are now adding to our numbers 
from twelve to fifteen hundred Granges per 
month, we presume the loss of a single one in 
Illinois will not prove very disastrous, after 
all. 

Bbotbeb OB Sister, what have yon done for 
the Order ? 



The first Orange instituted on the Pacific 
coast, by Bro. Baxter, oar first organizing dep- 
uty, was established at Napa City on the 20th 
of March, 1873— just sixteen months ago. To- 
day the enumeration stands as follows: 

California 220 

Oregon 152 

Washington Tsrritory 35 

Montana • '8 

Colorado '• «! 

Idaho 2 

Nevada * 

Total- «2 

One year ago there were but about 4,500 
subordinate Granges in the entire Union, and 
only 12 State Granges. Today there are not 
less than 20,000 subordinate Granges, with 35 
State Granges. 

A noble army ia that which has been thus 
organized under the banners of the Patrons of 
Husbandry, and a vast army, too, thoroughly 
disciplined and drilled, not to kill and destroy, 
but to save and build up. The emblems of 
this great army are simply the pruning hook 
and other tools connected with the peaceful 
work of agriculture. Since the world began no 
movement has been initiated by man having so 
wide a scope for good, or so well designed to 
carry out the great work for which it was in- 
tended. Till now the farmer has toiled on in 
isolation and neglect. Ignorant or unmindful 
of his numbers and his power, he has suffered 
under the rule of a reckless minority, retaining 
for his labors only a bare support; while the 
surpilns of his legitimate winnings has built 
cities for others, inaugurated railroads, whit- 
ened the ocean with commerce, and enriched 
every class in the community but his own. 
Two years ago the pretensions of the agricultu- 
ral community to exercise an influential part 
in transacting their own legitimate business, 
and to take an active interest in the manage- 
ment of public affairs, was ridiculed and sneered 
at. To-day they hold within their grasp the 
destinies of more than half the States of the 
Union— and all this has been done through the 
influence of the Order of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry. 

The magnitude of this fnovement and the 
celerity with which it has been advanced to its 
present greatness, ptoints clearly to the fact 
that its source and springs of power lie far too 
deep for casual examination— that its growth is 
not the passing frenzy of a moment, and that 
the day is past when there can be any doubt 
as to the permanence or power of the Order. 
The causes which have called it forth will as 
surely produce their desired effects as the melt- 
ing snow on the mountain side will find its way 
to the valley below. Would it not be well if 
those who look upon this movemenf^fith 
scorn and contempt, or pronounce its leaders 
"a band of charlatans," should pause and con- 
sider against what they are precipitating them- 
selves y ^ 

What Does All This NIean? 

The Fourth was very generally celebrated by 
the Patrons of the Western States, and the as- 
semblages in some instances reached miny 
thousands in number. Grange picnics and cel- 
ebrations are becoming more and more fre- 
quent, and are attended with constantly in- 
creasing numbers. 

A few weeks since, while Hon. J. W. Childs 
was addressing an assemblage of six thousand 
farmers at Coldwater, a telegram was received 
from Marshall saying that C. L. Whitney, Esq., 
was addressing an equally large congregation 
of farmers at that place. Reports from the im- 
mense Grange picnic, recently held in St. Jo- 
seph county, Michigan, state ihat a procession 



The Grangers and the Fourth. 

The Fourth seems to have been very gener- 
ally observed by the Grangers throughout the 
State, by special celebrations, conducted under 
the auspices of the Order; or, by a public turn- 
out of members of the Order in regalia, as a 
feature in citizens' celebrations. The crowded 
state of our columns for the last week or two 
has prevented us from giving such notices of 
these celebrations as we should have been 
pleased to have done; but we make room to-day 
for quite a lengthy account of the celebration 
at Petaluma, furnished by an esteemed corres- 
pondent. We have already given, through a 
correspondent, a lengthy reference to the gath- 
ering at Walnut creek. We should judge from ac- 
counts in onr exchanges that many other gath- 
erings, equally as well attended, and fully as 
interesting, were held at quite a number of 
other localities. 

At Santa Rosa it was estimated that over 
5,000 thronged the main thoroughfares. In 
the procession the firemen, all in new uniforms, 
led the van, having placed the Grangers and 
invited guests between their ranks, as a post of 
especial honor. 

At Watsonville the brotherhood and sister- 
hood had a grand time. The celebration was 
the largest ever witnessed at that place. The 
procession was divided into three divisions, 
each headed by a band of music. The Watson- 
ville and Paj;iro Granges occupied jirominent 
places in the procession. 

At Sacramento the Granges celebrated on 
their own account, made a fine display, and 
enjoyed an excellent picnic. It is reported to 
have been a very pleasant affair. 

At Los Angeles the city was full of people 
from the surroun ling country, who had come 
in to witness the display. The Grangers in 
regalia acted a prominent part in the ceremo- 
nies, several hundreds being in the line of 
procession. 

Abide by the Principles of the Order. 



of fourteen hundred teams was formed, and the 
crowd was estimated by thousandp. The INorih- 
ern Grange in alluding to the immensity and 
frequency of such gatherings among the far- 
mers, very pertinently asks — "What does all 
this signify?" Does it mean that the farmers 
are supremely happy, and come together in 
vast multitudes simply to congratulate and fe- 
licitate each other on their good fortune? 
Would that this were the case; but we fear it is 
not so. Deep-seated causes underlie such dem- 
onstrations. They are not for mere show or 
pastime; they mean much which it would be 
well for the country to early comprehend. 
They contain no threats or bluster, but they 
mean that a giant has been awakened from a 
long sleep, and is about to take a position as a 
peer of the realm. In short, it all means sim- 
ply that new light is dawning upon the seven 
htindred thousand hard-worked, poorly-paid, 
but thinking farming people ol Michigan. 
That the voice of the agricultural people, 
which has hitherto been uttered only in single 
chorus from the isolation of the farm, and 
hence unheeded, shall, b rsason of its combin- 
ed volume, reach the ear of authority in the re- 
motest corners of the land. May the ear of 
authority heed the voice of the people. 



"Let the Patrons of Husbandry abide by all 
the great principles enunciated at St. Louis, 
and the Order will continue to grow until it 
spreads over the whole country and takes in 
every farmer. But let it once go into politics 
as an organization, and it will die like a tree 
poisoned at its roots. No seoret association 
can control the political destinies of the Re- 
public. The attempt to do it will wreck any 
secret Order. Recognizing this truth, the St. 
Louis platform says: 'We emphatically and 
sincerely assert the oft-repeated truth taught 
by our organic law, that the Grange, National, 
State or Subordinate, is not a political or party 
organization ;' further, it declares that ' no 
Grange, if true to its obligation, can discuss 
political questions, nor call political Conven- 
tions, nor nominate candidates, nor even dis- 
cuss their merits ia its meetings.' " 

Such is the sensible advice of a journal 
friendly to but not connected with the Order — 
the N. C. Observer. The Order cannot go into 
politics, as an organization, without involving 
itself in disaster, if not destruction. But all 
Patrons have important political duties to per- 
form. It is the duty of every Patron to go first 
into the primary meeting of his own party and 
there use his best exertions to secure the nom 
iuation of honest and capable men. If he fails 
in that, it is his next duty to look around him, 
without regard to party, and select from any 
party men that are honest and capable and vote 
for them. If he cannot find such in nomination 
by any of the existing political organizations, 
then let him and his brother Patrons cast about 
and select from the people at large such as are 
fitted for the offices to be filled, and vote for them. 
Let Patrons persistently pursue this course, 
and we shall soon find all our offices filled with 
honest, capable and consistent men, and an 
end put to the flagrant acts of corruption and 
misrule, which are now bringing disgrace and 
ruin upon the country. 

Secbecy. — Some people do cot like secret 
societies. Some churches deem it impossible 
for men to be Masons, Odd Fellows and 
Christians. Yet we find some of the best and 
purest men in the land in these Orders. We 
hear from time to time charges of all kinds ut- 
tered against the secret societies. These 
charges are, from the nature of the organiza- 
tions against which they are brought, very 
difficult to meet and refute. Yet wo believe 
that in the main they are baseless. A great 
society can afford to keep on in the even tenor 
of its way, letting those who make guesses ex- 
ercise their ingenuity. 80 long as its members 
are satisfied it is all well enough. Men will 
differ in their views on secret societies, and we 
presume to say it is all right enough to stay in 
them or stay outside of them. — American 
Pal) on. 



Death of Benjamin Cahoon. 

Probably the Order in this State has not 
been called upon to part with a more sub- 
stantial and honored member, than has been 
missed in the person of Benjamin Cahoon, 
Master of Santa Cruz Grange, who died on the 
29th ultimo. 

The deceased bad reached a very advanced 
age. Coming to this State in the prime of life, 
he has here completed his years. As a public 
and business man in his native State (New 
Yoik) he occupied prominent and honorable 
positions, and it was in keeping with his spirit 
of energy and enterprise that he was found, 
early in the excitement of 1849, on his way to 
these shores. Mr. Cahoon was one of the pas- 
sengers on the "Panama," which left New 
York in February of that year, and was chosen 
President of the company, which, in accordance 
with the times, was formed to try the fortunes 
of its members in this distant land of gold. He 
lived to see and join in the celebration of the 
25th anniversary of their arrival at this city — 
June 3d, 1874— "a quarter of a century in 
which his active and useful life has been cast 
with the mighty upspringing of this State, 
and rapid growth in settlements, towns and 
cities, and wonderful progress unto its present 
attainments." 

To have one's life connected with such a 
history from the beginning ; to have been con- 
tinually a participator in such a progressive 
change and upbuilding of a great State, in all 
that goes to make us what we are (a Christian 
and an edticated people), seems to be the 
rarest privilege and grandest opportunity of 
mortal life. 

The deceased was buried in the Odd Fellows' 
cemetery, by the Granger Ritual, at his own 
request. Bro. D. C. Wardwell, present Master 
of the Grange, officiated, assisted by Chaplain 
Kooser. The Grange of which he was Master 
attended his funeral in a body, and after re- 
turning to their hall passed the following ri - 
solutions: 



Keep Awake. — Patrons, attend all your 
parly conventions. Keep bad men out of offi- 
cial positions, both in the conventions and on 
your party tickets. See that the right kind of 
men get the proper recognition. Reform with 
in your own party lines. Keep the bad ele- 
ments down . 



Woodville Geanoe, Ttji-abe Co. — We ap- 
pend hereto the names of the officers of this 
Grange, which have not yet appeared in the 
Rdbal Pbess. J. A. Slover, M.; Thomas 
Lewis, O.; J. H. Grimslev, L.; T. P. Fuqua, 
S.; W. Spence. A. 8.; B. MoKee, C; "T. J. 
Bay, T. ; John Stewart, Sec'y ; Frederick Hens- 
ley, G. K.; Mrs. J. M. Slover. Ceres; Mrs. 
Virginia Ramey, Pomona; Miss Jennie Roach, 
Flora. This Grange was organized May 29th, 
by Deputy H. B. Jolley. It conferred its first 
degree on the 4th inst., and is progressing 
slowly bnt surely. 



Whereas, It has pleased Almighty Ood to rtmove 
from onr midst by death our late brother, Benjamin 
Cahoon. Past Master of Santa Cruz Ursnge, No. 6S, 
from liis lalKirs in this field to a higher and t>«tter 
sphere, therefore l>e it 

Jlesolvfd, That in all snbraissiveness we humbly Ix>w 
to ihe Divine Will, l>elievine "He docth all things 
well." 

Sesolrfd, That in the death of our late Worthy 
Master and charter luomtier of this Orange of Patrons 
of Husbandry, we have lost a zealous and active mem- 
ber, and the community a good and true citizen. 

Reiolved, That in token of respect to his memory the 
charter of this Grange be draped iu mourning, and the 
brethren wear the usual badge for thirty days. 

Jlaolved, That a copy of these resolutions be spread 
In full upon the minutes, and trausmltted to hig rela- 
tives, attested by the Secretary over the seal of the 
Orange. 

New Granges. 

Sycamobe Geanoe was organized by General 
Deputy J. W. A. Wright, at Sycamore, Fresno 
Co.. June 6th, with fifteen charter members. 

A. C. Bradford, Master, Jas. A. Allen, Secretary. 
This Grange makes a small beginning in num- 
bers, but it is thought there is material enough 
along that portion of the San Joaquin river to 
increase its membership to 30 or 40 within a 
few months. The organization of this Grange 
was furnished ua in due season, but, by inad- 
vertence, was overlooked at the time. 

La Honda Gbakoe, La Honda San 
Mateo county, was organized July 17th, by B. 
V. Weeks, Deputy, with 16 Charter members, 
and the following list of officers: Maurice 
Woodhams, M.; Chas. C. Rogers, O.; Chas. 

B. Sears, L.; Henry Webber, S.; Henry Steii>> 
berg. A.S.; Richard T. liay, C; Joseph W. 
Hoskins, T.; Wm. A. Saunders, Sec'y; Isaac M. 
Baker, G.K.; Martha Ray, Ceres; Emma L. 
Johns, Pomona; Delia C. Johns, Flora; Ettie 
E. Sears, L.A.8. 

Fabsiebs' Union, San Jose. — As an out- 
growth of the Grange movement, a large num- 
ber of the farmers of Santa Clara county have 
formed themselves into a joint stock company 
to be known as "The Farmers' Union," for 
mercantile purposes, and purchased the well 
known and large establishment of Pfeister 
& Co. of San Jose, as a basis of operations. 
The Union has been organized with the Hon. 
William Erkson, of Alviso, as President, and 
H. E. Hills, an old and experienced tradesman, 
as Business Manager. The Board of Directors 
consists of the following well known and sub- 
stantial farmers: Wm. Erkson, David Camp- 
bell, L. F. Chipman, James Singleton, Horace 
Little, Thos. E. Snell, J. P. Dudley, C. T. 
Settle, and E. A. Braley. The Union is now 
fairly launched on the ,sea of trade, and the 
farmers generally will no doubt regard it as an 
enterprise especially their own. 'this may be 
regarded as one of the most important local co- 
operative enterprises, which have thus far 
grown ont of the Grange movement in this 
State. 

The Foubth in Sacbamento. — A noticeable 
feature in Ihe public procession of Sacramento 
was the memotrs of Sacramento Grange, P. 
of H. The Grange division was led by a large 
wagon, displaying farmers' implements and 
products, followed by a threshing machine, a 
reaper, a seed drill and a new horse rako. The 
officers and members were out in full regalia. 
The ladies also appeared in full force. The 
whole formed a most important and prominent 
feature in the procession, and attracted much 
attention. 



July 25, 1874.1 



R^ 



Notes on Inyo and Kern Counties. 



EDnoBS Press :— Being really pressed for time, 
in my recent trip to Kern and Inyo to organize' 
and to Sonoma county to address Petaluma 
Grange on the 4th, by their very kind invita- 
tion, I have not yet given you as many items as 
I wished in my former note, announcing the 
seven new Granges. 

In all of Inyo coanty, which has been known 
heretofore through its Cerro Gordo, Escelsior, 
Fanamint and other mines, as a rich mining 
district, there are now three or four hundred 
farmers ■who must rely entirely on irrigation 
for their farms, gardens and trees. But by this 
means they are succeeding admirably, and to a 
stranger who first sees their coarse, sandy and 
intensely arid looking soil, their success seems 
truly wonderful. Nowhere in our State does 
one see more forcibly illustrated all around 
him the truth so well expressed by some one, 
iu the words, "water is the wealth of Califor- 
nia" — without it, how could we develop our 
vast mineral and agricultural resources? 
Owfns' valley and Round valley, from 4,000 to 
4,500 feet above the sea, extending 100 or 120 
miles northwest and southeast, and from five 
to 25 miles wide, are almost a rainless region. 
While the coast had about 24 inches of rain the 
past year, and San Joaquin valley about 13 
inches, the barrier of the Sierras from 13,000 to 
15,000 feet high, west of Owens' valley, so 
takes the moisture, by natural laws, from the air 
and clouds passing over them, that this valley, 
4,000 feet above the sea, has annually less 
than three inches of rain. Nearly all this came 
the first week in December last, in the form of 
snow, which was more than two feet deep. 
Besides that, for a year they have had but a 
few very light showers. 

Independence, a pretty town, of several hun- 
dred inhabitants, lies just under the three peaks 
of Mt. AVhitney, the highest of which towers 
11,000 ftet above ih'i town, making it, as you 
know, the highest mountain in North America, 
except Mt. St. Elias. It has a handsome court- 
honse, which is really a credit to the county. 
It is quite a common sight to see a rain or 
snow storm raging high up on Mt. Whitney, 
while all is calm and sunshine in the vallny 
below. This occurred while I was there, June 
2l8t, and was, indeed, a grand sight. 

Consequently, Whitney and adjoining moun- 
tains are covered far down their sides with deep 
masses of snow. 

At Independence, you see it all through mid- 
summer lying low down and only eight or nine 
miles distant. It is easy to go to the snow and 
back in a day, and bring a supply of it to use 
as ice. This is frequently done. But the many 
unfailing streams of water, clear as crystal, 
which flow from all points of these mountains 
into Owens' river, are so cold that when the 
water is taken up at night and placed in porous 
earthen jars, no ice is needed. These streams 
are well utilized to irrigate and cultivate the 
farms, gardens and nurseries. It is the easiest 
region to irrigate I have seen outside of the 
Kern river country. It is astonishing what a 
change is made by plowing and wetting the 
soil. 

Land, which on the surface looks as dry and 
parched as the Sahara, has a good subsoil, 
that produces barley, wheat and potatoes well, 
but does not make such good corn. Much soil 
near the river is full of alkali and is very wet, 
but most of it is excellent pasture land and 
may eventually be improved for cultivation. 
The farmers have a good market from mines 
and trade, getting from three to five cents per 
pound from barley, wheat and potatoes. Two 
■mills in the valley convert their wheat into 
flour. A narrow gauge road is being talked of 
lo extend from Los Angeles, and perhaps con- 
nect with the Central Pacitic about 200 miles 
north of them. 

They have six good farming centers, which 
from south to north are Lone Pine, Indepen- 
dence, Fish Spring, Big Pine, Bishop Creek 
and Round Valley. 

Bishop Creek is the largest and most flourish- 
ing community of farmers. The Master of 
Bishop Creek Grange, T. J. Furbee, has been 
appointed Deputy to organize Granges in Inyo 
and Mono counties. The farming and mining 
prospects of all this region are decidedly pro- 
mising. I found the same to be true of the 
Tehaichipa region, which is in Kern Co., soms 
200 miles to the S.W. of Independence. But 
in Tehaichipa and adjoining valleys they farm 
as yet without irrigation. "They have excellent 
crops this year and a cool, delightful and 
healthy climate, being about 4,000 feet above 
the sea. Some good land, well furnished with 
wood, can still be found there subject to home- 
btead and pre-emption. 

But before taking leave of Owens' vuUey, 
allow a few words about Owens' lake. It is a 
very curious sheet of intensely salt water at 
the south end of Owens' valley, some 26 miles 
long and nearly as broad in its wi'lest part. 

As the Dead Sea has in its waters no living 
forms, and as Silt lake has none but a small 
worm, 80 the waters of Owen's lake have in 
them no fish or other living form unless it be 
a small worm. Still, galls and some other 
water fowl frequent its waters. Its character- 
istic feature in natural history is the presence 
of myriads of a small species of diver or grebe, 
an awkward water bird like the common mud 
hen, which can neither fly nor walk well. The 
same birds are found iu San Francisco bay. 
Those iu question probably lay their eggs and 
breed iu floating as well as stationary nests, 
among the adjoining tujeg of Owens' river. 



These birds float on the lake in vast numbers, 
and there seems to be no end to them except 
when heavy storms sweep over the lake and 
lash its waters into angry waves. 

Then immense nximbers, perhaps the old 
ones and others weakened by insufficient food, 
are destroyed and washed ashore. This hap- 
pened some two months since, and now tens of 
thousands of their bodies line the shores in a 
wide and almost unbroken streak. With 
their white breasts turned toward the sun, they 
look like a line of breakers along the lake. 
Between them and the lake is another repulsive 
sight. Just on the water's edge is a black line 
composed of millions and millions of flies, 
sometimes a foot wide and several inches deep. 
Ever and anon the salt water washes partly 
over and sweeps large lumps of them into the 
lake. The passer-by can but wish all of them 
could have the same fate. There is nothing 
attractive about Owens' lake, except its wide 
expanse of water. Portions of its bed were 
sunk by the terrible earthquake in March, '72. 
A small but trim steamboat now makes regular 
trips from Passmore's on the north to the 
Cerro Gordo landing on the east, and Carthago 
on the south side of the lake. In its trip it 
now passes over the site of a spring, where the 
stage horses used to be watered in passing. 
You see crevasses and sinks several feet deep at 
various points in the valley. Although light 
shocks are still frequent, the people feel secure 
from future casualties, because the adobe 
houses, which were made masses of ruins by the 
earthquake, are replaced by wooden buildings 
of the balloon style. They could be rolled over 
likea large dry -goods box, without breaking up. 
A rough, but altogether pleasant journey of two 
weeks, over 750 miles, crossing and re-crossing 
the Sierras five times, was necessary to plant 
the work of our Order in Owens', Tehaichipa, 
and their neighboring valleys. It was a great 
satisfaction, however, on reaching home July 
1st to know so large a number of earnest friends 
of our cause are left in these distant regions of 
our State, although but little time was left to 
prepare to meet toe Patrons of Petaluma on 
the Fourth. Many th4,nks for all the friendly 
acts experienced on this memorable trip. May 
our new members receive the full benefits of the 
Order. Yours fraternally, 
July 15th, 1874. J. W. A. Wright. 



Washington Monument Fund. 

Editobs Press: — Will you be so good as to 
publish the following preamble and resolutions 
of Azusa Grange, P. of H.? I heartily coincide 
with so noble an undertaking and hope the ex- 
ample set us will arouse a spirit of emulation 
in all the sister Granges of our State, which 
shall bring forih results that shall swell the 
heart of every Patron and patriot with satis- 
faction and joy. Let us put our hands to the 
plow, my brothers. 

W. H.Baxter, Sec'y State Grange. 

Wheeeas, Tlie liogering incompleteness of the "Na- 
tional Washington Monument," the corner Btone of 
which was laid 4th July, 1850, is a standing reproach to 
the degenerate sons of bo illustrious a sire — the Father 
of his Country. Therefore, 

Resolved, That we, the members of Azusa Grange 
No. 91, of Los Angeles county, California, agree to make 
a fund by annual contributions for two years of 50 
cents for each member of this Grange, to be called the 
" National Washington Monument Fund." 

Resolved, That all subordinate Granges in the United 
States be invited to co-operate in this movement; in 
order to raise sufficient money to complete said monu- 
ment by the 4th of July, 1876. 

Adopted by Azusa Grange July 3d, 1874. 



Windsor Grange. — At a meeting of the 
Windsor Grange, held June 20th, the following 
resolutions were adopted, a copy of which was 
forwarded you for publication in the Press, 
June 23d, which has not as yet appeared in 
your paper, therefore 1 send yoa another copy 
for publication : 

If he who by labor causes two blades of grass to 
grow where but one grew before, is a benefactor of his 
race, then he who turns any of the productions of that 
class of labor against itself should be considered an 
enemy of his kind. And, 

Whereas, The Patrons of Husbandry are an organiza- 
tion of that class of laborers; and, 

Whereas, manufacturers and venders of ardent spirits, 
under special privileges and licenses, are destroying tlie 
fruits of our lands and turning the same against us in 
the form of spirituous compounds, thereby debasing 
our sons, demoralizing our daughters, destroying the 
peace of our homes and leeching an army of drones, 
criminals and prostitutes upon the industries of the 
toiling millions; and, 

Whereas, Tliere is not an inspiration that nerves the 
hand but must pay tribute to this Moloch, which 
claims its 30,010 victims in these United States annually; 
therefore be it 

Resolved, That we as Patrons and producers use all 
legitimate means to free ourselves from tiiis moral, 
social and financial blight. And furtlier, bo it 

Resolved, That we as an integral part of the great in- 
dustrial hive, request our brothers to do the same. 

Resolved, Tljat a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the Kural Press for publication. 

J. H. McClelland, Sec'y. 

Windsor, July 20th, 1874. 



The Fourth at Petaluma. 

Editors Press: — Perhaps no more enjoyable 
celeliration of our truly national anniversary 
was participated in by the Patrons of our State 
than at Petaluma, under the auspices of Grange 
No. 23, L. W. Walker as Worthy Master, as- 
sisted by a membership of more than a hun- 
dred earnest workers in our Order. 

No allusion to this having yet appeared in 
the columns of the Rural, perhaps a brief ac- 
count of it will not be unacceptable to your 
readers. 

At the appointed hour for the festivities to 
commence, a large number of Patrons, inclu- 
ding many members of neighboring Granges in 
Sonoma county, gathered in their large hall. 

After appropriate introductory exercises, the 
Declaration of Independence was impressively 
read by brother W. W. Chapman, marshal of 
the day. 

The oration of the occasion was postponed 
until the afternoon, on account of the missing 
of a train on the Yisalia railroad by the under- 
signed, who by the very kind and highly ap- 
preciated invitation of the Grange, had prom- 
ised to address them. 

Then a most sumptuous dinner was served in 
the Grange hall and enjoyed witt commenda- 
ble zest, not only by Patrons, but many outside 
friends, with whom it is always a pleasure for 
Grangers to share such cordial and friendly 
festivities; for the whole spirit of our Order 
teaches us to value and desire the most hearty 
sympathy and co-operation of our friends out- 
side, as well as of the members inside the 
gates. 

At last, by traveling all night on a freight 
train, by taking the 9:30 boat from the city to 
San Rafael, and a rapid buggy drive of 22 miles, 
I had the pleasure, though travel-worn and 
weary, to share with them in the closing part 
of their exercises. 

Immediately on my arrival, a procession of 
Patrons without regalia, but each wearing a 
badge marked with the letters P. of H., was 
formed and marched to the theater, where we 
found a large audience gathering. The Star 
Spangled Banner was well sung by a choir 
formed tor the occasion. Then followed the 
address, and the exercises closed with a Grange 
song. 

No one enjoyed the day more than the wri- 
ter. Every evidence that could be desired was 
shown that our large audience was in hearty 
accord with the ideas of reform, harmony and 
hearty co-operation throughout our entire 
country, and the desire of all good Patrons and 
their friends to return as nearly as we can "by 
our united efforts to the justice, wisdom, fra- 
ternity and political purity of our forefathers," 
ere the dawn of our centennial. 
For such was the theme of our address. 
After these public exercises, we returned to 
the hall and enjoyed an hour of fraternal con- 
ference over the work and business plans of our 
Order. 

Then came a time for rest, and you may be 
sure it was highly relished, indeed could not 
have been more enjoyed than it was under the 
hospitable roof, and in the pleasant family 
circle of Bro. Walker. 

He has a large and excellent dairy and grain 
ranch six miles from Petaluma on the edge of 
Marin county, in a really picturesque little val- 
ley under the shadow of high and well wooded 
mountains. Such valleys and mountains abound 
in Sonoma and adjoining counties. Indeed, it 
has been my privilege to see no more attractive 
portion of our State, filled as it is with well 
improved homes and farms. His is the first 
regular dairy ranch I have had an opportunity 
to visit. It was a decided curiosity to a farmer 
in San Joaquin valley, where we rarely milk 
more than two or three cows, to see 1,000 pans 
or more of sweet milk, a store room well filled 
with casks of 260 pounds of butter each, and 
hugh troughs of sour milk and butter milk 
almost large enough to swim'in, and numbers 
of fine hogs fattened on the latter. He milks 
from 100 to 150 cows, and yet considers this 
quite a moderate dairy business. 

Indeed, in the midst of the profusion and 
comfort seen there, one is almost tempted to 
add a verse or two to the song, "I want to be a 
Granger," etc., beginning somewhat in this 

way: 

I want to be a dairy man 

And let my farm to Swiss, 
Where a bath in a trough of buttermilk 

I3 a treat you needn't miss. 

But poetry not being my forte, I'll turn this 
over to others to finish 

May our Petaluma friends enjoy many pleas- 
ant returns of the Fourth in their handsome 
and thriving little city. Yours, fraternally, 
J. W. A. Wright. 

July 15th, 1874. 



Card. 



Editors Prkss:— In its answer to my arti^a 
on " Shipping the Grain," which you kindly 
republished last week, the Post makes an asser 
tion or two likely to mislead, which, with your 
permission, I will answer briefly. 

1st. It speaks of part of the article as " an 
argument that high freights are to the advan- 
tage of farmers." This is a mistake. The 
argument is, that it is better to pay $20 snd $21 
per ton than the $25 or $28 paid in 1872. 

Of course, the less ocean freights are, the bet- 
ter for farmers always, because we get bettor 
prices. We would rather p.iy $12 or $15 per 
ton, if this would properly pay ship owners, 
and not drive vessels from our harbor. 

But they contend this would not pay. So 
we are willing to pay even as high as $20 and 
$21 for ships, rather than not to get enough 
tonnage, or to pay the exorbitant rates we 
have had to pay heretofore. 

2d. It speaks of me as " formerly an agent 
for grain buyers, latterly a lecturer for the 
Grangers." Now there is no objection in the 
world to anyone being agent for any good firm, 
if parties so choose. But the statement is likely 
to produce a wrong impression. Once only, 
for a few months, in 1872, while attending to 
my farm, I agreed as an act of friendship for 
one of the best firms in San Francisco that had 
acted very generously towards me, and whose 
friendship I still highly aporeciate, to become 
their agent at Turlock, where I lived, to ship 
grain consigned to them for advances in our 
neighborhood. I also bought and shipped for 
them a small amount of wheat. This is my 
only experience iu that business, and I must 
say that the insight naturally given by turning 
attention for a short lime to the handling of 
our grain, convinced mo more than ever that 
the interest of agriculture in our State demand- 
ed reform in furnishing ships and other trans- 
portation, sacks, storage and money to move 
our crops. This our Grange movement is la- 
boring to do, by all just and fair means and by 
agents of their own choosing. 

J. W. A. Wright. 
July 15th, 1874. 




Vineland Grange, Los Angeles Co, — 
Royal L. Freeman is Secretary of this Grange, 
instead of L. S. Robinson, as published in our 
last Directory. Bro. Robinson is Steward. 



Wild Coffee. — The discovery of wild coffee 
in various parts of the State has created great 
interest on the subject, and the adaptability of 
the soil and climate of California to the growth 
of the genuine article. In Monterey county 
Mr. Waters is experimenting on its growth, at 
his farm, in Carmello valley. His plants this 
year are not looking so well as they have done, 
owing to their exposure to the sea breeze ; but 
this fact does not shake his conviction that 
under more favorable conditions the coffee tree 
can be made to flourish and yield a handsome 
crop. Mr. Davis Divine, of San Jose, who 
knows something of cofl'ee culture, writes to the 
Auburn Herald that he believes the coffee tree 
will flourish in Placer, El Dorado and other 
counties on the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevadas, 
after you rise 1,500 feet above the sea level, and 
from that to 4,500 feet. Wherever you find 
the wild coffee, there you may be assured the 
tree will flourish finely. 

Should Wipe His Spectacles. — The Marys- 
ville Appeal says : The traveling agent of the 
California Granger writes from Marysville that 
the country between this city and Colusa is a 
vast waste, having been inundated last winter. 
We suppose the writer refers to the tules. With 
this exception, from one side of Sutter county 
to the other is but one continuous expanse of 
grain fields, orchards, and growing vegetables, 
the land being valued at from $25 to $80 per 
acre. _____^___ 

J. E. Clark, whose farm and vineyard is lo- 
cated near the Half- Way House, on the Sonora 
road, is building a commodious wine cellar, 
40x80 feet. . 



EvKRV Patron has a DtrTr to Perform. — 
No one individual member of our Order is free 
from all obligations of effort. We all have 
something to do — some duty to perform — 
brother or sister. If you can do no greater 
work you can see to it that every man and 
woman in your Grange is indebted to you for 
some good word, or friendly gift. Have you 
made your neighbors glad to say they Itnow 
yon, and regard von as a good friend whom 
they love to meet ? If not, you have not done 
your full duty. A Patron makes others happy 
— and makes himself the happiest of all. Like 
a good soldier, he faces du*y, and is cheerful. 



Grangers' Black Board. — The Patrons in 
some portions of New York have adopted the 
plan of keeping a black board always in readi- 
ness at their meetings, on which are entered by 
the members, as they come in, stock and other 
property, for sale or exchange, stock strayed or 
stolen, and such other information as they 
desire to bring before members . This is said 
to work admirably, and many sales and other 
transactions grow out of this mode of adver- 
tising. As meetings are usually held in school 
houses, it is easy to make the blitck board 
available. 

Resigned.— J. H. Pickens has resigned bis 
position as Secretary of Borden Grange, as he 
must be abt^eut for aom;; time; and John Fon- 
taine has been elected in his place. 



The Union is responsible for the statement 
that the Sacramentans are now obliged to carry 
six-shooters to protect themselves from the 
mosquitoes. 

The Marysville Appeal suggests a State fruit 
convention, to be held in San Francisco, to 
adopt a system for the better distribution of 
our fruit. 

The haying harvest has already been com- 
menced in Sierra valley. Good judges estimate 
the hay crop of the valley at 25,000 tons. 

Jake White, of the Virginia and Gold Hill 
omnibus line, has eleven horses, laid up with 
the new epizootic. 

A LARGE number of cattle have been driven 
into the mountains of Amador county, during 
the past week, for summer pasturage. 

The Soquel Sugar Beet company's works are 
completed, and will be ready to start operations 
as soon as the beets are ripe. 

Colonel D. B. Wilson is raising 4,000 grape 
vines on Wilmington plains, without irriga- 
tion. ^____^ 

Nevada countx will have the largest fruit 
crop ever produced this season. 

Has is worth $27.50 per ton in Nevada City. 



54 



»E^teO^^^;l^ ^3^-1SSS« 



[July 25, 1874 




Like Me. 

What would happen, do you suppose, 

If the mignonette Bhould say to the rose: 

"The pride of roses I hate to see, 

WUy don't you keep near the ground like mo?" 

What If the rose should say to the phlox; 
"My form and color are orthodox— 
To please your Maker you've got to be, 
Precisely in all respects like me." 

What if a (Tape should say to a pear: 
"Why are yon flaunting about up there ? 
Beware of swinginK alone and free; 
Tou ought to cling to a trellis like me," 

What if a river should say to a rill r 

"If you weren't too lazy you'd turn a mill, 

Study my method, and try to be 

A rushing, roaring rlv«r like me." 

What if a swan should say to a crow: 
"Yon belong to a race of ao and so, 
It's a deadly sin for you to be free; 
Your only hope is in serving me." 

What It a goose should teach a wren I 
Or an eagle try to follow a hen I 
What if the monkeys should all agree, 
That there ought to be uniformity '. 

What if a man should say to another: 
"Differ with me and yon're not my brother